Author Archives: Anthony

2010? Southern Riverland (SA). Vineyards at Risk. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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AUSTRALIAN WINE INDUSTRY SPRAY RISK
An article written by Mark Hamilton for Australia & New Zealand
Grapegrower & Winemaker Magazine
…With the dramatic increase in vineyard plantings in Australia in the last five years there
is an increasing problem caused by farmers using highly volatile chemical sprays to
eliminate weed growth in paddocks adjacent to or in the vicinity of vineyards. This has,
in particular, been caused by farmers using Ester 2 4-D to suppress weed growth in
paddocks prior to cropping activities.
In the last 12 months an increasing number of incidents have been reported including
in the southern Riverland and in the south-east of South Australia. During the last
12 months I have obtained separate injunctions from the Supreme Court of South
Australia for a group of 21 southern Riverland grape growers and for a vine nursery
operator in the south-east of South Australia restraining local farmers from breaching
governmental spraying guidelines in their future spraying activities. Any future breach
of the injunctive orders would be potentially punishable as a contempt of court…

2008-2009: Clare Valley Grapevine Damage. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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Spray Drift Awareness Issue 1 2010 (Barossa Grape and Wine)

In previous seasons (e.g. 2008-2009) grapevines in the Clare Valley experienced extensive damage to grapevine productivity and yield as a result of 2,4-D spray drift. Whilst 2,4-D products are not registered for use in vineyards, it can be used in other agricultural systems. The product however is strictly regulated in terms of timing i.e. it is banned each year between September 1 and April 30 and restrictions apply for droplet size and wind speed.

2008 October: Premer (NSW) Neonicotinoids suspected in Bee Problems

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“Last October, I was helping Jack Alt of Deepwater, New South Wales shift a sizable load of bees, from a NEONIC seed treated canola plot at Premer NSW. We were shifting the bees back onto clover, closer to Jack’s home. Although the bees had been on a bumper crop of canola, Jack was disturbed that his load of 250 hives had suffered premature swarming, loss of queens, loss of bee numbers and dead outs. Jack then replaced queens, kept working the bees (as we all would), and kept the load on clover for the next few weeks. I observed the same hives later on a Silver Leaf [Iron Bark] flow. In my opinion they were half the bees they should have been, or less.  This was Jack’s second Adverse Experience with his bees foraging canola over the last two years. I asked Jack “Do you think that this may be because of the seed treatment on canola?” Jack replied, “I don’t think we’ll be working canola anymore.” Jack is concerned about the pollen of Turnip Weed and Salvation Jane coming up afterwards, in the same paddocks.”

http://www.buzzaboutbees.net/australias-honey-bees.html

2014 February: Pottsville (NSW) Loss of Beehives. Pesticides Suspected.

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Beekeepers hit with big losses as bees turn up dead

2nd Feb 2014 Tweed Daily News

HONEY producers are facing an environmental disaster with hives being destroyed or abandoned – and some are blaming the crisis on pesticides.

Murwillumbah horticulturist Luke Page cultivated bees for the past 18 months and believes his hives were affected by bug sprays.

“Recently I found a hive and all that was left of the bees was their skeletons.

“The bee is dead on the inside and the outside, and that’s consistent with pesticide poisoning,” he said.

He has ruled out all growers in Tweed bar corn because they are sprayed daily. 

Mr Page admits the reason for the death of his bees is based on speculation, but his suspicions were confirmed by others in the region.

“I have spoken to a gentleman in Pottsville and he had hives go in a similar way.”

Adding to complexity, farmers say they are using pesticides which are perfectly legal.

“We spray Australian standard pesticides first thing in the morning, when there is no breeze, so bees don’t get into it,” Cugden corn farmer Ross Julius said.

However, as of late, bee keepers who normally bring hives as a pollination service, in-kind for nectar, have not visited Mr Julius’ property.

“You’d have to ask them why they don’t bring their hives anymore,” he told the Daily News.

Doug Paddon, another grower from Cudgen, says to prevent bee deaths farmers must be strategic.

“I have wild bees in a shed to pollinate many crops. When they’re active I don’t spray and when they’re dormant I do spray, but only at night when other bees are not working.”

The Daily News’ community paper, the Tweed Border Mail, reported this week a devastation of Australian honey bees following a feral beetle infestation, climate change and disappearing disease.

http://www.tweeddailynews.com.au/news/beekeepers-hit-with-big-losses/2156501/

2014 February: Murwillumbah (Qld). Bee Hives Destroyed. Pesticides Suspected.

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Beekeepers hit with big losses as bees turn up dead

2nd Feb 2014 Tweed Daily News

HONEY producers are facing an environmental disaster with hives being destroyed or abandoned – and some are blaming the crisis on pesticides.

Murwillumbah horticulturist Luke Page cultivated bees for the past 18 months and believes his hives were affected by bug sprays.

“Recently I found a hive and all that was left of the bees was their skeletons.

“The bee is dead on the inside and the outside, and that’s consistent with pesticide poisoning,” he said.

He has ruled out all growers in Tweed bar corn because they are sprayed daily. 

Mr Page admits the reason for the death of his bees is based on speculation, but his suspicions were confirmed by others in the region.

“I have spoken to a gentleman in Pottsville and he had hives go in a similar way.”

Adding to complexity, farmers say they are using pesticides which are perfectly legal.

“We spray Australian standard pesticides first thing in the morning, when there is no breeze, so bees don’t get into it,” Cugden corn farmer Ross Julius said.

However, as of late, bee keepers who normally bring hives as a pollination service, in-kind for nectar, have not visited Mr Julius’ property.

“You’d have to ask them why they don’t bring their hives anymore,” he told the Daily News.

Doug Paddon, another grower from Cudgen, says to prevent bee deaths farmers must be strategic.

“I have wild bees in a shed to pollinate many crops. When they’re active I don’t spray and when they’re dormant I do spray, but only at night when other bees are not working.”

The Daily News’ community paper, the Tweed Border Mail, reported this week a devastation of Australian honey bees following a feral beetle infestation, climate change and disappearing disease.

http://www.tweeddailynews.com.au/news/beekeepers-hit-with-big-losses/2156501/

2014 December: Bairnsdale (Vic) Weed Killer in drug Ice.

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‘Weed killer’ ice

THREE men remain in intensive care, while another man is in a stable condition at Central Gippsland Health Service, Sale, after taking crystal methamphetamine, which was possibly laced with weed killer.

Two men who had smoked or ingested the drug, commonly known as ice, presented to Monash Medical Centre on November 19.

The men, aged 26 and 24 from Melbourne’s south-eastern suburbs, are now in intensive care.

Two other men, both aged 21, presented to Bairnsdale Regional Health Service last week, with one man in intensive care at The Alfred while the other is in a stable condition at Central Gippsland Health Service.

Police confirmed a batch of crystal methamphetamine, known as ice, triggered a severe respiratory reaction that caused the men to be hospitalised.

It has been reported the batch was mixed with weed killer, with friends of the men also suffering similar, but less severe, symptoms.

All four men who have been hospitalised are known to each other and detectives say a number of their associates also experienced similar symptoms such as a cough, shortness of breath, chest pains and fever.

Detectives are asking these associates and others with information to come forward to help uncover links between the cases.
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A sample of the batch has been provided anonymously and police are testing the substance.

A Victoria Police spokeswoman said the incident highlighted the dangers of illicit substances.

“It is a timely reminder for anyone who believes there is a ‘good batch’ or ‘bad batch’ of any drug to think again and remember that you gamble with your life every time you choose to use an illegal substance,” she said.

“You just don’t know what you are putting into your body.”

Central Gippsland Health Service has admitted several people this year for drug-related issues, including this latest case.

CGHS chief executive office Dr Frank Evans said while drugs and alcohol were an increasing problem in communities, the hospital was well prepared for admissions.

“We had several admissions in the last week as a result of suspected laced ice,” Dr Evans said.

“One patient was transferred to Melbourne and the other treated the Sale hospital.”

http://www.gippslandtimes.com.au/story/2741854/weed-killer-ice/

2014 September: Kyabram Prosecuted for Fruit Contamination. Pesticide: Propiconazole

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Kyabram grower prosecuted for fruit contamination

UPDATE: A KYABRAM fruit grower has been prosecuted for producing quince contaminated with a fungicide.

The Department of Environment and Primary Industries pursued the case and the grower was given a two year good behaviour bond without conviction and required to contribute $1000 to the court fund for the breaches.

The court also ordered that the accused pay service costs.

The case was heard in the Melbourne Magistrates’ Court recently.

The offending grower was pursued by DEPI after repeated noncompliance and had been caught selling contaminated quinces at the Melbourne Wholesale Market on five previous occasions.

The farm worker who sprayed the chemical — which is not approved for use on quinces — on the fruit also received an infringement notice.

DEPI statewide chemicals specialist Steven Field said it was the first time anyone had been prosecuted under this particular section of the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Control of Use) Act 1992.

The act has been in place for several years and DEPI conducts regular tests throughout the year.

Mr Field said the successful prosecution was a result of “significant” DEPI investigations.

“The investigation revealed that a registered product containing the active constituent propiconazole had been applied to the quince,” Mr Field said.

Propiconazole is not registered for use on quinces and therefore there is no maximum residue limit set by either Food Standards Australia and New Zealand or Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority.

“Therefore there must be no detectable residues in these foods,” Mr Field said.

If a chemical, for which there is no MRL, is detected in agricultural produce, then the produce is defined as contaminated under the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Control of Use) Act 1992, Mr Field said.

“MRLs are set for agricultural and veterinary chemicals in agricultural produce, particularly produce entering the food chain,” he said.

“These MRLs are set at levels which are not likely to be exceeded if the agricultural or veterinary chemicals are used in accordance with approved label instructions.

“This was a difficult case, with numerous complications, and if not for the dedication of DEPI staff, there may not have been a successful conviction.”

DEPI will continue to monitor the grower to ensure he has implemented adequate systems and processes to prevent contamination of his produce occurring again.

http://www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/agribusiness/horticulture/kyabram-grower-prosecuted-for-fruit-contamination/story-fnker6g8-1227052336100

2013 September – 2016 September: Longford (Tas) Drinking Water. Pesticides: 2,4-D, MCPA, Simazine

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Longford

Source: Right to Information Act

26/9/13: 0.12ug/L 2,4-D

26/9/13: 0.27ug/L MCPA

TasWater Annual Drinking Water Quality Report 2014-15

3/9/14: MCPA 0.29ug/L

29/10/14: MCPA 0.64ug/L

Flushing the lines and investigate monitoring undertaken. Retests conducted on 18/9/14 with Trace Levels MCPA (0.2ug/L) and 2,4-D 0.05ug/L… 29 Oct 2014 Trace MCPA 0.64ug/L Lines were flushed and investigative monitoring undertaken in distribution and raw water – retests all clear.

17/3/16: MCPA 0.03ug/L (Lyttleton St Toilets)

Annual Drinking Water Quality Report – Appendix C Supporting Data Part A (Systems A-L)

17/8/16: MCPA 0.08ug/L (Macquarie River)

30/8/16: MCPA 0.03ug/L (Macquarie River)

7/9/16: MCPA 0.1ug/L (Macquarie River)

7/9/16: Simazine 0.02ug/L (Macquarie River)

TasWater Raw Pesticide data by system v4

2011 June: Green Hill Lake Post Locust Spray. Pesticide: Carbaryl

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An Assessment of Effects of the 2010-2011 Australian Plague Locust Response on Victorian Aquatic Ecosystems 

Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management Technical Report #9

Bryant Gagliardi, Sara Long, Gavin Rose, Lisa Golding, Jason Lieschke, Tara Daw Quadros, Leon Metzeling, Vincent Pettigrove.

December 2011

6/6/11: Green Hill Lake Carbaryl 0.002ug/L

http://www.energyandresources.vic.gov.au/energy?a=163202

2011 February: Lake Buninjon Post Locust Spraying. Pesticide: Fipronil

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An Assessment of Effects of the 2010-2011 Australian Plague Locust Response on Victorian Aquatic Ecosystems 

Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management Technical Report #9

Bryant Gagliardi, Sara Long, Gavin Rose, Lisa Golding, Jason Lieschke, Tara Daw Quadros, Leon Metzeling, Vincent Pettigrove.

December 2011

Insecticides measured above limit of detection in surface waters

17/2/11: Post-Spray Lake Buninjon Fipronil 0.001ug/L

17/2/11: Post-Spray Lake Buninjon Fipronil Sulfone 0.001ug/L

http://www.energyandresources.vic.gov.au/energy?a=163202

2011 January – June: Bendigo Creek Huntly Post Locust Spraying. Pesticides: Fipronil, Diazinon

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An Assessment of Effects of the 2010-2011 Australian Plague Locust Response on Victorian Aquatic Ecosystems 

Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management Technical Report #9

Bryant Gagliardi, Sara Long, Gavin Rose, Lisa Golding, Jason Lieschke, Tara Daw Quadros, Leon Metzeling, Vincent Pettigrove.

December 2011

Insecticides measured above limit of detection in surface waters

25/1/11: Post-Spray Bendigo Creek Huntly Fipronil 0.001ug/L

25/1/11: Post-Spray Bendigo Creek Huntly Fipronil Sulfone 0.001ug/L

15/6/11: Third Bendigo Creek Huntly Fipronil 0.006ug/L

15/6/11: Third Bendigo Creek Huntly Fipronil Sulfone 0.001ug/L

15/6/11: Third Bendigo Creek Huntly Diazinon 0.02ug/L

http://www.energyandresources.vic.gov.au/energy?a=163202

2011 March: Joyces Creek Post Locust Spraying. Pesticide: Carbaryl

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An Assessment of Effects of the 2010-2011 Australian Plague Locust Response on Victorian Aquatic Ecosystems 

Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management Technical Report #9

Bryant Gagliardi, Sara Long, Gavin Rose, Lisa Golding, Jason Lieschke, Tara Daw Quadros, Leon Metzeling, Vincent Pettigrove.

December 2011

Insecticides measured above limit of detection in surface waters

7/3/11: Post-Spray Joyces Creek Strathlea Carbaryl 0.002ug/L

http://www.energyandresources.vic.gov.au/energy?a=163202

2010 October: Lake Cooper Pre Locust Spray. Pesticide: Carbaryl

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An Assessment of Effects of the 2010-2011 Australian Plague Locust Response on Victorian Aquatic Ecosystems 

Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management Technical Report #9

Bryant Gagliardi, Sara Long, Gavin Rose, Lisa Golding, Jason Lieschke, Tara Daw Quadros, Leon Metzeling, Vincent Pettigrove.

December 2011

Insecticides measured above limit of detection in surface waters

5/10/11: Pre-Spray Lake Cooper Carbaryl 0.003ug/L

http://www.energyandresources.vic.gov.au/energy?a=163202

2010 June: Lake Wongan, Locust Spray Residues. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

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An Assessment of Effects of the 2010-2011 Australian Plague Locust Response on Victorian Aquatic Ecosystems 

Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management Technical Report #9

Bryant Gagliardi, Sara Long, Gavin Rose, Lisa Golding, Jason Lieschke, Tara Daw Quadros, Leon Metzeling, Vincent Pettigrove.

December 2011

9/6/10: Lake Wongan Chlorpyrifos 10ug/kg (sediment)

http://www.energyandresources.vic.gov.au/energy?a=163202

2010 January – 2011 June: Tahbilk Wetland Locust Spray Monitoring. Pesticides: Cyhalothrin, Carbaryl

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An Assessment of Effects of the 2010-2011 Australian Plague Locust Response on Victorian Aquatic Ecosystems 

Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management Technical Report #9

Bryant Gagliardi, Sara Long, Gavin Rose, Lisa Golding, Jason Lieschke, Tara Daw Quadros, Leon Metzeling, Vincent Pettigrove.

December 2011

27/1/10: Tahbilk Wetland Cyhalothrin 2ug/kg (sediment)

15/6/11: Tahbilk Wetland Carbaryl 0.004ug/L (water)

http://www.energyandresources.vic.gov.au/energy?a=163202

2010 March – October: Lake Hawthorn (Vic). Insecticide in Sediment from Locust Control: Chlorpyrifos

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An Assessment of Effects of the 2010-2011 Australian Plague Locust Response on Victorian Aquatic Ecosystems 

Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management Technical Report #9

Bryant Gagliardi, Sara Long, Gavin Rose, Lisa Golding, Jason Lieschke, Tara Daw Quadros, Leon Metzeling, Vincent Pettigrove.

December 2011

28/10/10 Lake Hawthorn Chlorpyrifos 28ug/kg (sediment)

17/3/10 Lake Hawthorn Chlorpyrifos 22ug/kg (sediment)

http://www.energyandresources.vic.gov.au/energy?a=163202

2015 July: Drugs and Pesticides detected in Sydney Harbour. Pesticides: 2,4-D, 3,4-dichloroaniline, Carbaryl, Diuron, MCPA, Mecoprop and Simazine

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Drugs including painkillers, anti-depressants found in tests on Sydney Harbour water

Significant levels of strong painkillers and anti-depressants have been found in tests conducted on water samples in Sydney Harbour.

The drugs were found by analysing samples of marine water from 30 sites adjacent to stormwater outlets across the entire Sydney estuary.

Scientist Gavin Birch from the School of Geosciences at the University of Sydney said it was the first time this kind of research had been done in Australia.

“I was surprised how widespread the drugs were in the samples. Paracetamol was found in all 30 sites, whereas one particular artificial sweetener was found in 27 sites,” he said.

Other drugs found across Sydney Harbour waters included beta blockers and an epilepsy medication.

Mr Birch said the findings indicated sewage water may be leaking into the harbour.

“The presence of acesulfame [a recognised marker of domestic wastewater] and pharmaceuticals in water from all parts of the estuary after a dry period, suggests sewage water is leaking into the stormwater system in this catchment,” he said.

While the drugs were widespread in Sydney Harbour waters, they were found in low concentrations. It is not known whether the leak is harmful to humans, flora or fauna.

“When this has happened in other areas, it certainly has had an impact on the fish and environment,” Mr Birch said.

Researchers said sewage water was not discharged to the estuary, except infrequently when it overflowed during periods of high rainfall.

According to the findings, which were detailed in the latest issue of Marine Pollution Bulletin, drugs were detected in all parts of the Sydney estuary, but were higher in Duck River and to a lesser extent Parramatta River, lower Lane Cove and Rozelle Bay.

Seven different pesticides were also detected, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 3,4-dichloroaniline, carbaryl, diuron, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, mecoprop and simazine.

“The pesticides are applied to the environment and were discharged via stormwater to the estuary,” the researchers said.

Researchers said this was the first study to report micro-pollutants in the Sydney estuary and some pesticides in Australian marine waters.

They also looked for nine antibiotics and personal care products but none were identified.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-07-07/common-drugs-found-lurking-in-sydney-harbour-water/6599670

2013-4: Swanbank Power Station – Western Corridor Recycled Water. Pesticides: Multiple

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Annual Report 2013-2014
Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme
Recycled Water Management Plan

The Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme (WCRWS) produced about 1 324ML of purified recycled water (PRW) for use at Stanwell Corporation’s Swanbank Power Station during the 2013-2014 financial year.

Pesticides

2,2-Dichloropropionic acid (DPA) (Dalapon 0.18ug/L (maximum), 0.13ug/L (average)
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 29ug/L (max), 0.8ug/L (average)
Acrolein (Propanol) 0.5ug/L (min), 1.3ug/L (max), 0.87ug/L (average)
Ametyrn 0.1ug/L (max) 0.01ug/L (av)
Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) 19ug/L(max), 6.1ug/L (min)
Amitrole 0.5ug/L (max)
Atrazine 2.3ug/L (max), 0.14ug/L (av)
Bromoxynil 0.08ug/L (max), 0.01ug/L (av)
Carbamazepine 0.27ug/L (min), 2.1ug/L (max), 0.88ug/L (av)
Carbaryl 0.08ug/L (max)
Carbendazim 0.1ug/L (max) 0.05ug/L (av)
Carbendazim (total) 0.4ug/L (max)
Chlorpyrifos 0.1ug/L (max)
DEET 0.01ug/L(min), 0.21ug/L (max), 0.059ug/L(av)
Desethyl Atrazine 0.7ug/L (max)
Diazinon 0.17ug/L (max), 0.033ug/L (av)
Dicamba 0.34ug/L (max), 0.051ug/L (av)
Diclofop Methyl 2.4ug/L (max)
Diuron 3.2ug/L (max), 0.19ug/L (av)
Diuron (total) 0.02ug/L (min), 3.5ug/L (max), 0.42ug/L (av)
Endosulfan beta 0.2ug/L (max)
Fenamiphos 0.14ug/L (max)
Fipronil 0.4ug/L (max), 0.07ug/L (av)
Fluometuron 0.1ug/L (max)
Fluroxypur 3ug/L (max), 0.1ug/L (av)
Glyphosate 2ug/L (max), 0.5ug/L (av)
Haloxyfop 5ug/L (max), 0.07ug/L (av)
Haloxyfop Total 5ug/L (max), 0.08ug/L (av)
Haloxyfop Methyl 1ug/L (max)
Hexazinone 0.07ug/L(max), 0.01ug/L (av)
MCPA 0.01ug/L (min), 3.9ug/L (max), 0.31ug/L (av)
Mecoprop 0.19ug/L (max), 0.049ug/L (av)
Metalaxyl 1ug/L (max)
Metolachlor 3.3ug/L (max), 0.24ug/L(av)
Molinate 0.06ug/L (max)
Picloram 0.25ug/L (max), 0.023ug/L (min)
Piperonyl Butoxide 0.1ug/L (max)
Prometryn 0.04ug/L (max), 0.0074ug/L (max)
Propazine 0.9ug/L (max)
Propiconazole 3ug/L (max) 0.1ug/L (av)
Simazine 0.42ug/L (max), 0.055ug/L (av)
Tebuconazole 1ug/L (max), 0.07ug/L (av)
Terbutryn 0.06ug/L (max), 0.01ug/L (av)
Triadimenol 0.1ug/L (max)
Triclopyr 37ug/L (max), 0.77ug/L (av)
http://www.seqwater.com.au/sites/default/files/PDF%20Documents/Annual%20Reports/Western%20Corridor%20Recycled%20Water%20Scheme%20%28WCRWS%29%20Annual%20Report%20to%20~%2014.pdf

2011-2013: Wivenhoe Dam Recycled Water. Pesticides: 2,4-D, AMPA, Glyphosate, Dalapon, N-butyl benzenesulfonamide, Fenvalerate, Fluvalinate

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WCRW Scheme–Annual Report 2011-14

SEQ Water

Annual Report 2011-2012
Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme
Recycled Water Management Plan

Lake Wivenhoe Point of Supply

Herbicides, pesticides and phenols
Two hundred and thirty herbicides, pesticides, phenols and their degradation products were tested for in the PRWat the Lake Wivenhoe Point of Supply.
A total of six pesticides, herbicides and their degradation products were det ected during the year (refer to Table 3-26):
• 2,4-D dichlorophenoxy AAC , a herbicide, was detected in two of 51 samples at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.04 μg/L. These concentrations are several orders of magnitude below the standard in Schedule 3b of the Public Health Regulation 2005 of 30 μg/L
•Aminomethylphosphonic acid, a degradation product of the herbicide glyphosate,was detected in one of the 51 samples at a concentration of 1.5 μg/L. No standard is set for this compound in Schedule 3b of the Public Health Regulation 2005 or the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011, however, it is included in the residue definition for glyphosate (refer to ‘total glyphosate’ below), forwhich there is a standard.

•Dalapon, a pesticide, was detected in several samples of PRW from the Lake Wivenhoe Point of Supply at concentrations up to 0.17 μg/L. This concentration is several orders of magnitude lower than the standard of 500μg/L in Schedule 3b of thePublic Health Regulation 2005. Although dalapon is a pesticide, it is suspected that it is forming as a disinfection by-product of chlorination (Hawker et al. 2011) in the PRW.

•Glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide, was detected in one of 51samples at a concentration of 1.7μg/L. This concentration is several orders of magnitude below the Standard in Schedule 3b of the Public Health Regulation 2005 of 1000 μg/L.
•Reporting of total glyphosate, which is the sum of glyphosate and its metabolite
aminomethylphosphonic acid expressed as glyphosate equivalent, commenced in January 2012. There has been one test result above the limit of reporting (which was on the same sample that aminomethylphosphonic acid was detected) with a result of 1.5 μg/L. The residue definition for glyphosate (which the standard is based off), relates to total glyphosate and as such, this result isseveral orders of magnitude below the standard in Schedule
3b of the Public Health Regulation 2005 of 1000 μg/L.
•N-butyl benzenesulfonamide, a fungicide and plasticiser, was detected in several samples of PRW from the Lake Wivenhoe Point of Supply. This compound was first detected at a concentration of 61.23 μg/L. Investigations (refer to Section 4 Incident and Investigations
for full details) identified that the likely source of this compound was contamination (leaching) from the long plastic pipe used to transfer the water from the PRW main to the tap used for sampling. Subsequent results for this compound have been below the limit of reporting (< 0.02 μg/L). Due to this variability in the detected concentration of this compound the log normal 95th and 99th percentiles are significantly higher (at 114.50μg/L and 1111.90 μg/L respectively) than the maximum concentration detected (61.23 μg/L).
These may be compared to an interim guideline, derived following the methodology described in the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling (Phase 2) Augmentation of Drinking Water Supplies (2008), of 262 μg/L (Leusch 2012)– refer Section 4 Incidents and Events.
2,4-D 0.04ug/L (max)
AMPA 1.5ug/L (max)
Dalapon 0.17ug/L (max), 0.09ug/L (av)
Glyphosate 1.7ug/L (max)
N-Butyl Benzenesulfonamide 61.23ug/L (max), 11.23ug/L (av), 114.5ug/L (95th LN Percentile), 1111.9 (99th LN Percentile)…
DEET, an insect repellent, in two of 52 samples at a concentration of up to 0.02μg/L compared to a standard of 2500μg/L
DEET 0.02ug/L
http://www.seqwater.com.au/sites/default/files/PDF%20Documents/Publications/20130212-WCRW-RWMP-Annual-Report-WEB.pdf
Annual Report 2012-2013
Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme
Recycled Water Management Plan

Lake Wivenhoe Point of Supply

Herbicides and Pesticides
One hundred and ninety one herbicides, pesticides, and their degradation products were
tested for in the PRW at the Lake Wivenhoe and AWTP Points of Supply. A total of four
pesticides, herbicides and their degradation products were detected during the year (refer to Table 3- 26) as follows:

2,4-D dichlorophenoxy AAC, a herbicide, was detected in six of 65 samples at maximum concentration of 0.02 μg/L. Th is concentration is only just above the analytical limit of reporting (0.01μg/L) and is several orders of magnitude below the Standard in Schedule 3b of the Public Health Regulation 2005 of 30 μg/L

2,2- Dichloropropionic acid (dalapon) , a pesticide, was detected in 35 of 87 samples of
PRW from the Lake Wivenhoe and AWTP Points of Supply at concentrations up to 0.25
μg/L. This concentration is several orders of magnitude lower than the Standard of 500
μg/L in Schedule 3b of the Public Health Regulation 2005. Although dalapon is a
pesticide, it is suspected that it is forming as a disinfection by-product of chlorination (Hawker et al. 2011) in thePRW.
Fenvalerate, an insecticide, was detected in one of 54 samples at the Lake Wivenhoe
and AWTP Points of Supply, at a concentration of 1μg/L. This concentration is well
below the Standard (50μg/L) in Schedule 3b of the Public Health Regulation 2005.
Fluvalinate, also an insecticide, was detected in one of 51 samples at a concentration of
1μg/L. This compound has no Standard in Schedule 3b of the Public Health Regulation
2005 or guideline value in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011.
http://www.seqwater.com.au/sites/default/files/PDF%20Documents/Publications/2012-13%20WCRWS%20Annual%20Report.pdf

 

2011 August: Barratta Creek (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple.

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Shaw MS, Silburn DS, Lenahan M & Harris M. 2012.
Pesticides in groundwater in the Lower Burdekin floodplain. Brisbane:
Department of Environment and Resource Management, Queensland Government.
ISBN: 978-1-7423-0953.
March 2012

Results Lower Burdekin Surface Water August 2011

Barratta Creek

Ametryn 0.01ug/L

Atrazine 1.14ug/L

Desethyl Atrazine 0.069ug/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine 0.044ug/L

Diuron 0.412ug/L

Hexazinone 0.02ug/L

Metolachlor 0.005ug/L

MCPA 0.11ug/L

2,4-D 0.13ug/L

Metribuzin 0.1ug/L

2015 June: Winemaker fined $35,000. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

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Orange winemaker penalised $35,000 for dumping toxic chemicals in drain

Rex Nunzio D’Aquino pleaded guilty in Orange Local Court to a charge of polluting waters after he instructed an employee to empty 21 1000-litre drums into a drain leading from the helipad at Highland Heritage Estate to Summer Hill Creek.

The drums contained remnants of chlorpyrifos, a pesticide used on cotton crops, which is harmful to wildlife.

Environmental Protection Authority prosecutor Daniel Zanello said the offence was in the lower level of seriousness, however D’Aquino had known the drums had previously contained the chemicals and failed to read the label warnings.

“Measures could have been taken but were not taken,” he told the court.

However, defence solicitor Rick O’Gorman-Hughes said D’Aquino had completed a course in hazardous chemicals and had implemented a policy within his business. He also argued a paddock separated the drain from Summer Hill Creek and D’Aquino had complied with EPA requirements to clean the site. 

In a letter to the court, D’Aquino called the incident a “costly mistake, which will not be repeated”.

D’Aquino bought 39 drums at auction four years ago with the intention of having them cleaned and used as alcohol storage or transport vessels.

But the odour could not be removed from one of the drums, so they were stored outside where some collected rainwater.

According to the agreed facts, D’Aquino believed the drums contained rainwater and instructed staff to empty them into the drain, despite one employee noticing a green-yellow tinge and suggesting the contents be buried instead.

A member of the public reported the incident to the EPA, which visited the following day.

The highest levels of chemicals in soil samples taken from the drain were 1000 times the allowed threshold in restricted building waste.

Magistrate Terry Lucas fined D’Aquino $15,000 and ordered him to pay $20,000 in professional costs.

http://www.centralwesterndaily.com.au/story/3173542/orange-winemaker-penalised-35000-for-dumping-toxic-chemicals-in-drain/?cs=106

1994 – 1997: ICI compensates graziers hundreds of $millions. Pesticide: Chlorfluazuron

ICI: poisoning for profit (Green Left)

Wednesday, July 2, 1997

SYDNEY — In an all-too-rare finding of blame, the giant chemical company ICI is facing a pay-out of hundreds of millions of dollars in compensation to graziers and meat processors. ICI distributed the insecticide Helix, which was used on cotton crops of northern NSW and southern Queensland. Cotton waste fed to cattle during the 1990s drought led to their contamination.

Helix, or CFZ (chlorfluazuron), was voluntarily banned from use in the cotton industry in 1995.

On June 24, Justice Wilcox of the Federal Court found that ICI had failed in its duty of care to inform people of the insecticide in the cotton fodder. In 1994, 60,000 tonnes of meat was recalled and more than 4700 cattle were put into quarantine.

Around 2500 processors and producers were affected, with losses ranging from $20,000 to $26 million. Some claimants have died and others gone broke over the two years it took to sue ICI.

The court found that ICI had demonstrated “wilful blindness” in failing to carry out appropriate research on the fodder or appropriate field research into Helix.

Justice Wilcox stated, “A contributing factor to the failures was that, in its haste for profits, the private organisation cut research corners and inexcusably suppressed information that might have alerted the dozing public watchdog”.

Wilcox failed to mention government cutbacks and privatisation of quarantine and food inspection services.

Similar legal actions are under way against other pesticide companies over the use of the pesticide Endosulphan on lucerne, vegetables and cereals.

In Melbourne on June 25, Greenpeace protested outside a special ICI shareholders’ meeting. Greenpeace toxics campaigner Matt Ruchel entered the meeting with a secret tape-recording of a message calling on shareholders to “make their money talk to protect the environment”.

Greenpeace wants ICI to clean up its mess in Homebush Bay in Sydney and other sites around Australia, such as ground water contamination and hazardous waste stockpiles at ICI Botany.

On June 24 in Sydney, Greenpeace activists planted two-metre high warning signs in waters in front of ICI’s plant on Homebush Bay to highlight contamination by heavy metals and phthalates produced by ICI on the site.

Greenpeace is calling on ICI to commit funds to a multimillion dollar joint project between the NSW state government and the giant investment bank Bankers Trust to clean up Homebush Bay, one of the world’s most polluted waterways.

1950’s – 1990’s: Contamination of cattle dip sites in NSW & Qld. Pesticides: DDT, Ethion

“…And there are the disused cattle dip sites of northern NSW and Queensland, some of which contain a massive residue legacy.

Activist of researcher Mariann Grinter takes a keen interest in this contamination and its impacts on families living on or near such sites. Her research shows that there are approximately 1600 cattle dip sites on the NSW north coast, 1100 of them on private property. In 1991, sampling indicated DDT contamination as high as 27,000 ppm and arsenic up to 1200 mg/kg on some sites. Later data showed DDT contamination of up to 106,000 ppm (over 10 per cent DDT), arsenic up to 3,000 ppm and the OP insecticide ethion at 45,000 ppm. Most dip sites are situated on flood plains or adjacent to creeks and in some instances, houses and schools have been built on them.

p65/66 Quick Poison Slow Poison Pesticide Risk in the Lucky Country. Kate Short 1994.

1981: Wandiligong. Campaign against the aerial spraying of 2,4,5-T

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The Wandiligong Preservation Society organised a protest campaign and despatched letters to Members of Parliament and the Forests Commission, calling for cancellation of the spraying operation until a detailed scientific investigation could be carried out into the effects of spraying 245T.

This was rejected by the Forests Commission so the next course of action was to seek an Interim Injunction Order against the spraying from the Supreme Court in Melbourne.

Meanwhile, a committee was gathering community support, signatures and money to pay for the estimated $3000 in court costs – all of which were readily forthcoming.

A pregnant Wandiligong mother and two other residents were preparing to appear in court when it was confirmed that the spraying operation had been cancelled for 1981.

The decision was celebrated but all were aware that the problem was not completely solved. What about next year, and the next? So a meeting planned for Saturday, August 1 went ahead. Despite the relaxation of immediate pressure 100 people and 50 apologies were registered at the meeting in the MU Hall. People came from Glenrowan, Carboor, Bobinawarrah, Wodonga, Kiewa Valley, Bright, Rosewhite, Wandiligong and a busload from Beechworth and Stanley to show their concern.

At this meeting a structure was set up to collect information and data on the effects of herbicides on people and on the environment. To date there has been no further attempt to spray the district with 245T but the local people are prepared for any future developments.

This episode shows the strength of community concern and on a larger scale, a small community involved in the national and international debates over the use of dangerous chemical sprays such as 245T and Agent Orange.

Legislation banning the aerial spraying of the herbicide 245T was enacted and is still in force today.

Source: Wandiligong – A Valley Through time

1996-7: Lang Lang River Sediment. Pesticide: Dieldrin, DDE

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Lang Lang River catchment (4 sites)
1996 – 1997
Dieldrin 0.7 μg/kg to 5 μg/kg (normalized to 1% OC), p,p’-DDE 0.5
μg/kg to 1.2 μg/kg (normalized to 1% OC)
Coleman, 2001

VICTORIAN CENTRE FOR AQUATIC POLLUTION IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL REPORT #27: INITIAL
ESTIMATE OF SEDIMENT TOXICANTS BEYOND ESTUARY MOUTHS IN WESTERN PORT
July 2013

2008: Watsons Creek. Pesticides in Sediment and Freshwater: Simazine, Prometryn, Boscalid

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Watsons Creek 2008 Sediments: simazine (8 – 230 μg/kg), prometryn (20 – 374 μg/kg), boscalid
(10 – 48 μg/kg

Waters: simazine (0.14 – 15 ug/L) and prometryn (1.3 – 21 ug/L)

Melbourne Water, unpublished data 2008

VICTORIAN CENTRE FOR AQUATIC POLLUTION IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL REPORT #27: INITIAL ESTIMATE OF SEDIMENT TOXICANTS BEYOND ESTUARY MOUTHS IN WESTERN PORT July 2013

1998: Watsons Creek. Pesticides in Sediment: Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Dieldrin, p,p, DDE

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Wastons Creek (freshwater site) 1998

Chlorpyrifos (40 μg/kg), endosulfan 1(40 μg/kg), endosulfan 11 (80 μg/kg), endosulfan sulphate (40 μg/kg), dieldrin (20 μg/kg) and p,p’-DDE (30 μg/kg)

Hardwick 1998

Source: VICTORIAN CENTRE FOR AQUATIC POLLUTION IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL REPORT #27: INITIAL ESTIMATE OF SEDIMENT TOXICANTS BEYOND ESTUARY MOUTHS IN WESTERN PORT July 2013

2010-2011: Watsons Creek Estuary. Pesticides in Sediment: Esfenvalerate, Boscalid, Fenamiphos, Azoxystrobin

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Watson Creek Estuary. 2010-11. Esfenvalerate, Boscalid, Fenamiphos. Azoxystrobin.

Melbourne Water Sediment Monitoring, 2010-11. Unpublished data.

Source: Page 45 VICTORIAN CENTRE FOR AQUATIC POLLUTION IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL REPORT #27: INITIAL ESTIMATE OF SEDIMENT TOXICANTS BEYOND ESTUARY MOUTHS IN WESTERN PORT

2012 March – July: Watsons Creek Estuary. Pesticides in Sediment: Multiple

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An assessment of sediment toxicants in Western Port and major tributaries

Sharp, Myers, Pettigrove July 2013 CAPIM Technical Report No 27

Sediment

p34 Site LN3: Watsons Creek Estuary

pp, DDE Trace, Metolachlor Trace, Prometryn Trace, Linuron Trace, Pirimicarb 1ug/kg, Fenamiphos Trace, Boscalid 8ug/kg

p 13 Pesticides
A number of studies have detected pesticides in several of the rivers and creeks that flow into Western Port. For instance, Melbourne Water sediment quality data from 2008 – 2009 indicated that pesticides were entering the bay via Watsons Creek, which flows into Yaringa Marine Park in the Lower North Arm, flagging this section of the bay as a crucial area for follow up monitoring. This study also detected pesticides in Cardinia Creek sediments including low concentrations of simazine and metabolites of DDT. Earlier reports detected various organochlorine pesticides (including metabolites of DDT, lindane, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos) in freshwaters including Watsons Creek, Warringine Creek and Lang Lang River among other waterways entering the bay (Hardwick, 1998, Coleman and Pettigrove, 2001). In 1997, the concentration of pesticides measured at 10 sites were all below the limits of detection including atrazine (50 μg/kg), organochlorines (<5 μg/kg) and organophosphates (<50 μg/kg) (Rees et al., 1998), with concentrations also below detection limits at four sites measured for 2,4-D (<50μg/kg). It should be noted that the limits of detection used by Rees et al (1998) weresignificantly higher than those used in the studies undertaken by Hardwick (1998) and Colemanand Pettigrove (2001) which may explain why there were no pesticides detected. Beyondpreliminary data of waterways, the full extent of pesticide contamination in Western Port has yet to be determined.

p33 Pesticides
Of the 22 sites sampled for pesticides in sediments, eight sites had detections (Table 7; Figure15). A total of 17 pesticides were detected, with up to nine different pesticides occurring at Western Contour Drain (UN26) which included four herbicides (simazine, metolachlor, prometryn and linuron), four fungicides (oxadixyl, azoxystrobin, boscalid and cyprodinil) and the insecticide fenamiphos (Table 7). The highest concentrations detected for the triazine herbicide prometryn and fungicide boscalid (15 and 22 μg/kg respectively) occurred in the Western Contour Drain (UN26). Watsons Creek estuary had the second highest number of detections (8) being a source of four insecticides (two organochlorines (pp-DDE and pp-DDT; pirimicarb and fenamiphos), three triazine herbicides (metolachlor, prometryn, and linuron) and the fungicide boscalid at 8 μg/kg. At Yallock Cut and Deep Creek a total of four and five different pesticides were detected respectively. At Deep Creek the organochlorine derivatives, pp-DDE and pp-DDTwere above the ISQG-low suggesting a potential moderate impact to aquatic faunal assemblages. The other pesticides detected at both of these sites were below 2 μg/Kg, however no guidelines exist for any of the other pesticides detected. At Sawtells Creek three pesticides were detected. The organochlorine derivative pp-DDE was detected at a concentration of 0.73 μg/kg which was below the ISQG-low suggesting it is unlikely to be having a detrimental effect on aquatic fauna at this site. The synthetic pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was detected at 5 μg/Kg and the herbicide diuron at 28 μg/kg. There are no ISQG values for these pesticides. The
other three sites (Western Contour estuary, Lang Lang River and Bass River estuary) had only
one pesticide detected, concentrations ranging between trace and 1 μg/kg, with the exception of boscalid in Western Contour estuary at 6 μg/kg (Table 7). No pesticides were detected at any of the six sites in Western Port or in sediments from Warringine Creek (LN9), Cardinia Creek (UN17, UN32), Bunyip River (UN29), Deep Creek (UN30, UN31), Merricks Creek (WS2) and Sawtells Inlet (UN8).

The most commonly detected pesticides were the organochlorine derivatives pp-DDE and pp-DDT (four and three sites respectively), followed by the triazine herbicide simazine and thefungicides azoxystrobin and boscalid (three sites each). The herbicide diruon was only detected at one site, however was the highest concentration detected across all detections, 28 μg/kg, thiswas followed by the fungicide boscalid at 22 μg/Kg and triazine herbicide prometryn at 15 μg/kg (Table 7). It should be noted that there are currently no ISQG guidelines for any of the pesticides other than the organochlorines detected in this study.

2012 March – July: Bass River Estuary. Pesticide in Sediment: DDT

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An assessment of sediment toxicants in Western Port and major tributaries

Sharp, Myers, Pettigrove July 2013 CAPIM Technical Report No 27

Sediment

p34 Site RY1: Bass River Estuary

p,p DDT Trace

p 13 Pesticides
A number of studies have detected pesticides in several of the rivers and creeks that flow into Western Port. For instance, Melbourne Water sediment quality data from 2008 – 2009 indicated that pesticides were entering the bay via Watsons Creek, which flows into Yaringa Marine Park in the Lower North Arm, flagging this section of the bay as a crucial area for follow up monitoring. This study also detected pesticides in Cardinia Creek sediments including low concentrations of simazine and metabolites of DDT. Earlier reports detected various organochlorine pesticides (including metabolites of DDT, lindane, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos) in freshwaters including Watsons Creek, Warringine Creek and Lang Lang River among other waterways entering the bay (Hardwick, 1998, Coleman and Pettigrove, 2001). In 1997, the concentration of pesticides measured at 10 sites were all below the limits of detection including atrazine (50 μg/kg), organochlorines (<5 μg/kg) and organophosphates (<50 μg/kg) (Rees et al., 1998), with concentrations also below detection limits at four sites measured for 2,4-D (<50μg/kg). It should be noted that the limits of detection used by Rees et al (1998) weresignificantly higher than those used in the studies undertaken by Hardwick (1998) and Colemanand Pettigrove (2001) which may explain why there were no pesticides detected. Beyondpreliminary data of waterways, the full extent of pesticide contamination in Western Port has yet to be determined.

p33 Pesticides
Of the 22 sites sampled for pesticides in sediments, eight sites had detections (Table 7; Figure15). A total of 17 pesticides were detected, with up to nine different pesticides occurring at Western Contour Drain (UN26) which included four herbicides (simazine, metolachlor, prometryn and linuron), four fungicides (oxadixyl, azoxystrobin, boscalid and cyprodinil) and the insecticide fenamiphos (Table 7). The highest concentrations detected for the triazine herbicide prometryn and fungicide boscalid (15 and 22 μg/kg respectively) occurred in the Western Contour Drain (UN26). Watsons Creek estuary had the second highest number of detections (8) being a source of four insecticides (two organochlorines (pp-DDE and pp-DDT; pirimicarb and fenamiphos), three triazine herbicides (metolachlor, prometryn, and linuron) and the fungicide boscalid at 8 μg/kg. At Yallock Cut and Deep Creek a total of four and five different pesticides were detected respectively. At Deep Creek the organochlorine derivatives, pp-DDE and pp-DDTwere above the ISQG-low suggesting a potential moderate impact to aquatic faunal assemblages. The other pesticides detected at both of these sites were below 2 μg/Kg, however no guidelines exist for any of the other pesticides detected. At Sawtells Creek three pesticides were detected. The organochlorine derivative pp-DDE was detected at a concentration of 0.73 μg/kg which was below the ISQG-low suggesting it is unlikely to be having a detrimental effect on aquatic fauna at this site. The synthetic pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was detected at 5 μg/Kg and the herbicide diuron at 28 μg/kg. There are no ISQG values for these pesticides. The
other three sites (Western Contour estuary, Lang Lang River and Bass River estuary) had only
one pesticide detected, concentrations ranging between trace and 1 μg/kg, with the exception of boscalid in Western Contour estuary at 6 μg/kg (Table 7). No pesticides were detected at any of the six sites in Western Port or in sediments from Warringine Creek (LN9), Cardinia Creek (UN17, UN32), Bunyip River (UN29), Deep Creek (UN30, UN31), Merricks Creek (WS2) and Sawtells Inlet (UN8).

The most commonly detected pesticides were the organochlorine derivatives pp-DDE and pp-DDT (four and three sites respectively), followed by the triazine herbicide simazine and thefungicides azoxystrobin and boscalid (three sites each). The herbicide diruon was only detected at one site, however was the highest concentration detected across all detections, 28 μg/kg, thiswas followed by the fungicide boscalid at 22 μg/Kg and triazine herbicide prometryn at 15 μg/kg (Table 7). It should be noted that there are currently no ISQG guidelines for any of the pesticides other than the organochlorines detected in this study.

2012 March – July: Deep Creek at Ballarto Road. Pesticides in Sediment: Multiple

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An assessment of sediment toxicants in Western Port and major tributaries

Sharp, Myers, Pettigrove July 2013 CAPIM Technical Report No 27

Sediment

p34 Site UN15: Deep Creek at Ballarto Road

p,p DDE 5ug/kg, p,p DDE (normalised) 2.26ug/kg, p,p DDT 6ug/kg, p,p DDT (normalised) 2.7ug/kg, Simazine Trace, Pirimicarb Trace, Triadimenol Trace

p 13 Pesticides
A number of studies have detected pesticides in several of the rivers and creeks that flow into Western Port. For instance, Melbourne Water sediment quality data from 2008 – 2009 indicated that pesticides were entering the bay via Watsons Creek, which flows into Yaringa Marine Park in the Lower North Arm, flagging this section of the bay as a crucial area for follow up monitoring. This study also detected pesticides in Cardinia Creek sediments including low concentrations of simazine and metabolites of DDT. Earlier reports detected various organochlorine pesticides (including metabolites of DDT, lindane, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos) in freshwaters including Watsons Creek, Warringine Creek and Lang Lang River among other waterways entering the bay (Hardwick, 1998, Coleman and Pettigrove, 2001). In 1997, the concentration of pesticides measured at 10 sites were all below the limits of detection including atrazine (50 μg/kg), organochlorines (<5 μg/kg) and organophosphates (<50 μg/kg) (Rees et al., 1998), with concentrations also below detection limits at four sites measured for 2,4-D (<50μg/kg). It should be noted that the limits of detection used by Rees et al (1998) weresignificantly higher than those used in the studies undertaken by Hardwick (1998) and Colemanand Pettigrove (2001) which may explain why there were no pesticides detected. Beyondpreliminary data of waterways, the full extent of pesticide contamination in Western Port has yet to be determined.

p33 Pesticides
Of the 22 sites sampled for pesticides in sediments, eight sites had detections (Table 7; Figure15). A total of 17 pesticides were detected, with up to nine different pesticides occurring at Western Contour Drain (UN26) which included four herbicides (simazine, metolachlor, prometryn and linuron), four fungicides (oxadixyl, azoxystrobin, boscalid and cyprodinil) and the insecticide fenamiphos (Table 7). The highest concentrations detected for the triazine herbicide prometryn and fungicide boscalid (15 and 22 μg/kg respectively) occurred in the Western Contour Drain (UN26). Watsons Creek estuary had the second highest number of detections (8) being a source of four insecticides (two organochlorines (pp-DDE and pp-DDT; pirimicarb and fenamiphos), three triazine herbicides (metolachlor, prometryn, and linuron) and the fungicide boscalid at 8 μg/kg. At Yallock Cut and Deep Creek a total of four and five different pesticides were detected respectively. At Deep Creek the organochlorine derivatives, pp-DDE and pp-DDTwere above the ISQG-low suggesting a potential moderate impact to aquatic faunal assemblages. The other pesticides detected at both of these sites were below 2 μg/Kg, however no guidelines exist for any of the other pesticides detected. At Sawtells Creek three pesticides were detected. The organochlorine derivative pp-DDE was detected at a concentration of 0.73 μg/kg which was below the ISQG-low suggesting it is unlikely to be having a detrimental effect on aquatic fauna at this site. The synthetic pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was detected at 5 μg/Kg and the herbicide diuron at 28 μg/kg. There are no ISQG values for these pesticides. The
other three sites (Western Contour estuary, Lang Lang River and Bass River estuary) had only
one pesticide detected, concentrations ranging between trace and 1 μg/kg, with the exception of boscalid in Western Contour estuary at 6 μg/kg (Table 7). No pesticides were detected at any of the six sites in Western Port or in sediments from Warringine Creek (LN9), Cardinia Creek (UN17, UN32), Bunyip River (UN29), Deep Creek (UN30, UN31), Merricks Creek (WS2) and Sawtells Inlet (UN8).

The most commonly detected pesticides were the organochlorine derivatives pp-DDE and pp-DDT (four and three sites respectively), followed by the triazine herbicide simazine and thefungicides azoxystrobin and boscalid (three sites each). The herbicide diruon was only detected at one site, however was the highest concentration detected across all detections, 28 μg/kg, thiswas followed by the fungicide boscalid at 22 μg/Kg and triazine herbicide prometryn at 15 μg/kg (Table 7). It should be noted that there are currently no ISQG guidelines for any of the pesticides other than the organochlorines detected in this study.

2012 March – July: Lang Lang River at South Gippsland Highway. Pesticide in Sediment: Azoxystrobin

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An assessment of sediment toxicants in Western Port and major tributaries

Sharp, Myers, Pettigrove July 2013 CAPIM Technical Report No 27

Sediment

p34 Site UN25: Lang Lang River at South Gippsland Highway

Azoxystrobin 1ug/kg

p 13 Pesticides
A number of studies have detected pesticides in several of the rivers and creeks that flow into Western Port. For instance, Melbourne Water sediment quality data from 2008 – 2009 indicated that pesticides were entering the bay via Watsons Creek, which flows into Yaringa Marine Park in the Lower North Arm, flagging this section of the bay as a crucial area for follow up monitoring. This study also detected pesticides in Cardinia Creek sediments including low concentrations of simazine and metabolites of DDT. Earlier reports detected various organochlorine pesticides (including metabolites of DDT, lindane, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos) in freshwaters including Watsons Creek, Warringine Creek and Lang Lang River among other waterways entering the bay (Hardwick, 1998, Coleman and Pettigrove, 2001). In 1997, the concentration of pesticides measured at 10 sites were all below the limits of detection including atrazine (50 μg/kg), organochlorines (<5 μg/kg) and organophosphates (<50 μg/kg) (Rees et al., 1998), with concentrations also below detection limits at four sites measured for 2,4-D (<50μg/kg). It should be noted that the limits of detection used by Rees et al (1998) weresignificantly higher than those used in the studies undertaken by Hardwick (1998) and Colemanand Pettigrove (2001) which may explain why there were no pesticides detected. Beyondpreliminary data of waterways, the full extent of pesticide contamination in Western Port has yet to be determined.

p33 Pesticides
Of the 22 sites sampled for pesticides in sediments, eight sites had detections (Table 7; Figure15). A total of 17 pesticides were detected, with up to nine different pesticides occurring at Western Contour Drain (UN26) which included four herbicides (simazine, metolachlor, prometryn and linuron), four fungicides (oxadixyl, azoxystrobin, boscalid and cyprodinil) and the insecticide fenamiphos (Table 7). The highest concentrations detected for the triazine herbicide prometryn and fungicide boscalid (15 and 22 μg/kg respectively) occurred in the Western Contour Drain (UN26). Watsons Creek estuary had the second highest number of detections (8) being a source of four insecticides (two organochlorines (pp-DDE and pp-DDT; pirimicarb and fenamiphos), three triazine herbicides (metolachlor, prometryn, and linuron) and the fungicide boscalid at 8 μg/kg. At Yallock Cut and Deep Creek a total of four and five different pesticides were detected respectively. At Deep Creek the organochlorine derivatives, pp-DDE and pp-DDTwere above the ISQG-low suggesting a potential moderate impact to aquatic faunal assemblages. The other pesticides detected at both of these sites were below 2 μg/Kg, however no guidelines exist for any of the other pesticides detected. At Sawtells Creek three pesticides were detected. The organochlorine derivative pp-DDE was detected at a concentration of 0.73 μg/kg which was below the ISQG-low suggesting it is unlikely to be having a detrimental effect on aquatic fauna at this site. The synthetic pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was detected at 5 μg/Kg and the herbicide diuron at 28 μg/kg. There are no ISQG values for these pesticides. The
other three sites (Western Contour estuary, Lang Lang River and Bass River estuary) had only
one pesticide detected, concentrations ranging between trace and 1 μg/kg, with the exception of boscalid in Western Contour estuary at 6 μg/kg (Table 7). No pesticides were detected at any of the six sites in Western Port or in sediments from Warringine Creek (LN9), Cardinia Creek (UN17, UN32), Bunyip River (UN29), Deep Creek (UN30, UN31), Merricks Creek (WS2) and Sawtells Inlet (UN8).

The most commonly detected pesticides were the organochlorine derivatives pp-DDE and pp-DDT (four and three sites respectively), followed by the triazine herbicide simazine and thefungicides azoxystrobin and boscalid (three sites each). The herbicide diruon was only detected at one site, however was the highest concentration detected across all detections, 28 μg/kg, thiswas followed by the fungicide boscalid at 22 μg/Kg and triazine herbicide prometryn at 15 μg/kg (Table 7). It should be noted that there are currently no ISQG guidelines for any of the pesticides other than the organochlorines detected in this study.

2012 March – July: Western Contour Drain Estuary Sediment. Pesticide: Boscalid

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An assessment of sediment toxicants in Western Port and major tributaries

Sharp, Myers, Pettigrove July 2013 CAPIM Technical Report No 27

Sediment

p34 Site UN28: Western Contour Drain Estuary Mouth Blind Bight

Boscalid 6ug/kg

p 13 Pesticides
A number of studies have detected pesticides in several of the rivers and creeks that flow into Western Port. For instance, Melbourne Water sediment quality data from 2008 – 2009 indicated that pesticides were entering the bay via Watsons Creek, which flows into Yaringa Marine Park in the Lower North Arm, flagging this section of the bay as a crucial area for follow up monitoring. This study also detected pesticides in Cardinia Creek sediments including low concentrations of simazine and metabolites of DDT. Earlier reports detected various organochlorine pesticides (including metabolites of DDT, lindane, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos) in freshwaters including Watsons Creek, Warringine Creek and Lang Lang River among other waterways entering the bay (Hardwick, 1998, Coleman and Pettigrove, 2001). In 1997, the concentration of pesticides measured at 10 sites were all below the limits of detection including atrazine (50 μg/kg), organochlorines (<5 μg/kg) and organophosphates (<50 μg/kg) (Rees et al., 1998), with concentrations also below detection limits at four sites measured for 2,4-D (<50μg/kg). It should be noted that the limits of detection used by Rees et al (1998) weresignificantly higher than those used in the studies undertaken by Hardwick (1998) and Colemanand Pettigrove (2001) which may explain why there were no pesticides detected. Beyondpreliminary data of waterways, the full extent of pesticide contamination in Western Port has yet to be determined.

p33 Pesticides
Of the 22 sites sampled for pesticides in sediments, eight sites had detections (Table 7; Figure15). A total of 17 pesticides were detected, with up to nine different pesticides occurring at Western Contour Drain (UN26) which included four herbicides (simazine, metolachlor, prometryn and linuron), four fungicides (oxadixyl, azoxystrobin, boscalid and cyprodinil) and the insecticide fenamiphos (Table 7). The highest concentrations detected for the triazine herbicide prometryn and fungicide boscalid (15 and 22 μg/kg respectively) occurred in the Western Contour Drain (UN26). Watsons Creek estuary had the second highest number of detections (8) being a source of four insecticides (two organochlorines (pp-DDE and pp-DDT; pirimicarb and fenamiphos), three triazine herbicides (metolachlor, prometryn, and linuron) and the fungicide boscalid at 8 μg/kg. At Yallock Cut and Deep Creek a total of four and five different pesticides were detected respectively. At Deep Creek the organochlorine derivatives, pp-DDE and pp-DDTwere above the ISQG-low suggesting a potential moderate impact to aquatic faunal assemblages. The other pesticides detected at both of these sites were below 2 μg/Kg, however no guidelines exist for any of the other pesticides detected. At Sawtells Creek three pesticides were detected. The organochlorine derivative pp-DDE was detected at a concentration of 0.73 μg/kg which was below the ISQG-low suggesting it is unlikely to be having a detrimental effect on aquatic fauna at this site. The synthetic pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was detected at 5 μg/Kg and the herbicide diuron at 28 μg/kg. There are no ISQG values for these pesticides. The
other three sites (Western Contour estuary, Lang Lang River and Bass River estuary) had only
one pesticide detected, concentrations ranging between trace and 1 μg/kg, with the exception of boscalid in Western Contour estuary at 6 μg/kg (Table 7). No pesticides were detected at any of the six sites in Western Port or in sediments from Warringine Creek (LN9), Cardinia Creek (UN17, UN32), Bunyip River (UN29), Deep Creek (UN30, UN31), Merricks Creek (WS2) and Sawtells Inlet (UN8).

The most commonly detected pesticides were the organochlorine derivatives pp-DDE and pp-DDT (four and three sites respectively), followed by the triazine herbicide simazine and thefungicides azoxystrobin and boscalid (three sites each). The herbicide diruon was only detected at one site, however was the highest concentration detected across all detections, 28 μg/kg, thiswas followed by the fungicide boscalid at 22 μg/Kg and triazine herbicide prometryn at 15 μg/kg (Table 7). It should be noted that there are currently no ISQG guidelines for any of the pesticides other than the organochlorines detected in this study.

2012 March – July: Western Contour Drain Sediment. Pesticides: Multiple

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An assessment of sediment toxicants in Western Port and major tributaries

Sharp, Myers, Pettigrove July 2013 CAPIM Technical Report No 27

Sediment

p34 Site UN26: Western Contour Drain South Gippsland Highway

Simazine Trace, Metolachlor Trace, Prometryn 15ug/kg, Linuron Trace, Fenamiphos Trace, Oxadixyl 5ug/kg, Azoxystrobin 1ug/kg, Boscalid 22ug/kg, Cyprodinil Trace

p 13 Pesticides
A number of studies have detected pesticides in several of the rivers and creeks that flow into Western Port. For instance, Melbourne Water sediment quality data from 2008 – 2009 indicated that pesticides were entering the bay via Watsons Creek, which flows into Yaringa Marine Park in the Lower North Arm, flagging this section of the bay as a crucial area for follow up monitoring. This study also detected pesticides in Cardinia Creek sediments including low concentrations of simazine and metabolites of DDT. Earlier reports detected various organochlorine pesticides (including metabolites of DDT, lindane, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos) in freshwaters including Watsons Creek, Warringine Creek and Lang Lang River among other waterways entering the bay (Hardwick, 1998, Coleman and Pettigrove, 2001). In 1997, the concentration of pesticides measured at 10 sites were all below the limits of detection including atrazine (50 μg/kg), organochlorines (<5 μg/kg) and organophosphates (<50 μg/kg) (Rees et al., 1998), with concentrations also below detection limits at four sites measured for 2,4-D (<50μg/kg). It should be noted that the limits of detection used by Rees et al (1998) weresignificantly higher than those used in the studies undertaken by Hardwick (1998) and Colemanand Pettigrove (2001) which may explain why there were no pesticides detected. Beyondpreliminary data of waterways, the full extent of pesticide contamination in Western Port has yet to be determined.

p33 Pesticides
Of the 22 sites sampled for pesticides in sediments, eight sites had detections (Table 7; Figure15). A total of 17 pesticides were detected, with up to nine different pesticides occurring at Western Contour Drain (UN26) which included four herbicides (simazine, metolachlor, prometryn and linuron), four fungicides (oxadixyl, azoxystrobin, boscalid and cyprodinil) and the insecticide fenamiphos (Table 7). The highest concentrations detected for the triazine herbicide prometryn and fungicide boscalid (15 and 22 μg/kg respectively) occurred in the Western Contour Drain (UN26). Watsons Creek estuary had the second highest number of detections (8) being a source of four insecticides (two organochlorines (pp-DDE and pp-DDT; pirimicarb and fenamiphos), three triazine herbicides (metolachlor, prometryn, and linuron) and the fungicide boscalid at 8 μg/kg. At Yallock Cut and Deep Creek a total of four and five different pesticides were detected respectively. At Deep Creek the organochlorine derivatives, pp-DDE and pp-DDTwere above the ISQG-low suggesting a potential moderate impact to aquatic faunal assemblages. The other pesticides detected at both of these sites were below 2 μg/Kg, however no guidelines exist for any of the other pesticides detected. At Sawtells Creek three pesticides were detected. The organochlorine derivative pp-DDE was detected at a concentration of 0.73 μg/kg which was below the ISQG-low suggesting it is unlikely to be having a detrimental effect on aquatic fauna at this site. The synthetic pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was detected at 5 μg/Kg and the herbicide diuron at 28 μg/kg. There are no ISQG values for these pesticides. The
other three sites (Western Contour estuary, Lang Lang River and Bass River estuary) had only
one pesticide detected, concentrations ranging between trace and 1 μg/kg, with the exception of boscalid in Western Contour estuary at 6 μg/kg (Table 7). No pesticides were detected at any of the six sites in Western Port or in sediments from Warringine Creek (LN9), Cardinia Creek (UN17, UN32), Bunyip River (UN29), Deep Creek (UN30, UN31), Merricks Creek (WS2) and Sawtells Inlet (UN8).

The most commonly detected pesticides were the organochlorine derivatives pp-DDE and pp-DDT (four and three sites respectively), followed by the triazine herbicide simazine and thefungicides azoxystrobin and boscalid (three sites each). The herbicide diruon was only detected at one site, however was the highest concentration detected across all detections, 28 μg/kg, thiswas followed by the fungicide boscalid at 22 μg/Kg and triazine herbicide prometryn at 15 μg/kg (Table 7). It should be noted that there are currently no ISQG guidelines for any of the pesticides other than the organochlorines detected in this study.

2012 March – July: Sawtells Creek Sediment. Pesticides: p,p, DDE, Bifenthrin, Simazine, Diuron

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An assessment of sediment toxicants in Western Port and major tributaries

Sharp, Myers, Pettigrove July 2013 CAPIM Technical Report No 27

Sediment

p34 Site UN9: Sawtells Creek at Hopetoun Road

p,p DDE 3.3ug/kg, p,p DDE (normalised) 0.73ug/L, Bifenthrin 5ug/kg, Simazine Trace, Diuron 28ug/kg

p 13 Pesticides
A number of studies have detected pesticides in several of the rivers and creeks that flow into Western Port. For instance, Melbourne Water sediment quality data from 2008 – 2009 indicated that pesticides were entering the bay via Watsons Creek, which flows into Yaringa Marine Park in the Lower North Arm, flagging this section of the bay as a crucial area for follow up monitoring. This study also detected pesticides in Cardinia Creek sediments including low concentrations of simazine and metabolites of DDT. Earlier reports detected various organochlorine pesticides (including metabolites of DDT, lindane, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos) in freshwaters including Watsons Creek, Warringine Creek and Lang Lang River among other waterways entering the bay (Hardwick, 1998, Coleman and Pettigrove, 2001). In 1997, the concentration of pesticides measured at 10 sites were all below the limits of detection including atrazine (50 μg/kg), organochlorines (<5 μg/kg) and organophosphates (<50 μg/kg) (Rees et al., 1998), with concentrations also below detection limits at four sites measured for 2,4-D (<50μg/kg). It should be noted that the limits of detection used by Rees et al (1998) weresignificantly higher than those used in the studies undertaken by Hardwick (1998) and Colemanand Pettigrove (2001) which may explain why there were no pesticides detected. Beyondpreliminary data of waterways, the full extent of pesticide contamination in Western Port has yet to be determined.

p33 Pesticides
Of the 22 sites sampled for pesticides in sediments, eight sites had detections (Table 7; Figure15). A total of 17 pesticides were detected, with up to nine different pesticides occurring at Western Contour Drain (UN26) which included four herbicides (simazine, metolachlor, prometryn and linuron), four fungicides (oxadixyl, azoxystrobin, boscalid and cyprodinil) and the insecticide fenamiphos (Table 7). The highest concentrations detected for the triazine herbicide prometryn and fungicide boscalid (15 and 22 μg/kg respectively) occurred in the Western Contour Drain (UN26). Watsons Creek estuary had the second highest number of detections (8) being a source of four insecticides (two organochlorines (pp-DDE and pp-DDT; pirimicarb and fenamiphos), three triazine herbicides (metolachlor, prometryn, and linuron) and the fungicide boscalid at 8 μg/kg. At Yallock Cut and Deep Creek a total of four and five different pesticides were detected respectively. At Deep Creek the organochlorine derivatives, pp-DDE and pp-DDTwere above the ISQG-low suggesting a potential moderate impact to aquatic faunal assemblages. The other pesticides detected at both of these sites were below 2 μg/Kg, however no guidelines exist for any of the other pesticides detected. At Sawtells Creek three pesticides were detected. The organochlorine derivative pp-DDE was detected at a concentration of 0.73 μg/kg which was below the ISQG-low suggesting it is unlikely to be having a detrimental effect on aquatic fauna at this site. The synthetic pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was detected at 5 μg/Kg and the herbicide diuron at 28 μg/kg. There are no ISQG values for these pesticides. The
other three sites (Western Contour estuary, Lang Lang River and Bass River estuary) had only
one pesticide detected, concentrations ranging between trace and 1 μg/kg, with the exception of boscalid in Western Contour estuary at 6 μg/kg (Table 7). No pesticides were detected at any of the six sites in Western Port or in sediments from Warringine Creek (LN9), Cardinia Creek (UN17, UN32), Bunyip River (UN29), Deep Creek (UN30, UN31), Merricks Creek (WS2) and Sawtells Inlet (UN8).

The most commonly detected pesticides were the organochlorine derivatives pp-DDE and pp-DDT (four and three sites respectively), followed by the triazine herbicide simazine and thefungicides azoxystrobin and boscalid (three sites each). The herbicide diruon was only detected at one site, however was the highest concentration detected across all detections, 28 μg/kg, thiswas followed by the fungicide boscalid at 22 μg/Kg and triazine herbicide prometryn at 15 μg/kg (Table 7). It should be noted that there are currently no ISQG guidelines for any of the pesticides other than the organochlorines detected in this study.

2012 March – July: Westernport Bay Yallock Cut. Pesticides in Sediment: p,p,DDE, Azoxystrobin, Pyrimethanil, Myclobutanil

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An assessment of sediment toxicants in Western Port and major tributaries

Sharp, Myers, Pettigrove July 2013 CAPIM Technical Report No 27

Sediment

p34 Site UN13: Yallock Cut at South Gippsland Highway

p,p DDE Trace, Azoxystrobin 1ug/kg, Pyrimethanil Trace, Mycobutanil 2ug/kg

p 13 Pesticides
A number of studies have detected pesticides in several of the rivers and creeks that flow into Western Port. For instance, Melbourne Water sediment quality data from 2008 – 2009 indicated that pesticides were entering the bay via Watsons Creek, which flows into Yaringa Marine Park in the Lower North Arm, flagging this section of the bay as a crucial area for follow up monitoring. This study also detected pesticides in Cardinia Creek sediments including low concentrations of simazine and metabolites of DDT. Earlier reports detected various organochlorine pesticides (including metabolites of DDT, lindane, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos) in freshwaters including Watsons Creek, Warringine Creek and Lang Lang River among other waterways entering the bay (Hardwick, 1998, Coleman and Pettigrove, 2001). In 1997, the concentration of pesticides measured at 10 sites were all below the limits of detection including atrazine (50 μg/kg), organochlorines (<5 μg/kg) and organophosphates (<50 μg/kg) (Rees et al., 1998), with concentrations also below detection limits at four sites measured for 2,4-D (<50μg/kg). It should be noted that the limits of detection used by Rees et al (1998) weresignificantly higher than those used in the studies undertaken by Hardwick (1998) and Colemanand Pettigrove (2001) which may explain why there were no pesticides detected. Beyondpreliminary data of waterways, the full extent of pesticide contamination in Western Port has yet to be determined.

p33 Pesticides
Of the 22 sites sampled for pesticides in sediments, eight sites had detections (Table 7; Figure15). A total of 17 pesticides were detected, with up to nine different pesticides occurring at Western Contour Drain (UN26) which included four herbicides (simazine, metolachlor, prometryn and linuron), four fungicides (oxadixyl, azoxystrobin, boscalid and cyprodinil) and the insecticide fenamiphos (Table 7). The highest concentrations detected for the triazine herbicide prometryn and fungicide boscalid (15 and 22 μg/kg respectively) occurred in the Western Contour Drain (UN26). Watsons Creek estuary had the second highest number of detections (8) being a source of four insecticides (two organochlorines (pp-DDE and pp-DDT; pirimicarb and fenamiphos), three triazine herbicides (metolachlor, prometryn, and linuron) and the fungicide boscalid at 8 μg/kg. At Yallock Cut and Deep Creek a total of four and five different pesticides were detected respectively. At Deep Creek the organochlorine derivatives, pp-DDE and pp-DDTwere above the ISQG-low suggesting a potential moderate impact to aquatic faunal assemblages. The other pesticides detected at both of these sites were below 2 μg/Kg, however no guidelines exist for any of the other pesticides detected. At Sawtells Creek three pesticides were detected. The organochlorine derivative pp-DDE was detected at a concentration of 0.73 μg/kg which was below the ISQG-low suggesting it is unlikely to be having a detrimental effect on aquatic fauna at this site. The synthetic pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was detected at 5 μg/Kg and the herbicide diuron at 28 μg/kg. There are no ISQG values for these pesticides. The
other three sites (Western Contour estuary, Lang Lang River and Bass River estuary) had only
one pesticide detected, concentrations ranging between trace and 1 μg/kg, with the exception of boscalid in Western Contour estuary at 6 μg/kg (Table 7). No pesticides were detected at any of the six sites in Western Port or in sediments from Warringine Creek (LN9), Cardinia Creek (UN17, UN32), Bunyip River (UN29), Deep Creek (UN30, UN31), Merricks Creek (WS2) and Sawtells Inlet (UN8).

The most commonly detected pesticides were the organochlorine derivatives pp-DDE and pp-DDT (four and three sites respectively), followed by the triazine herbicide simazine and thefungicides azoxystrobin and boscalid (three sites each). The herbicide diruon was only detected at one site, however was the highest concentration detected across all detections, 28 μg/kg, thiswas followed by the fungicide boscalid at 22 μg/Kg and triazine herbicide prometryn at 15 μg/kg (Table 7). It should be noted that there are currently no ISQG guidelines for any of the pesticides other than the organochlorines detected in this study.

 

 

 

2015 June: DDT found in central queensland Dolphins

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DDT and herbicides found in Central Queensland dolphins
June 24, 2015 (Brisbane Times)

Traces of the banned pesticide DDT and the man-made PCB chemicals have been found in dolphins in Gladstone Harbour, in the Whitsundays,Townsville and the Fitzroy River near Rockhampton, a long-time dolphin researcher said.

Daniele Cagnazzi, a post-doctoral researcher with Southern Cross University’s Marine Ecology Research Centre, has published his findings on contaminants found in dolphins.

Dr Cagnazzi said his findings suggest the chemicals were washed from fertilised fields and have been slowly absorbed by dolphins at the other end of the food chain.

“During the floods, all the sediment gets washed from the grazing land and the agricultural land and ends up in the coastal waters,” he said.

“And it is likely to still have some herbicides and pesticides inside and they become available for other animals to absorb further up the food chain.”

“This is a widespread issue that needs to be further investigated,” he said.

His findings are part of one of Australia’s longest-running dolphin research projects, the Capricorn Cetaceans Project (CCP).

The project has been looking at the long-term conservation and management of inshore dolphins – the humpback and snubfin dolphins – from Central Queensland in Central Queensland since 2006.

Dr Cagnazzi – speaking while collecting further biopsies from dolphins in Gladstone Harbour on Wednesday – said biopsies on 240 dolphins had provided the data.

“We’ve found high levels of PCB’s for example and we still found – at lower levels – we found some DDT,” Dr Cagnazzi said.

“For PCBs some animals were at very high levels, potentially dangerous for their health,” he said.

Dr Cagnazzi said DDT levels in the dolphins varied widely.

“For DDT, it was mostly at low levels – not dangerous for the animals – but some animals were at high levels,” he said.

PCBs, or poly-chlorintaed bi-phenyls, are man-made chemicals that comes from lubrication fluids and insulation. Sale of PCBs was “severely restricted” in the 1970s.

DDT is a synthetic pesticide that was banned from sale in 1987.

Biopsies were taken from 155 humpback and 85 snubfin dolphins from Central Queensland, Moreton Bay, Great Sandy Strait, Whitsundays, the Fitzroy River near Rockhampton and Townsville.

In 2006 DDT was also been found in crabs in the Burnett River catchment near Bundaberg and Bargara.

Dr Cagnazzi said researchers also found high levels of hydrocarbons in dolphin biopsies.

The researchers have also found evidence of viruses washed downstream impacting the dolphins after the 2011 floods.

Viruses – including taxoplasmosis – are washed down from the upper river into the bays after floodwaters drain from the fields, Dr Cagnozzi said.

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease and begins with mild flu-like symptoms.

“Sometimes the viruses just weaken the dolphins enough to make the dolphin unable to feed,” he said.

The project is investigating the reasons behind a drop – and subsequent slow recovery – in the populations of the two species; the humpback and snubfin dolphins.

Dr Cagnazzi said there were around 150 humpback and 150 snubfin dolphins before the 2011 floods around Central Queensland.

Their populations dropped to around 100 after the 2011 floods and have now increased to around 120.

Humpback and snubfin dolphins have a small gene pool, meaning they rely on their own populations for breeding, Dr Cagnazzi said.

He said this made these Central Queensland populations ever more vulnerable.

The research is partly funded by the Gladstone Ports Corporation and Southern Cross University.

http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/ddt-and-herbicides-found-in-central-queensland-dolphins-20150624-ghwgp6.html

2013 July – 2019 April: Bolivar Waste Water Treatment Plant (SA). Pesticides: 2,4-D, MCPA, Triclopyr

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Bolivar Waste Water Treatment Plant Recycled Water Monitoring Data for Period 1/7/2013 to 30/6/14. (Positive Pesticide Samples)

WWTP Outlet No.1 Weir Effluent Upstream

5/7/13: 2,4-D 0.54ug/L, MCPA, 0.17ug/L, Triclopyr 0.1ug/L

9/10/13: 2,4-D 0.23ug/L, MCPA 0.16ug/L

13/1/14: 2,4-D 0.22ug/L, MCPA 0.21ug/L

19/3/14: MCPA 0.14ug/L

19/4/14: 2,4-D 0.07ug/L, MCPA 0.11ug/L

23/10/17: MCPA 0.37ug/L

30/10/18: 2,4-D 0.08ug/L

30/10/18: MCPA 0.21ug/L

30/10/18: MCPA 0.33ug/L (High salinity Plant)

Bolivar DAFF Filtered Water after Chlorine Composite

1/8/13: 2,4-D 0.69ug/L, MCPA 0.16ug/L

24/10/13: 2,4-D 0.1ug/L, MCPA 0.17ug/L

14/11/13: 2,4-D 0.07ug/L, MCPA 0.13ug/L

16/1/14: 2,4-D 0.21ug/L, MCPA 0.14ug/L

10/4/14: 2,4-D 0.07ug/L, MCPA 0.12ug/L

26/10/17: MCPA 0.2ug/L

1/11/18: 2,4-D 0.07ug/L

1/11/18: MCPA 0.13ug/L

24/1/19: 2,4-D 0.06ug/L

24/1/19: MCPA 0.07ug/L

17/4/19: 2,4-D 0.52ug/L

17/4/19: MCPA 0.16ug/L

 

2006: Burnett River (Qld). Mud Crabs. Pesticides: DDT, Dieldrin

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Water Quality Issues in the Barron WQIP Area ACTFR Report No. 08/06

Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research

p81 Bioaccumulation sampling
While passive sampling detect contemporary pesticides, chiefly herbicides, mud crabs have
provided better evidence of residual organochlorine (OC) contaminants such as the
insecticides DDT and dieldrin (Negri et al., 2006). In a survey of the rivers draining to the
GBR, Negri et al. found the greatest incidence and concentrations of these OCs detected in
crabs came from the most populated catchments, i.e. the Barron, Pioneer, Fitzroy and
Burnett Rivers. Hence, the presence of DDT and dieldrin, albeit at low concentrations, was
clearly correlated to urban influences. Due to their higher polarity and comparatively short
half-lives, contemporary pesticides such as chlorpyrifos and diuron were not detected in
individual crabs.

2006: Fitzroy River (Qld). Mud Crabs. Pesticides: DDT, Dieldrin

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Water Quality Issues in the Barron WQIP Area ACTFR Report No. 08/06

Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research

p81 Bioaccumulation sampling
While passive sampling detect contemporary pesticides, chiefly herbicides, mud crabs have
provided better evidence of residual organochlorine (OC) contaminants such as the
insecticides DDT and dieldrin (Negri et al., 2006). In a survey of the rivers draining to the
GBR, Negri et al. found the greatest incidence and concentrations of these OCs detected in
crabs came from the most populated catchments, i.e. the Barron, Pioneer, Fitzroy and
Burnett Rivers. Hence, the presence of DDT and dieldrin, albeit at low concentrations, was
clearly correlated to urban influences. Due to their higher polarity and comparatively short
half-lives, contemporary pesticides such as chlorpyrifos and diuron were not detected in
individual crabs.

2006: Pioneer River (Qld). Mud Crabs. Pesticides: DDT, Dieldrin

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Water Quality Issues in the Barron WQIP Area ACTFR Report No. 08/06

Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research

p81 Bioaccumulation sampling
While passive sampling detect contemporary pesticides, chiefly herbicides, mud crabs have
provided better evidence of residual organochlorine (OC) contaminants such as the
insecticides DDT and dieldrin (Negri et al., 2006). In a survey of the rivers draining to the
GBR, Negri et al. found the greatest incidence and concentrations of these OCs detected in
crabs came from the most populated catchments, i.e. the Barron, Pioneer, Fitzroy and
Burnett Rivers. Hence, the presence of DDT and dieldrin, albeit at low concentrations, was
clearly correlated to urban influences. Due to their higher polarity and comparatively short
half-lives, contemporary pesticides such as chlorpyrifos and diuron were not detected in
individual crabs.

2006: Barron River (Qld) Mud Crabs: Pesticides DDT, Dieldrin

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Water Quality Issues in the Barron WQIP Area ACTFR Report No. 08/06

Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research

p81 Bioaccumulation sampling
While passive sampling detect contemporary pesticides, chiefly herbicides, mud crabs have
provided better evidence of residual organochlorine (OC) contaminants such as the
insecticides DDT and dieldrin (Negri et al., 2006). In a survey of the rivers draining to the
GBR, Negri et al. found the greatest incidence and concentrations of these OCs detected in
crabs came from the most populated catchments, i.e. the Barron, Pioneer, Fitzroy and
Burnett Rivers. Hence, the presence of DDT and dieldrin, albeit at low concentrations, was
clearly correlated to urban influences. Due to their higher polarity and comparatively short
half-lives, contemporary pesticides such as chlorpyrifos and diuron were not detected in
individual crabs.

2013 September – 2015 January: Deloraine (Tas) Drinking Water. Pesticides: Picloram, Triclopyr, 2,4-D

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Tas Water Annual Drinking Water Quality Report 2013-14

Deloraine.

7/12/13: Western Creek u/s Deloraine – Picloram 1.07ug/L, Triclopyr 2.07ug/L

17/6/14: 2,4-D 0.25ug/L

www.taswater.com.au/About-Us/Publications

Tas Water RTI Request August 2015

26/9/13: 2,4-D 0.05ug/L

17/6/14: 2,4-D 0.25ug/L

25/6/14: 2,4-D 0.07ug/L

TasWater Annual Drinking Water Quality Report 2014-15

8/6/14: 2,4-D 0.13ug/L

24/8/14: 2,4-D 0.13ug/L

21/1/15: MCPA 0.02ug/L

Retests were clear of pesticide residues and PAC dosing has been installed to mitigate the risk to public health

2013 July – 2015 June: Bothwell (Tas). Drinking Water. Pesticides: MCPA, Triclopyr, 2,4-D, Glyphosate, Metalaxyl

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Tas Water Annual Drinking Water Quality Report 2013-14

Bothwell.

25/7/13: MCPA 0.1ug/L

12/9/13: MCPA 0.2ug/L, Triclopyr 0.37ug/L

29/9/13: 2,4-D 0.05ug/L

www.taswater.com.au/About-Us/Publications

Tas Water Right to Information Request August 2015

24/7/13: 2,4-D 0.12ug/L

24/7/13: 2,4-D 0.09ug/L

30/7/13: 2,4-D 0.06ug/L

30/7/13: 2,4-D 0.09ug/L

Taswater  2014/15 Annual Drinking Water Quality Report Pesticide Detections (Boste 98)

25/7/14: 2,4-D 3.02ug/L, MCPA 0.1ug/L

30/7/14: 2,4-D 1.29ug/L

4/8/14: 2,4-D 0.69ug/L

11/8/14: 2,4-D 0.17ug/L

18/12/14: 2,4-D 11.2ug/L

2/2/15: 2,4-D 0.07ug/L

13/2/15: Metalaxyl 0.11ug/L

24/2/15: MCPA 0.03ug/L

2/3/15: MCPA 0.15ug/L, Glyphosate 0.2ug/L

11/5/15: 2,4-D 0.19ug/L, MCPA 0.19ug/L

19/5/15: MCPA 0.34ug/L

25/5/15: 2,4-D 0.22ug/L, MCPA 0.46ug/L

28/5/15: 2,4-D 0.44ug/L, Glyphosate 0.5ug/L

29/5/15: 2,4-D 0.13ug/L, MCPA 0.3ug/L

9/6/15: MCPA 0.04ug/L

22/6/15: MCPA 0.1ug/L

Metalaxyl (0.11ug/L) was detected during routine testing. Metalaxyl is a phenylamide fungicide which is commonly used in the protection of poppies.

Pesticide detections in the Clyde River have progressively become more frequent over the past five years. Trace levels of several weed control and fungicidal compounds were again detected in the source water and distribution system throughout 2014-15…Trace levels of the herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA were detected in the reticulation system (BOSTE98) on several occasions. All detections were well below ADWG health limits but are of notable concern….Powdered Activated Carbon dosing is in place as an advanced treatment barrier to mitigate the risk…

 

2015 April. Fire at Northampton Hardware Store (WA)

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Toxic threat from Northampton blaze sparks warning from authorities

 ABC

Authorities are urging people to avoid part of the small Western Australian town of Northampton in the coming days amid contamination fears following a toxic fire on the weekend.

The fire, which started at a hardware store in the Mid West town on Sunday, was finally extinguished on Monday afternoon.

Oil, fuel, paint and chemicals were burnt in the fire, which emitted thick plumes of toxic smoke, blanketing parts of the town.

Run-off from water used to douse the flames leached into a nearby creek, which has been sandbagged to slow its flow.

Shire of Northampton chief executive Garry Keeffe said the area surrounding the fire site was extremely toxic.

“That material is highly contaminated with an abundance of mixed chemicals [and] we are urging all public to remain clear of that area,” he said.

“Stephen Street will remain closed for at least the next two days to prevent the public from driving or even walking down that area and we ask the public to please be vigilant about this because the toxicity is extreme.

“This is an extreme request of travelling public and the community to stay away from this area for their own safety.”

Mr Keeffe said there had been a delay with clearing contamination from the nearby creek bed but a team specialised in contamination removal had arrived on site on Tuesday.

The company, Toxfree, which is tasked with removing the contamination, is expected to pump the chemical out of the creek.

The Shire of Northampton has closed Lions Park and Northampton Caravan Park, which are both adjacent to the fire site.

Some guests of the caravan park remain at the local evacuation centre.

Mr Keeffe said the town’s primary school, Saint Mary’s, would also remain shut today.

“Because we are unable to provide a secure notice that it’s free for them to go back there, with the toxicity level so close, and all we need is a wind change to put it straight to the school,” he said.

“We just can’t take that risk.”

The shire said residents concerned about the toxic smoke were asked to hose down their roofs, wipe exposed surfaces of any blackness and empty rainwater tanks, as a precaution.

The fire has also raised an asbestos concern as the hardware store, CT & L Woodcock, which was burnt down in the fire, was partly made of the substance.

However, the shire said the asbestos risk is low.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-04-21/toxic-threat-from-northampton-blaze/6409290

2006: Barron River (Qld) Simazine most frequently detected pesticide.

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Water Quality Issues in the Barron WQIP Area ACTFR Report No. 08/06 Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research
p 81 The Barron River is unique among other north Queensland rivers however, in that the
herbicide simazine is the dominant pesticide that is found at the mouth (Kepernick et al., 2006). Given that Simazine is commonly used in forestry applications, then perhaps forestry
should also be identified as a major source. While we do not know the specific application of this herbicide within the Barron, there are 7 sub-catchments with more than 20% forestry
land use (Table 4), none of which also have cropping and horticulture as a major land use.
However, the use of simazine in the Barron is perhaps more likely associated with
horticulture, with its use in the U.S. linked to the cultivation of almonds, avocados, grapes,
oranges, olives, walnuts and lemons (Fan and Alexeeff, 2001). There are many fruit and nut
trees and shrubs being grown in the Atherton Tableland, for which this herbicide would be
useful to control grasses and broadleaf weeds.

2015 June: Suffolk Park (NSW) Widow claims pesticides caused husbands death. Pesticides: Glyphosate, Metsulfuron Methyl

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Widow’s warning: my husband died after pesticide spraying
9th Jun 2015 Northern Star

THE wife of a Suffolk Park man who died of non-Hodgkins Lymphoma has warned other residents against the use of chemical pesticides.

Mrs Virginia Black contacted The Northern Star in the wake of our story on a World Health Organisation study on the impacts of glyphosate, which is commonly sprayed to combat weeds in this country.

She said her husband, James, died in 2012, two years after being covered with chemical spray.

“He went out to talk to a council worker spraying bitou bush on the sand dunes at the rear of residences in Alcorn Street,” she said.

A strong easterly wind resulted in Mr Black, who was wearing a T-shirt and shorts, being doused with pesticide.

The retired solicitor later wrote to Byron Shire Council about the incident, asking what he had been sprayed with and what effect contact and inhalation would have now and in the future.

Mrs Black said her husband later found out by ringing a worker at the council depot that he had been sprayed with a mixture of glyphosate and metsulphuron methyl.

However, Byron Shire Council said Mr Black was only sprayed with metsulphuron methyl, “which is not scheduled on the Poisons Schedule” and that a report from the Department of Environment and Climate Change (DECC) Pesticide Licensing officer confirmed this.

Mrs Black said being sprayed with any chemical used to kill plants or weeds was something she urged people to avoid.

“When my husband became ill I spoke to a specialist at John Flynn Hospital and he said it only takes one cell in the body to be affected by a poison,” she said.

“I know that there are plenty of people with non-Hodgkins lymphoma who have not been sprayed (with pesticides), but I think there was a great connection.

“Exposure to industrial and agricultural pesticides and herbicides has frequently been linked to an increased risk of lymphoma.”

The council said spraying was carried out by a contractor working on Crown land in 2009.

It said, following the Blacks’ complaint, the council had referred the matter to the then DECC Pesticide Licensing officer for their review.

“Information provided by the contractor on the Pesticide Notification Plan indicated that the chemical in use on the day of treatment was metsulphuron methyl,” the council said.

“The concerned resident was also informed in 2009 of the referral and type of spray.”

Mrs Black said she had not pursued the matter further because her own health had suffered after the death of her husband.

Professor Robert Whetherby, an adjunct professor in pharmacology and toxicology at South Cross University, said pesticides were dangerous.

“Given it is a pesticide, its purpose is to kill life,” he said.

He urged people to take care using chemical products.

http://www.northernstar.com.au/news/widow-warns-not-to-get-sprayed/2664943/

 

 

 

 

1988 January: Highton (Vic) SEC spraying damages garden. Pesticide: Hexazinone/Diuron

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3 January 1988

Manager Barwon Region

Herbicide Damage 27/29 Montague Street, Highton

Attached is a copy of our reply to the Montague Terrace Body Corporate regarding the damage caused to the garden vegetation through the leaking effect of Dybar herbicide applied to a kiosk substation enclosure on the property. As only time will tell the actual extent of vegetation replacement necessary to restore the property, it is not possible to nominate date by which the matter will be completely resolved…

1978: Sale (Vic) Birth deformites after oval was sprayed. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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11/10/78

The Age

Birth row brings herbicides ban

Sale – Sale city council last night banned council use of all herbicides containing 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T.

The council’s action – supported unanimously by its eight members – is the first such ban by any council in Victoria.

The decision followed a new disclosure that three Sale woman living near a sports oval had miscarried after the oval was sprayed with 2,4-D.

This brought to seven the number of miscarriages or abnormal births reported among mothers living near the oval.

Last week it was revealed in “The Age” that four mothers gave birth to children with major abnormalities after the oval, in Lion’s Park, was sprayed with 2,4-D in January 1977.

Three of the children died at birth. A fifth mother had a miscarriage three months after the spraying.

Councillor Lindsay Taylor told the council last night he had heard only recently of the three additional miscarriages.

The motion passed last night said the use of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T would be discontinued until the State Health Department “can prove beyond doubt that the herbicides have no link with congentital abnormalities”.

Sale council called on all other municipalities in Victoria, and the State and Fderal Governments, to consider similar action.

The mayor of Sale, Mr Peter Synan, said: “We are erring on the side of caution and that’s the side we should be erring on.”

The council also asked that the Department of Agriculture and an independent authority analyse the soil and broad-leaf weeds at Lions’Park and the Sale oval.

This was to find whether any substances were present which could prove harmful to people.

The council said it would ask the Health Department to investigate the incidence of birth defects in Sale, particularly in the Lion’s Park area.

It agreed to arrange a public meeting attended by Government and private doctors and scientists to discuss birth defects and their possible relationship to 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T.

And it will ask the chairman of the Yarram birth defects inquiry and chairman of the State Government’s Poisons Advisory Committee, Dr Ern Aldred, to attend.

1981 June: Cheshunt (Vic). Tobacco crop damage due to SEC spraying. Pesticide: Picloram

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June 25 1981

Letter from Tobacco Growers of Victoria to Department of Agriculture.

Dear sir,

I refer to your letter, dated June 16, in which you sought information about contamination of tobacco crops with herbicide sprays during the past season.

In the King Valley the main problem was from a spraying programme carried out by the SEC or their contractors from the control of brush under local power lines.

Each year minor contamination occurs from hormones. Many are untraceable but some can be traced to careless spraying and contaminated equipment.

Minor damage was identified on the following farms … Cheshunt, and several others not recored. Major damage occurred at *** farm at Cheshunt.

It was very easy to find sprayed areas through the valley and it was admitted by the SEC Manager Mr ***, in Wangaratta that Tordon (Picloram) or mixtures containing Tordon have been used in the area…

2014 August: Bingara (NSW) Dead Birds. Pesticide: Fenthion

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Birds ‘deliberately’ poisoned in Bingara

Tests are back from some of the dead native birds found around the Bingara Showground recently and results suggest the animals had been intentionally poisoned with insecticide.

Acting Northern Branch Director of the EPA Brett Nudd is appealing for community assistance, after it was determined the native birds appear to have eaten bread soaked in Fenthion.

The same poison was found to be the cause of death of hundreds of birds near Dubbo around March this year.

Mr Nudd says the department will re-visit the area on Tuesday.

“We’re going to conduct a sweep of that entire area on Tuesday, and what we’re trying to do through that sweep is to locate any contaminated bread and any more dead birds and make sure that we’re cleaning up all that material,” he said.

The dead birds included ravens and currawongs.

“Fenthion is the likely cause of death, [as] this insecticide has been found both in the birds and it’s also been found in bread at the scene,” Mr Nudd said.

“The fact that it’s been found in bread at the scene suggests to us that there’s people or persons deliberately seeking to poison the birds in that area.”

The Bingara community is being encouraged to assist in Tuesday’s sweep.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-08-01/birds-27deliberately27-poisoned-in-bingara/5642328

2011 June: Cleveland (Qld). Bird Kill. Pesticide: Fenthion

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What is poisoning our birds?

 On JUL 28, 2011THE RSPCA Queensland is appealing for public help to find the person or people it suspects has poisoned at least 25 animals in Cleveland since June 16.The majority of the affected animals have been crows or magpies but a black-faced cuckoo shrike and a native rat were also allegedly poisoned, with 22 of the 25 animals dying.

Animal welfare experts were alerted to the situation when several birds, mostly crows, were found dead or showing signs of poisoning in the vicinity of the Redland City Council car park in Doig Street, Cleveland on June 16.

Since then, dead birds have been found in the area weekly.

Brisbane Bird and Exotics Vet Service veterinarian Dr Deborah Monks, who initially tended to the birds, said necropsies performed on three of the dead birds suggested they had been poisoned.

She said she believed a piece of minced meat found near the birds also contained poison.

RSPCA spokesperson Michael Beatty said the mince, plus a crow found dead in the area at the same time, were subsequently sent to the Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation for analysis.

The laboratory reports indicated “very high levels” of the organophosphate pesticide Fenthion were found in the meat and “significant levels” of Fenthion were also found in the bird’s liver and gastrointestinal tract.

RSPCA Qld bayside inspector Joanne Warnock described the animal deaths as “very disturbing”.

“Other native wildlife is obviously at risk, as are domestic pets and even small children,” she said.

“Crows and magpies are protected species so those responsible face fines and imprisonment under the Nature Conservation Act as well as the Animal Care and Protection Act.”

Redland City Council Chief Executive Officer Gary Stevenson said the council took the matter of animal welfare seriously.

“While council is very concerned, legislated responsibility for harm to native animals belongs primarily to DERM, although the RSPCA can also be involved in subsequent prosecution under protection of animals legislation,” Mr Stevenson said.

“In response to this issue, DERM has organised a meeting this week involving all key stakeholders to outline future action.

“A Redland City Council wildlife extension officer has continued to liaise with the relevant stakeholders since the first incident was reported and has assisted with toxicology testing of the poisoned birds.”

Mr Stevenson said the council was strongly opposed to the unlawful baiting of animals.

He urged members of the public to be aware and take due care around the sites in question and encouraged parents to ensure children were well supervised.

Anyone with information that could help investigators can contact the RSPCA’s animal cruelty hotline on 1300 852 188 or Crime Stoppers on 1300 888 333.

http://www.animalsaustralia.org/media/in_the_news.php?article=2722

1999 May – August: Bird deaths Collinsville (Qld). Pesticide: Fenthion

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Bowen Independent. Wednesday 11 August 1999.

Council update on bird deaths by Jon Gibbons*

Bowen Shire Council has recently obtained results from the Qld. National Parks and Wildlife Service in relation to the bird kills in Collinsville and Scottville.

As reported in the BI previously 4 and 6 August, the chemical fenthion
was responsible.

The results show that the three bird specimens contained 1.9mg, 700mg and 3800mg per kg of fenthion in their stomach and intestine contents otherwise the birds were in good condition. Fenthion is a moderately toxic compound with trade names: Bay 29493, Baycid, Baytex, Dalf, DMTP, Enfex, Lebaycid, Mercaptophos, Prentox Fenthion 4E, Queletex, S1752, Spotton, Taladox and Tiguvon. Fenthion is available in dust, emulsified concentrate, liquid concentrate, spray concentrate ULV and wettable powder formulations. Fenthion is an organ-phosphate insecticide used to control sucking and biting pests. It is moderately toxic to animals and highly toxic to birds. Based on this high toxicity to birds, fenthion is used in various parts of the world for weaver bird control. Pest control operators have used it to control pigeons around public buildings. In animals and humans fenthion is rapidly absorbed into the blood stream via the digestive tract, lungs and skin. In water bodies it can kill fresh water animals such as mussels, plankton and fish. Acute symptoms of fenthion poisoning in birds include tearing of the eyes, foaming salivation, lack of movement, tremors, congestion in wind pipe, lack of coordination in walking and an abnormally rapid rate of breathing or difficult breathing. Also reported in the Bowen Independent were the recent bird deaths in South africa and Podor attributable to fenthion. More than 6 million birds were killed in these areas within weeks following the use of Queletox containing an active ingredient fenthion. While the use of Queletox in these cases had been directed at seed eating birds causing crop losses to farmers, many ohter non-target species including herons and cranes have died together with vultures and other raptor birds which have consumed dead birds. As can be seen from this information, fenthion can have a dramatic affect on bird populations. Council has released this information in the hope that public knowledge regarding the use of fenthion containing products is heightened in an effort to prevent more bird deaths. Users of agricultural chemicals are reminded to read labels thoroughly before usage and to discard empty chemical containers carefully. Councils Drummuster collection point is available for rinsed empty chemical containers. Enquiries may be directed to council health and environmental services section on 07 4786 0633. * Jon Gibbons is Bowen Shire Council Director of Health and Environmental Services.

http://bioacoustics.cse.unsw.edu.au/birding-aus/1999-09/msg00007.html

2009 May: Henderson (WA) Hundreds of dead birds. Pesticide: Fenthion

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Spray blamed for new bird deaths

The Australian June 1 2009

BIRDS are again dropping dead from the sky in a new toxic drama in Western Australia.

Nearly 200 ibises, ravens, gulls, ducks and a pelican were found dead or frothing and convulsing in Perth at the weekend.

The discovery comes a year after the mysterious mass death of 200 birds only a few kilometres away and two years after the Esperance lead contamination scandal which emptied the skies over the holiday town of Esperance for months when thousands of birds were poisoned.

The Department of Environment and Conservation yesterday blamed the latest deaths on the pesticide Fenthion, but said it was unclear whether it was a deliberate bird poisoning or had been caused by someone illegally dumping pesticide.

The dead and dying birds were found at a rubbish tip and in pools of water at a neighbouring quarry site in the southern suburb of Henderson.

DEC pollution response manager Ken Raine said samples had been taken from waterways to check for contamination and the rubbish tip had been covered with sand while investigations were continuing.

Fenthion is a broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide used to control horticultural pests such as fruit fly and aphids as well as mosquitoes and other insects.

It is an active ingredient in a number of products sold at hardware stores, including fly baits and fruit fly sprays. It was not known yesterday how much poison would have been needed to cause so many deaths.

A DEC spokeswoman said if the birds were deliberately poisoned it was an offence under the Wildlife Conservation Act, with fines of up to $4000 for each bird species affected. Illegal dumping of pesticides was covered by the Environmental Protection Act.

People have been warned not to touch any dead birds they find, although Mr Raine said he did not believe there was a threat to human health.

“Fenthion is moderately toxic to mammals, but highly toxic to birds and insects. Secondary poisoning of predators is possible,” he said.

“Now that we know what caused the deaths, DEC’s regional officers will investigate further to determine the source.”

In July, 200 seagulls died in Henderson and the neighbouring beach suburb of Woodman Point, sparking a major investigation. Authorities conducted dozens of autopsies and sent samples to laboratories across Australia but no cause of death was established.

In 2007, a catastrophic bird kill in Esperance, 725km southeast of Perth, silenced the dawn chorus for months when up to 10,000 wattle birds, yellow-throated miners, honeyeaters and other species died. The drama was the first warning of a lead contamination scandal which was later found to have caused dangerously high lead levels in children.

http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/nation/spray-blamed-for-new-bird-deaths/story-e6frg6pf-1225719065801

1976 June: Hawkesdale? (Vic). Birds poisoned. Pesticide: Fenthion

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1976 June 28 WD Country Bulletin

Wildlife threatened by poisoned grain

Wildlife authorities are concerned about the number of native birds being killed by poison grain laid to control farm pests.

The director of Wildlife and Fisheries, Mr Jim Wharton, said that on one farm in the Western District, 60 mountain ducks were found to have died from poisoning while four brolgas were found poisoned near another farm.

He said he recognised that farmers were having a difficult time at present, and that farm pests – especially crickets – were causing problems in many areas.

“Nevertheless,” he said, “too many rare and valuable wildlife species are falling victim to poisoned grain spread around by farmers at sowing time.

“In the interests of protecting our native wildlife, I ask all farmers to contact their local Fisheries and Wildlife Officer before undertaking any poisoning program for pests,”Mr Wharton continued.

He said farmers should bury or burn any “pickled” grain not spread for crops, since heaps of poisoned grain left in the open could easily kill wallabies, ducks and other protected animals.

Poisoning of any native animal was prohibited and offenders faced heavy fines and even a prison sentence for a second offence, he said.

“The Fisheries and Wildlife Division issues permits to farmers to destroy wildlife by means other than poisoning, if it is satisfied the wildlife is causing farm damage.”

Mr Wharton said the division had an animal damage officer in Melbourne who could advise on methods of controlling wildlife if farmers had problems.

1976 September: Phillip Island. Concerns about thin penguin shells. Pesticide: DDT

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12 September 1976

Letter to Director
Fisheries and Wildlife Division

Thin Shells on Penguin Eggs

This weekend, during the routine check of penguin burrows at Phillip Island, we found three eggs with a series of small breaks where the shell had been depressed. When marking one egg with a pen, the point broke through the shell.

In the previous eight seasons during which we have carried out this routine work, we have not found one egg similarly damaged out of the many hundreds handled. The shell is normally hard. I believe this to be necessary because much of the courtship of a pair is carried on in the burrow and the eggs are subjected to rather rough treatment.

The three eggs were in the study area where at the moment there are 19 altogether. We did not search for other eggs in surrounding areas, merely contenting ourselves with feeling for then in the burrow to ascertain whether the occupants were breeding.

Perhaps these three eggs are not significant of a general thinning of shells through DDT contamination, but I pass on the information in case you wish to follow it up in some way. The eggs have been left in the nests but could be located without difficulty should you wish to examine them.

Yours sincerely

***

Penguin Study Group

1976 May: Beeac (Vic). Reports of dead ducks and loss of brolgas. Pesticide: Fenthion

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31/5/76

*** via Beeac

Dear Sir,

I have just read an article in the Geelong paper this morning, about the poisoned wildlife.

I work on a property in the western district but this goes on every year, its not when the crops are planted however, it is after the crop has come up.

Only last year I told a fellow about off about it, but he still went ahead and did it.

The method they use, they get a bucket full of Barley or wheat then soak it in “Lucijet” a fluid they use for blow fly strike. Now they take it up and set baits of it around the edge of the crop. This was to get rid of swans, now I only counted about half a dozen, they seem too crafty to take it, an act for which I was thankful for.

But ducks they are a different matter. The first year they put out these baits … 127 black ducks that were killed…

I think you will agree last year was the only year I have seen a Brolga, but when I first went to this place, we used to have 50 brolgas around every year, now we only see about 5 which is quite a drop in numbers.

I didn’t get around to counting all the dead birds last year but, there were 45 around the edge of one of the lakes adjoining one of the property’s when they were putting these baits down…

1980 July: Fell Gully (Vic) Spraying of Acacia and impact on birds.

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30th July 1980
Field Naturalists of Ballarat

Dear Mr Minister,

Re: Spraying of Acacia armata, Fell Gully.

In reply to your letter of 17th March concerning the effects of spraying of Acacia armata on the nesting birds, I have been seeking information from individuals particularly regarding the Fell Gully area.

We have recorded fledglings dead in nests and nests which had been occupied one week and deserted the next immediately after spraying.

While no hard scientific data is available suggesting that the birds have been killed directly by the spray, there is an enourmous change in the habitat which has an extreme effect on the birds.

A number of species choose the prickly habitat for nesting as a safeguard against predators, and this loss of protection can cause birds to forsake the nest. With spraying, the food source is also decreased, another reason for the mortality rate to increase.

We urge the authorities to seriously consider any undue change in the environment particularly in the spring as this time is more critical for bird populations….

Yours sincerely

****

Hon. Secretary.

1980 September: Goroke (Vic). Large number of birds found dead in paddock. Pesticide: Fenthion

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September 1980
Fisheries and Wildlife Division

Report on Analysis of Birds

Samples: Dead birds submitted were part of large number found dead in a paddock at Goroke. Suspected of being poisoned. Analysis for arsenic, Strychnine and fenthion-ethyl was requested.

Results:

Corella Fenthion-ethyl 19 parts per million
Raven (1) Fenthion-ethyl 25 parts per million
Raven (2) Fenthion-ethyl 1180 parts per million
Raven (3) Fenthion-ethyl 1683 parts per million
Magpie (1) Fenthion-ethyl 417 parts per million

Remarks: The analyses were performed on the stomach contents of the birds.

The largest residues were obtained from those birds with grain in their stomach. One magpie submitted had an empty stomach, so no result was obtained.

1982 July: Smithfield (SA). A large number of dead pigeons, birds of prey.

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National Parks and Wildlife Service
South Australia
18 July 1982

Tests for Department of Environment and Planning

This is to confirm that the following tests are required by this Department:-

(1) Tests on the organs of two male and two female mountain ducks to be forwarded by the Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science to establish presence of and identify any poison.

These birds were part of a large flock found dead on a property in the Wrattonbully district. Nearby paddocks had been ploughed and sown. It is possible that poison had been laid for pests. It is suggested that lucijet may have been used but there is nothing to support this suggestion.

(2) Tests on carcasses of pigeons submitted by *** National Parks and Wildlife Service, to establish presence of and identify any poison.

These birds were among a large number of pigeons recently found dead in the Smithfield area. A number of birds of prey – mainly eagles – possibly feeding off the carcasses have also been affected but have survived. It is probable that local farmers are laying poison to eradicate the pigeons but it is not known what poison is being used…

1982 July: Wrattonbully (SA). Flock of dead ducks. Pesticide Suspected: Fenthion

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National Parks and Wildlife Service
South Australia
18 July 1982

Tests for Department of Environment and Planning

This is to confirm that the following tests are required by this Department:-

(1) Tests on the organs of two male and two female mountain ducks to be forwarded by the Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science to establish presence of and identify any poison.

These birds were part of a large flock found dead on a property in the Wrattonbully district. Nearby paddocks had been ploughed and sown. It is possible that poison had been laid for pests. It is suggested that lucijet may have been used but there is nothing to support this suggestion.

(2) Tests on carcasses of pigeons submitted by *** National Parks and Wildlife Service, to establish presence of and identify any poison.

These birds were among a large number of pigeons recently found dead in the Smithfield area. A number of birds of prey – mainly eagles – possibly feeding off the carcasses have also been affected but have survived. It is probable that local farmers are laying poison to eradicate the pigeons but it is not known what poison is being used…

1982 August: McDonald Park/Angle Vale (SA). Hundreds of dead pigeons. Pesticide: Fenthion

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National Parks and Wildlife Service
South Australia
Pesticide Use (Smithfield) McDonald Park/Angle Vale
4 August 1982

Inspectors of the Law Enforcement Section have interviewed a number of persons in the McDonald Park/Angle Vale area in relation to the use of pesticide to poison pigeons.

This use of poison does not appear to be widespread within the McDonald Park/Angle Vale area.

As a result the public response to appeals for information on the source of the poisoning has now been isolated to one property.

Employees of the company concerned told National Parks and Wildlife Service Inspectors that Baytex 50, a Bayer product, was used to kill mosquitoes, flies etc.
It was used on two occasions at the rate of 40 mls. per litre and 80 mls per litre mixed with a 2 gallon bucket of wheat on each occasion for the purpose of poisoning pigeons.
Up to 300 pigeons are estimated to have died. The majority of these birds were collected and burnt or otherwise disposed of.

There are no run-off or water catchment areas within the immediate area.

All of the grain laid bait was eaten by birds within 2/3 days and an assurance has been received that no further poisoning will be carried out.

The active constituent of Baytex is Fenthion and the presence of this chemical was detected by the Forensic Science Division of the Department of Supply in crop samples removed from dead birds.

It is highly improbable that any long-term affects to the Environment would occur as a result of this particular incident…

1981 June: Werribee DDT residues in Cabbage

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Health Commission of Victoria

State Health Laboratory

7th February 1983

Report on 5 samples of Cabbage

Submitted: 11.6.81

Samples:

1. **** – Werribee
2. **** – Werribee South
3. **** – Werribee South
4. **** – Bembridge, Pearcedale
5. **** – Werribee South

Results: Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in parts per million
1. **** – Werribee  DDT 0.009
2. **** – Werribee South DDT N.D.
3. **** – Werribee South DDT N.D.
3. **** – Bembridge, Pearcedale DDT N.D.
3. **** – Werribee South DDT N.D.

1981 June: Narre Warren (Vic). Pesticide Residues in Broccoli. DDE, DDT

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Health Commission of Victoria

State Health Laboratory

7th February 1983

Report on 3 samples of Broccoli

Submitted: 11.6.81

Samples:

1. **** – Bacchus Marsh
2. **** – Bacchus Marsh
3. **** – Narre Warren

Results: Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in parts per million
1. **** – Bacchus Marsh  Lindane 0.004, DDE 0.05, DDT 0.083
2. **** – Bacchus Marsh Lindane N.D., DDE 0.009, DDT 0.004
3. **** – Narre Warren Lindane N.D., DDE 0.022, DDT 0.026.

1981 June: Werribee South. Pesticide residues in Silverbeet. Pesticides: DDT, DDE

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State Health Laboratory

7th February 1983

Report on 5 samples of Silverbeet

Submitted: 11.6.81

Samples:

Results: Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in parts per million

1. **** – Ferntree Gully  DDE N.D., ppDDT N.D., opDDT., N.D.
2. **** – Bacchus Marsh DDE 0.007, ppDDT 0.013, opDDT., N.D.
3. **** – Keysborough DDE 0.38, ppDDT 5.6, opDDT., 0.7.
4. **** – Werribee South DDE 0.009 ppDDT 0.055, opDDT., 0.008.
5. **** – Devon Meadows Kooweerup DDE N.D., ppDDT N.D., opDDT., N.D.

1981 June: Keysborough (Vic) Pesticide Residues in Silverbeet. Pesticides: DDE, DDT

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Health Commission of Victoria

State Health Laboratory

7th February 1983

Report on 5 samples of Silverbeet

Submitted: 11.6.81

Samples:

Results: Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in parts per million

1. **** – Ferntree Gully  DDE N.D., ppDDT N.D., opDDT., N.D.
2. **** – Bacchus Marsh DDE 0.007, ppDDT 0.013, opDDT., N.D.
3. **** – Keysborough DDE 0.38, ppDDT 5.6, opDDT., 0.7.
4. **** – Werribee South DDE 0.009 ppDDT 0.055, opDDT., 0.008.
5. **** – Devon Meadows Kooweerup DDE N.D., ppDDT N.D., opDDT., N.D.

1981 June: Bacchus Marsh (Vic) Silverbeet and Broccoli. Pesticides: DDE, DDT, Lindane

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Health Commission of Victoria

State Health Laboratory

7th February 1983

Report on 5 samples of Silverbeet

Submitted: 11.6.81

Samples:

Results: Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in parts per million

1. **** – Ferntree Gully  DDE N.D., ppDDT N.D., opDDT., N.D.
2. **** – Bacchus Marsh DDE 0.007, ppDDT 0.013, opDDT., N.D.
3. **** – Keysborough DDE 0.38, ppDDT 5.6, opDDT., 0.7.
4. **** – Werribee South DDE 0.009 ppDDT 0.055, opDDT., 0.008.
5. **** – Devon Meadows Kooweerup DDE N.D., ppDDT N.D., opDDT., N.D.

Health Commission of Victoria

State Health Laboratory

7th February 1983

Report on 3 samples of Broccoli

Submitted: 11.6.81

Samples:

1. **** – Bacchus Marsh
2. **** – Bacchus Marsh
3. **** – Narre Warren

Results: Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in parts per million
1. **** – Bacchus Marsh  Lindane 0.004, DDE 0.05, DDT 0.083
2. **** – Bacchus Marsh Lindane N.D., DDE 0.009, DDT 0.004
3. **** – Narre Warren Lindane N.D., DDE 0.022, DDT 0.026.

 

1970: Breast Milk (Vic). Pesticides detected: DDT, DDE, HCB, Dieldrin, DDD

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Organochlorine Pesticide Residue Levels in Human Milk – Victoria, Australia – 1970.

K.G. Newton and N.C. Greene

Vol 6, No 1, June 1972 Pesticide Monitoring Journal

Abstract

Samples of human milk were collected in 1970 from 39 rural and 28 urban donors in Victoria, Australia, and were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides using electron capture gas chromatography. All samples contained DDT, DDE and HCB. Twenty-nine contained dieldrin (mean 0.006 ppm), 12 contained DDD (mean 0.007 ppm) and 3 contained both dieldrin and DDD.

Total DDT averaged 0.139 ppm for rural 0.145ppm for urban donors, and HCB averaged 0.042 ppm and 0.063 ppm, respectively.

… The rural donors lived on or near fruit orchards in Shepparton, the center for a district which produces under irrigation large quantities of tree fruits for the local and export markets…A second survey consisting of 26 rural and 18 urban donors was undertaken in December 1970…

All samples contained HCB. It is possible that HCB entered the food chain of Victorians from the improper channeling of HCB-treated seed wheat into the local poultry and stock food industries following a series of severe reductions in wheat acreage during the period of worldwide wheat over-production in the past decade…

1983 March: Coonabarabran (NSW) White Browed Woodswallows impacted by locust spraying.

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National Parks and Wildlife Service NSW

16/3/83

Subject: Agricultural Chemicals

In reply to Telex AA 63754 requesting information on effects of Agricultural Chemicals and any effects upon wildlife.

This district has noticed some effects of Agro-chemicals upon wildlife in this area.

i. During aerial spraying of locusts in this district, many farmers reported significant numbers on small insectiverous birds dying on their properties. The most commonly affected species in White Browed Woodswallow which does die in fairly large numbers.

ii. One particular pair of Peregrine Falcons which regularly nest within the Pilliga Nature Reserve has noticed to have a fairly low hatching rate, compared with other pairs further south in the Coonabarabran – Warrumbungle National Park area. One addled egg was removed from this nest after the 1981 season and sent to the CSIRO for Pesticide testing…

iii. White Cockatoos, Galahs, and Crimson Rosellas are often seen eating seeds from the flowering heads, of variegated Thistle in Warrumbungle National Park. These weeds are always sprayed with “D-800 Ester” (R) Du Pont.

No affects on these birds have been noticed, however no careful observations have ever been made.

During certain times of the year, White Cockatoos have been noticed to almost completely defoliate several Angophora trees near Wambelong Creek in W.N.P. This is the unusual behaviour noted.

***

Superintendent
Coonabarabran/Narrabri Districts.

1974 November: Erica (Vic) Phasmatid Control. Pesticide: Malathion

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29 Nov 1974: MINUTES OF THE ONE HUNDRETH AND EIGHTH MEETING OF THE PESTICIDES REVIEW COMMITTEE 29/11/74.(1) Letter dated 7th November received from Forests Commission advising of proposed spraying of areas in Upper Yarra (New Turkey), Neerim (Carters Creek) and Erica (Western Tyers A,B & C) for control of plague proportions of phasmatids, during Jan 75. Total area to be sprayed 1070 hectares (2640 acres).

1974 November: Carters Creek Neerim (Vic). Phasmatid Control. Pesticide: Malathion.

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29 Nov 1974: MINUTES OF THE ONE HUNDRETH AND EIGHTH MEETING OF THE PESTICIDES REVIEW COMMITTEE 29/11/74.(1) Letter dated 7th November received from Forests Commission advising of proposed spraying of areas in Upper Yarra (New Turkey), Neerim (Carters Creek) and Erica (Western Tyers A,B & C) for control of plague proportions of phasmatids, during Jan 75. Total area to be sprayed 1070 hectares (2640 acres).

1974 November: New Turkey (Upper Yarra). Phasmatid Control. Pesticide: Malathion

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29 Nov 1974: MINUTES OF THE ONE HUNDRETH AND EIGHTH MEETING OF THE PESTICIDES REVIEW COMMITTEE 29/11/74.(1) Letter dated 7th November received from Forests Commission advising of proposed spraying of areas in Upper Yarra (New Turkey), Neerim (Carters Creek) and Erica (Western Tyers A,B & C) for control of plague proportions of phasmatids, during Jan 75. Total area to be sprayed 1070 hectares (2640 acres).

1968 February – 1968 November: Dowey’s Spur (Vic) Phasmatid Spraying. Pesticide: Malathion

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1 February 1968: Forests Commission to Pesticides Review Committee: “…apply Malathion to 280 acres of Mountain Ash forest in the Powelltown area, subsequent studies of insect population have shown that the boundaries of four areas to be sprayed will have to be extended…” Brittania Creek 146 acres, Fitzpatricks Road 74 acres, Ada River 110 acres, Dowey’s Spur 140 acres.

1 March 1968: 15th Meeting Pesticides Review Committee: Application from the Forests Commission to spray areas with Malathion for the control of phastmatids in the Powelltown area.

22 November 1968: 22nd Meeting Pesticides Review Committee: 31. Letter received from Forests Commission advised of spraying program at Brittania Creek, Fitzpatricks Road, Ada River, Dowey’s Spur, Learmonth Creek Road. FCV letter dated 11 October 1968 – aerial spray 4676 acres “…The Brittania Creek area is of particular concern is about 1 1/2 miles upstream from the take-off weir of the Yarra Junction water supply. It is intended that no insecticide will be released within two chains of the water course – due to start 3/1/69 to 17/1/69.

7 February 1969: 23rd Meeting Pesticides Review Committee: Letter dated 23rd December received from Forests Commission requesting extension of area to be sprayed – Amalgamated Chemicals to supply “Dibrom” as comparison to Malathion area to be sprayed 100 acres.

1968 January – 1973 February: Brittania Creek (Vic) Phasmatid Control. Pesticide: Malathion

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11 January 1968: Forests Commission to Pesticides Review Committee: “To protect long term growth study plots you area dvised that the Commission wished to apply Malathion at the rate of 5 1/2oz. in 3 gallons No.2 Fuel oil per acre… The Brittania Creek area is about 1 1/2 miles upstream from the the take-off weir of the Yarra Junction water supply… Past aerial spraying operations particularly in the Tarago-Bunyip River areas have been conducted with no detectable effect on water…”

1 February 1968: Forests Commission to Pesticides Review Committee: “…apply Malathion to 280 acres of Mountain Ash forest in the Powelltown area, subsequent studies of insect population have shown that the boundaries of four areas to be sprayed will have to be extended…” Brittania Creek 146 acres, Fitzpatricks Road 74 acres, Ada River 110 acres, Dowey’s Spur 140 acres.

1 March 1968: 15th Meeting Pesticides Review Committee: Application from the Forests Commission to spray areas with Malathion for the control of phastmatids in the Powelltown area.

22 November 1968: 22nd Meeting Pesticides Review Committee: 31. Letter received from Forests Commission advised of spraying program at Brittania Creek, Fitzpatricks Road, Ada River, Dowey’s Spur, Learmonth Creek Road. FCV letter dated 11 October 1968 – aerial spray 4676 acres “…The Brittania Creek area is of particular concern is about 1 1/2 miles upstream from the take-off weir of the Yarra Junction water supply. It is intended that no insecticide will be released within two chains of the water course – due to start 3/1/69 to 17/1/69.

7 February 1969: 23rd Meeting Pesticides Review Committee: Letter dated 23rd December received from Forests Commission requesting extension of area to be sprayed – Amalgamated Chemicals to supply “Dibrom” as comparison to Malathion area to be sprayed 100 acres.

11 Dec 1970: 41st Meeting Pesticides Review Committee: Item 31 Aerial Spraying by Forests Commission: “The Chairman advised the meeting that after discussion with Dr MacKenzie he had rung Dr Moulds concerning the area to be sprayed. It was thought that it might be too close to the water take-off of Brittania Creek. Dr Mackenzie advised that he had gone to the area to watch the spraying. He said that there was no difficulty with the water and advised the Forests Commission that it would not be necessary to provide water samples as the water take off was more than a mile away…” Letter dated 30th November received from Forests Commission advising of the proposed spraying of 15,000 acres, for the control of phasmatid insects. The chemical compound to be used is Maldison. Decision. To advise the Forests Commission that the Committee has no objection to the conduct of the spraying as outlined.

5 Feb 1971: Meeting of Pesticides Review Committee: Letters dated 24th December and 8th January received from Forests Commission requesting permission to spray further areas for the control of phasmatids.

24 Nov 1972: 90th Pesticides Review Committee Meeting: Item No31(a). Letter dated 13th November, received from Forests Commission Victoria advising of Commissions proposed control measure against the plague populations of phasmatids Didymuria videsceus in areas in the Upper Yarra and Neerim forest districts. Decision 24/11/72 To advise the Forests Commission that the Committee has no objection to the spraying program as set out.

16 Feb 1973: 91st Pesticides Review Committee Meeting: Item No31(a) Letter from Forests Commission dated 13 December 1972 received advising of spraying to control phasmatids. The area is adjacent to the water catchment for Warburton township water supply. Letter received from MMBW dated 13 December confirming information provided by Forests Commission.

1961 January: Nariel (Vic) Forests Commission aerial spraying Phasmatids. Pesticide: DDT

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19/20 January 1961: [Forests Commission Experiment] Aerial application of 1 lb of DDT/1 gallon diesel fuel per acre, over 500 acres to control Phasmatids in the Nariel area (Myrrhee Sawmill Company’s Logging Road), Corryong Forest District. (4 miles east of Nariel Upper and 40 miles from Corryong). [The aircraft failed to apply an even coverage]. Trial runs only using Diesel were conducted at Gembrook and Moorabbin in 1960.

1982: Lake Bullen Merri (Vic) Fish Kills. Pesticide 2,4-D.

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Wildlife Research Management 1983

Information has been sought through the Secretary of the Australian Fisheries Council and the Secretary of CONCOM from all fish and wildlife agencies in Australia on incidents during the last 12 months where fish or wildlife are thought to have been effected adversely by the use or misuse of Agricultural chemicals.

(B) Reports effecting fish

7. Fisheries and Wildlife Division Victoria

The following fish kills have been reported:

(d) Lake Bullen Merri western districts – occasional fish kills over several years have been attributed (at least by some people) to spraying of 2,4-D around lake shores.

1983: Timbarra River (Vic). Lower fish numbers. Pesticide: 2,4-D?

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Wildlife Research Management 1983

Information has been sought through the Secretary of the Australian Fisheries Council and the Secretary of CONCOM from all fish and wildlife agencies in Australia on incidents during the last 12 months where fish or wildlife are thought to have been effected adversely by the use or misuse of Agricultural chemicals.

(B) Reports effecting fish

7. Fisheries and Wildlife Division Victoria

The following fish kills have been reported:

(c) Timbara River – scarcity of trout in lower areas claimed to be due to spraying 2,4-D to control blackberries. Survey showed healthy populations in forested area and much smaller populations in lower areas. Inconclusive results.

1983 January: Dairy Plains River (Tas) Fish Kill. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

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Wildlife Research Management 1983

Information has been sought through the Secretary of the Australian Fisheries Council and the Secretary of CONCOM from all fish and wildlife agencies in Australia on incidents during the last 12 months where fish or wildlife are thought to have been effected adversely by the use or misuse of Agricultural chemicals.

(B) Reports effecting fish

6. Inland Fisheries Commission Tasmania

Two fish kills reported as follows:

(b) January 1983 – Dairy Plains River – Trout Killed – associated with the use of chlorpyrifos in spraying barley.

1982 December: Mersey River Tasmania Fish Kill. Pesticide: Mancozeb.

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Wildlife Research Management 1983

Information has been sought through the Secretary of the Australian Fisheries Council and the Secretary of CONCOM from all fish and wildlife agencies in Australia on incidents during the last 12 months where fish or wildlife are thought to have been effected adversely by the use or misuse of Agricultural chemicals.

(B) Reports effecting fish

6. Inland Fisheries Commission Tasmania

Two fish kills reported as follows:

(a) December 1982 – Mersey River – Trout Killed – attributed to the use of Mancozeb in spraying potatoes.

1983 January: Callide Creek Biloela (Qld). Fish Kill. Pesticide: Endosulfan.

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Wildlife Research Management 1983

Information has been sought through the Secretary of the Australian Fisheries Council and the Secretary of CONCOM from all fish and wildlife agencies in Australia on incidents during the last 12 months where fish or wildlife are thought to have been effected adversely by the use or misuse of Agricultural chemicals.

(B) Reports effecting fish

Department of Primary Industry – Queensland

(d) January 1983 – small fish kill in Callide Creek, near Biloela, Cause inconclusive – possibly due to spraying of cotton with Endosulfan.

1983 January: Maryborough Golf Club Fish Kill. Pesticide: Paraquat

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Wildlife Research Management 1983

Information has been sought through the Secretary of the Australian Fisheries Council and the Secretary of CONCOM from all fish and wildlife agencies in Australia on incidents during the last 12 months where fish or wildlife are thought to have been effected adversely by the use or misuse of Agricultural chemicals.

(B) Reports effecting fish

Department of Primary Industry – Queensland

(c) January 1983 – small fish kill in an ornamental lake near the Maryborough Golf Club, resulting from spraying of hyacinth with Paraquat.

1982 December: Mungindi (Qld) Large Fish Kill. Pesticide: Endosulfan

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Wildlife Research Management 1983

Information has been sought through the Secretary of the Australian Fisheries Council and the Secretary of CONCOM from all fish and wildlife agencies in Australia on incidents during the last 12 months where fish or wildlife are thought to have been effected adversely by the use or misuse of Agricultural chemicals.

(B) Reports effecting fish

Department of Primary Industry – Queensland

(b) 25/26.12.82 – large fish kill at Mungindi, involving also a number of birds and a cow. Caused by spray drift from aerial spraying of cotton crops with Endosulfan.

1983 February: Norman Creek (Qld) Fish Kill. Pesticide: Endrin

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Wildlife Research Management 1983

Information has been sought through the Secretary of the Australian Fisheries Council and the Secretary of CONCOM from all fish and wildlife agencies in Australia on incidents during the last 12 months where fish or wildlife are thought to have been effected adversely by the use or misuse of Agricultural chemicals.

(B) Reports effecting fish

Department of Primary Industry – Queensland

(a) 18.2.83 – small fish kill in Norman Creek, Brisbane. Although Endrin was the chemical involved, the incident was an urban industrial accident.

1983: Bacchus Marsh (Vic) Bee Hives Lost. Pesticide: Carbaryl

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Wildlife Research Management 1983?

Information has been sought through the Secretary of the Australian Fisheries Council and the Secretary of CONCOM from all fish and wildlife agencies in Australia on incidents during the last 12 months where fish or wildlife are thought to have been effected adversely by the use or misuse of Agricultural chemicals

8. Fisheries & Wildlife Division – Victoria

(b) 100 hives of bees were lost probably caused by drift of carbaryl from a nearby orchard.

His hives were placed along Long Forest Road near Bacchus Marsh to work the yellow box in the adjacent mallee forest. An orchardist on the south side of the Western Highway, several kilometres away down the valley was observed to be spraying the previous day.

Carbaryl is commonly used by orchardists to promote fruit drop, but the owner denied having used it, saying her intended to use in a few days time.

Carbaryl is extremely toxic to bees. Dead bees were analysed by the DAV laboratory as having 0.8 – 0.7 ppm carbaryl residue but no organochlorine and no organophosphate residues.

1976 July: Concerns about spraying in Albert River catchment (Vic)

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Fisheries and Wildlife Division
24/7/76

Dear ***

For some time I have been somewhat concerned regarding the use of some weedicides and or herbicides for the control of Ragwort, Blackberries and some of the native scrub species (Acacias Dogwoods, etc) within this district (the same situation would probably exist in other districts).

The Ragwort and Blackberries are being controlled because they are classified as Noxious Weeds and the scrub species are being sprayed because of the competition that they create with Pine Trees that have been planted by the Forest Commission and A.P.M.

My concern has been deepened following the visit of the Director with the Minister on the 25th of June when they inspected an area of the Albert River Valley where local landholders have for some time been complaining about the use and affects of some of these sprays and or preparations.

Although I am aware that there is a personality problem existing between some local officers of the Department and the landholders as well as some people, both Lands Department employees and the landholders themselves are possibly misusing these preparations. I still firmly believe that there is a great need to be concerned so far as the welfare of our fish and wildlife and their habitat is concerned.

It is my opinion that substantial and widespread damage is being done in this direction but unfortunately, I do not have any real evidence to substantiate this opinion. I have not had the time to question many people about this matter and if time did permit, I have the feeling that the only information that would be obtained by me, in the main, circumstantial rather than concrete and this type of information or evidence can be, only too easily, readily and conveniently, if need be, brushed aside.

I have heard comments passed that the Albert River Valley Group, ie, those people who have been complaining about and are affected by the effects of the spraying activities, are only radicals who are not conversant with what they are talking about. I do not believe this to be true as these are the people who are living in the area and they can see what is happening from day to day. Also their livelihood depends on it.

The spraying or control methods are carried out by several different methods:-

1. Aerial spraying by contractors – Ragwort and scrub species

2. Boom spraying by lands department and landholders – Ragwort.

3. Power jet spraying by lands department and landholders – Ragwort and blackberries.

4. Spot spraying with misters by lands department and landholders – Ragwort and blackberries.

5. Application of powders and or crystals by lands department and landholders – Ragwort.

If the affects of these activities could be controlled, then I do not think that the danger would be so great, but I am quite convinced that the spray cannot be controlled because of the drift factor.

Some of the observations that I have made are:-

1. Considerable numbers of young wattles and other native species have died (these are evident on hillsides and are in reasonably large numbers).

2. Eucalypts particularly in the Albert River Valley, do not appear healthy: ie; The foliage has a burnt appearance and dead branches are quite apparent.

3. Some eucalypts and other trees and plants are dead on one side and surviving (although not healthy) on the other. This has not been caused by fire.

4. Blackberries and native vegetation (tree ferns etc etc), adjacent to streams have been killed as a result of direct spraying.

5. Vegetation (algae etc) in some streams does not appear normal (in some places it is non existent).

I have also heard many comments and allegations made by quite a number of people who are concerned about this general practice and I have listed some of these comments and or allegations:-

1. One person claimed that she has not been able to grow tomatoes ever since she has lived in the area (some 14 years).

2. Another claims that a large number of her garden plants have been killed by spray drift.

3. Some people claim that the number of birds and koalas have largely disappeared from the area.

4. Fruit trees will not set fruit.

5. Cattle have been infertile some time after spraying has been carried out in this area.

6. Cattle have also aborted for no apparent reason.

7. Trees and plants have flowered out of season.

8. Abnormal growth on native trees and shrubs.

9. Numbers of native trees and plants which have been planted have been killed by spray drift.

10. The number of malformed babies born in the district has increased.

11. The productivity of the streams so far as fish are concerned has decreased – particularly in those areas of the streams which are accessible.

12. Cattle have died for no apparent reason, and so it goes on.

I would point out that I have not been able to investigate most of these claims and or allegations due to lack of time etc, and I have been somewhat reluctant to submit a report regarding them because I have no real evidence to offer but, to me, it appears as though something is very much amiss in this field and I also feel that a much closer look should be taken in this situation.

I believe that if these spraying operations are having an adverse effect on native vegetation, then this in itself suggests that the Wildlife is certainly being affected and if some of these other allegations (abortion, infertility etc) are well founded, then we may have real grounds to be very much concerned.

I have had discussions with three people in this area regarding this matter (Dr *** and Dr *** – both medical practitioners practising in Yarram and Dr Wilson Howwie – a Veterinary Surgeon in Yarram) and all three of these persons are very much concerned regarding the aspects of Human Health and Animal health. I believe that they are preparing submissions regarding this matter and I am hopeful that I will be able to obtain a copy of these submissions and if I do so I will immediately forward these on to you.

Yours respectfully

***

 

1979 January: Concerns about spraying Tarra River (Vic). Pesticide: Amitrole.

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15 January 1979

Letter from Freshwater Fisheries (Concerns over Amitrole Spraying)

Dear

Further to your enquiry as to the Division’s attitude towards the use of “Amitrole” (3 amino 1-2-4 triazole) to eradicate blackberries from the margins of the Tarra River, I now advise that the Division would want to know a lot more about the proposal before making a definitive statement.

This compound is a known goitrogen (depresses thyroid activity) and its use in the USA is very restricted for that reason. In fact, the State Rivers and Water Supply Commission (on advice from the Health Department) does not use this material at all in Gippsland for the same reason, although it is used by the Commission in other parts of the State.

I understand that this compound may also have the potential to affect aquatic life, including fishes, at quite low levels (less than one part per million).

In view of the importance of the Tarra River for fisheries, for water supply, and in relation to Corner Inlet itself, the proposed use of this compound is a matter of some concern. In addition, I understand that the proponents of the eradication attempt are contemplating the use of heavy equipment along the stream margin, which may have important consequences for stream fauna and water productivity. As I am sure you are aware, there is general agreement amongst Government Agencies (confirmed by the Land Conservation Council in many instances) that the integrity of stream margins should be maintained wherever possible.

I would be grateful if you could relay to the people concerned the Division’s view that, from what we know of the proposal, there are real grounds for concern about possible implications of the proposal in a number of areas. The Division would appreciate an opportunity to comment further on the matter in due course, especially when more detailed procedures are planned…

1981 June: Tower Hill (Vic) Worker ill and others concerned about pesticides, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T.

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Fisheries and Wildlife Division

1st June 1981

Use of 24D and 245T by Exempt Employees

Our exempt workers through the Leading Hand have expressed concern regarding our continued use of 24D and 245T necessary for weed control at Tower Hill and other reserves in South West Victoria.

Along with myself they were somewhat concerned at the flippant if not patronizing reference to the hazards of chemical weedicides at the safety seminar conducted at Port Campbell, 1st May 1981 by *** from the Ministry.

The essence of his remarks in response to a question were that if Senior Government Officials said these chemicals posed no threat, then workers could be assured they were right! I will not unnecessarily lengthen this note by detailing some of the disasters and tragic consequences of such unswerving blind faith in officialdom.

One of our employees strangly suspects that quite serious problems concerning back pain, vomiting and nausea are linked to chemical use particularly 24D and 245T as such symptoms are concurrent with chemical use.

Mr *** indicated in his response to a phone query on 28/5/81 that Divisional Policy was that these chemicals were safe to use when administered in accordance with manufacturers instructions.

The Australian Workers Union in similar vein advise their members to only use these chemicals with full protection, where immediate washing facilities are available and when favourable weather conditions prevail. It is worth noting that they are at present developing a policy which may lead to the re-introduction of a ban.

Achnowledging that as employees our workers cannot object to an instruction to use the chemical in accord with manufacturers instructions, the employees at Tower Hill through the Leading Hand have asked me to seek written explantation of Divisional Policy. As I am directly responsible for the supervision of these employees and share their concern I too would appreciate such direction.

I would be much happier if the Division adopted a policy using alternatives where possible despite increased costs.

1966 December: Rosebud Foreshore (Vic). Ground spraying for Mosquitos

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Shire of Flinders

22nd May 1967

The Secretary, Commission of Public Health

Dear Sir,

There has been no aerial spraying for the control of flies, mosquitoes etc in the Shire of Flinders since 1st January 1966.

A section of the Foreshore at Rosebud was sprayed from ground level by Pest Control Association during December 1966.

Yours faithfully

*** Health Inspector

1962 April: Merbein (Vic). Proposal to aerial spray to control Fruit Fly. Pesticides: DDT or Malathion

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17/4/62

Aerial Spraying in Fruit Fly Area, Merbein

Commission:

The Chairman said the Department of Agriculture was anxious to carry out aerial spraying with either Malathion or DDT over and around the township of Merbein, which had a reticulated water supply.

The Chief Industrial Hygiene Officer believed that aerial spraying with these substances was carried out in America and he was satisfied that the health hazard would be minimal.

Before carrying out any such spraying the Department of Agriculture would write to the Health Department officially.

The Honourable the Minister has asked the Chairman to obtain the Commission’s view on the proposal

It was resolved that the Honourable the Minister be informed that the Commission is of the opinion that provided suitable precautions are observed there is no risk of endangering human health by aerial spraying with DDT in areas at present infested with fruit fly.

1965 October: Yarram Caravan Park Aerial Spraying. Pesticides: DDT, Malathion

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13th October 1965

… I contacted Mr *** by phone on 4/10/65 (Ballarat) and he stated that he had never done any spraying of seaside resorts.

He had been approached on several occasions, but after laying down certain conditions, such as complete evacuation of humans from the area, the enquiries had not been pursued…

On 13/10/1965, I rang Mr *** who stated that he would spray an average of about 100 acres per year which would be mainly for regular customers:

Seaspray foreshore area.
Latrobe Valley Water and Sewerage Board farming area (including about 12 houses)
Loch Sport (on edge of Lake Victoria)
Caravan Park at Yarram
Eagle Point Reserve (Shire of Bairnsdale).

He also does spraying of odd areas and the maximum acreage in any one year has been 400.

Camping areas would be sprayed about 1 week prior to Christmas when only a few people would be on the site.

Usually spraying is 2 pints of DDT to the acre and 2 ounces of Malathion.

He has also used Baytex

Chief Industrial Hygiene Officer.

1965 October: Aerial Spraying Latrobe Valley Water and Sewerage Board farming area. Pesticides: DDT, Malathion

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13th October 1965

… I contacted Mr *** by phone on 4/10/65 (Ballarat) and he stated that he had never done any spraying of seaside resorts.

He had been approached on several occasions, but after laying down certain conditions, such as complete evacuation of humans from the area, the enquiries had not been pursued…

On 13/10/1965, I rang Mr *** who stated that he would spray an average of about 100 acres per year which would be mainly for regular customers:

Seaspray foreshore area.
Latrobe Valley Water and Sewerage Board farming area (including about 12 houses)
Loch Sport (on edge of Lake Victoria)
Caravan Park at Yarram
Eagle Point Reserve (Shire of Bairnsdale).

He also does spraying of odd areas and the maximum acreage in any one year has been 400.

Camping areas would be sprayed about 1 week prior to Christmas when only a few people would be on the site.

Usually spraying is 2 pints of DDT to the acre and 2 ounces of Malathion.

He has also used Baytex

Chief Industrial Hygiene Officer.

1965 October: Proposal to aerial spray 90 Mile Beach (Vic). Pesticide: Diazinon

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21st October 1965

Letter from Health Inspector to Department of Health

Shire of Rosedale:

As you Department is aware, aerial spraying has been taking place prior to the Summer season at Seaspray and at Loch Sport when a mixture of D.D.T., Dieldrin, and Malathion was used at Seaspray and a proprietry line known as Bayter at Loch Sport.

Complaints have been received against this practice, stating that vegetable leaves were burnt by the spray, and that vegetables ready for picking were obviously contaminated, and that spray was entering water tanks.

Recently I have been approached by a chemical manufacturing firm whose representative is seeking a contract to supply a Diazinon based insecticide (NEDCID 20P) for aerial spraying of much of 90 mile beach including the resort subdivisions, areas of oil and gas exploration, and some off shore islands (outside of the shire I believe) and the representative is seeking my approval…

1965: Loch Sport. Aerial Spraying Mosquito Control. Pesticides: DDT, Dieldrin, Malathion

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21st October 1965

Letter from Health Inspector to Department of Health

Shire of Rosedale:

As you Department is aware, aerial spraying has been taking place prior to the Summer season at Seaspray and at Loch Sport when a mixture of D.D.T., Dieldrin, and Malathion was used at Seaspray and a proprietry line known as Bayter at Loch Sport.

Complaints have been received against this practice, stating that vegetable leaves were burnt by the spray, and that vegetables ready for picking were obviously contaminated, and that spray was entering water tanks.

Recently I have been approached by a chemical manufacturing firm whose representative is seeking a contract to supply a Diazinon based insecticide (NEDCID 20P) for aerial spraying of much of 90 mile beach including the resort subdivisions, areas of oil and gas exploration, and some off shore islands (outside of the shire I believe) and the representative is seeking my approval…

13th October 1965

… I contacted Mr *** by phone on 4/10/65 (Ballarat) and he stated that he had never done any spraying of seaside resorts.

He had been approached on several occasions, but after laying down certain conditions, such as complete evacuation of humans from the area, the enquiries had not been pursued…

On 13/10/1965, I rang Mr *** who stated that he would spray an average of about 100 acres per year which would be mainly for regular customers:

Seaspray foreshore area.
Latrobe Valley Water and Sewerage Board farming area (including about 12 houses)
Loch Sport (on edge of Lake Victoria)
Caravan Park at Yarram
Eagle Point Reserve (Shire of Bairnsdale).

He also does spraying of odd areas and the maximum acreage in any one year has been 400.

Camping areas would be sprayed about 1 week prior to Christmas when only a few people would be on the site.

Usually spraying is 2 pints of DDT to the acre and 2 ounces of Malathion.

He has also used Baytex

Chief Industrial Hygiene Officer.

1965: Maffra. The use of Dinoseb on pea crops. Related to Pentachlorphenol which killed people in Queensland pineapple and sugarcane crops

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21 October, 1965

… Shire of Maffra:

There is considerable local discussion, not at this stage official, about the use of a spray for pea crops. The spray is known as D & BP, is applied from the ground by sprays, and by implication, its appears to be very pungent and great care is required in its application.

The Representatives of the company which supplies this spray told me that it is so toxic that a dog walking through a paddock two days after spraying died as a result.

Apparently it has a similar chemical formula to Mustard Gas and several have referred to feeling distressed when accidently inhaling it.

Under these circumstances it would seem advisable that there should be some local knowledge as to its constitution, toxicity, and if there is need for restricted use…

Health Inspector

29/11/65

Victorian Health Department Letter.

“… The spray for pea crops is D.N.B.P (dinitro butyl phenol) – common name Dinoseb.

This has a pharmacological action similar to dinitro-phenol which stimulates metabolism and causes poisoning by hyperthermis.

Substances in this group have caused quite a few fatalities in the U.K. where they have extensively been used as weedicides.

There has been no trouble reported so far in Australia from this group, probably because they have as yet had no extensive use.

2015 April: Bright (Vic) Residents Protest Aerial Spraying. Pesticides: Glyphosate, Metsulfuron Methyl

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Residents Spray Herbicide Use.

Border Mail April 15 2015

A PLAN to aerial spray pine plantations in the Alpine Shire with herbicides has residents worried about their health and safety.

Several Bright homeowners have received notices that Hancock Victoria Plantations will spray Roundup and Brushoff in the area from a helicopter.

Jayne Guiney, who lives close to a plantation, said she was concerned chemicals would be sprayed near her property.

“I don’t see why they can plant and harvest trees by hand, but not spray by hand,” she said.

“I have no idea what impact it could have on my property and the waterways.”
Wylde Wisley, 4, and Eliza Walker, 2, carry signs of protest. Picture: JOHN RUSSELL

Wylde Wisley, 4, and Eliza Walker, 2, carry signs of protest. Picture: JOHN RUSSELL

Hancock Plantations planned to spray at plantations in Ovens, Croppers Creek, Rose River, Porepunkah, Bright and Wandiligong from April 1 to April 10. Only those living within 200 metres of the plantation were notified.

The company said weather conditions had delayed spraying.

Company spokesman Lou Coutts said registered chemicals were used as directed by national authority, the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority. He said the company was using a helicopter due to the steep terrain.
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“Helicopters have GPS navigation to ensure materials are deposited only where intended — inside the plantation boundary,” she said.

“The helicopter does not travel outside of our land with chemicals.”

“Operations stop if wind, humidity and temperature are outside specific parameters for the specific application type.

“The nozzles discharging materials create large droplets designed to be heavy and fall straight down, minimising drift.”

But while the company is meeting its legal requirements, residents yesterday called on it to take the moral high ground.

Alpine councillor Kate Farrell said, at the least, she wanted more people notified.

“There are pines within hundreds of metres of my house and, while they are doing nothing wrong legally, I would have liked them to take the ethical route when it comes to people’s health,” she said.

“They should have the sense to warn everybody, particularly when people with asthma live in this area,”

Residents have been campaigning against spraying on social media on the “Bright community aerial spraying concerns” Facebook page.

http://www.bordermail.com.au/story/3019812/residents-spray-herbicides-use/

1964 December – 1969 December: Seaspray Foreshore. Pesticides: Malathion, Fenthion, DDT, Dieldrin

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Chief Health Officer

17/3/70 Pesticide Aerial Spraying (Mosquitos)

On 24 December 1969, I reported that pesticides had been dissemiated by aerial spraying at two resorts in the Eastern Health Area. These were as follows:

1. Eagle Point Camping Area and Paynesville foreshore: 48 acres using “Baytex” at a rate of 4 ounces to the acre. The spraying was carried out by *** Aviation of Benambra at the request of Bairnsdale Shire Council.

2. Seaspray Foreshore: Baytex 5 ounces plus Malathion 4 ounces to the acre. The operation was carried out by Farmair Pty Ltd of West Sale Drome at the request of the Seaspray Foreshore Committee.

It would appear that there is no control over such operations against what are merely nuisance insects. The Department of Agriculture has no powers under the Aerial Spraying Act, nor is it proper that it should interfere in what is a Health problem…

 

Aerial Spraying: Seaspray Camping Area.

Date of Spraying: 29/12/69
Time: 6.30am
Substance: Baylene 5 oz per acre, Malathion 4 ounces per acre
Volume per acre: 2 gallons
Reason for spraying: Mosquitos

Letter to Department of Health 1969

I further recommend that a letter be sent to the Director of Agriculture as follows:-

“Complaints have been made to this Department that aerial spraying operations against nuisance insects have been carried out recently at Seaspray in Rosedale Shire and Eagle Point in Bairnsdale Sire.

In the former case, the spraying was carried out during a 20 mph wind storm, with resultant dispersal of the spray throughout the township.

Indiscriminate spraying of this nature can lead to danger to human health, pollution of streams, lakes, water supplies and to the killing of beneficial and harmless insects, with resulting disturbance to the ecology of the area.

The Commission of Public Health would be pleased to know if permission for these spraying came from your department…
1967

Aerial Spraying

Shire of Rosedale.

Seaspray Foreshore Committee.
Location Seaspray
Area – at the rear of the Township. Area strictly limited.
Material used – 25% DDT Miscible Oil
Rate 1 1/2 pints in 100 gallons of water per acre.
This was brought to the notice of and approved by the Indepartmental Committee on Pesticides.

Gippsland Times. Monday Nov. 22, 1965

Rosedale Shire makes clear…

No responsibility taken for air spraying

No responsibility will be accepted by Rosedale Council as the result of aerial spraying.

Council will make this clear to the Seaspray Foreshore Management Committee.

It will also write to the Municipal Association.

Council stated this followed a letter from Mrs W.J. Macafarlane, Seaspray, protesting at aerial spraying over town.

She said that following spraying last year, vegetables were covered in a milky white substance.

Bird life was also killed.

Representation had been made to the committee without effect.

Had faults

Cr. R Gerrand agreed that while continued aerial spraying had its faults, spraying at Seaspray had done some good in regards to mosquitoes and flies.

21st October 1965

Letter from Health Inspector to Department of Health

Shire of Rosedale:

As you Department is aware, aerial spraying has been taking place prior to the Summer season at Seaspray and at Loch Sport when a mixture of D.D.T., Dieldrin, and Malathion was used at Seaspray and a proprietry line known as Bayter at Loch Sport.

Complaints have been received against this practice, stating that vegetable leaves were burnt by the spray, and that vegetables ready for picking were obviously contaminated, and that spray was entering water tanks.

Recently I have been approached by a chemical manufacturing firm whose representative is seeking a contract to supply a Diazinon based insecticide (NEDCID 20P) for aerial spraying of much of 90 mile beach including the resort subdivisions, areas of oil and gas exploration, and some off shore islands (outside of the shire I believe) and the representative is seeking my approval…

13th October 1965

… I contacted Mr *** by phone on 4/10/65 (Ballarat) and he stated that he had never done any spraying of seaside resorts.

He had been approached on several occasions, but after laying down certain conditions, such as complete evacuation of humans from the area, the enquiries had not been pursued…

On 13/10/1965, I rang Mr *** who stated that he would spray an average of about 100 acres per year which would be mainly for regular customers:

Seaspray foreshore area.
Latrobe Valley Water and Sewerage Board farming area (including about 12 houses)
Loch Sport (on edge of Lake Victoria)
Caravan Park at Yarram
Eagle Point Reserve (Shire of Bairnsdale).

He also does spraying of odd areas and the maximum acreage in any one year has been 400.

Camping areas would be sprayed about 1 week prior to Christmas when only a few people would be on the site.

Usually spraying is 2 pints of DDT to the acre and 2 ounces of Malathion.

He has also used Baytex

Chief Industrial Hygiene Officer.

Gippsland Times Thursday, September 9, 1965 – Page 3

Spray inquiry at Seaspray?

An investigation should be made into the toxic effects of aerial insect spray used at Seaspray’s foreshore at Christmas.

Rosedale Shire council’s health inspector, Mr Keity Roberts’said this at council’s August meeting.

He was commenting on a Health Department letter requesting information about the spraying carried out without council’s knowledge.

He believed the quantity of toxic chemical was “very small”but as he was not in a position to determine its effect, some investigation should be made.

“This recommendation is made in the belief that the type of insecticide at these concentrations will not be harmful but as a precautionary measure because roof catchment is used for water supplies.”

1967 – 1969 December: Eagle Point Paynesville (Vic). Aerial Spraying: Pesticide: Fenthion, Malathion, DDT

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Chief Health Officer

17/3/70 Pesticide Aerial Spraying

On 24 December 1969, I reported that pesticides had been dissemiated by aerial spraying at two resorts in the Eastern Health Area. These were as follows:

1. Eagle Point Camping Area and Paynesville foreshore: 48 acres using “Baytex” at a rate of 4 ounces to the acre. The spraying was carried out by *** Aviation of Benambra at the request of Bairnsdale Shire Council.

2. Seaspray Foreshore: Baytex 5 ounces plus Malathion 4 ounces to the acre. The operation was carried out by Farmair Pty Ltd of West Sale Drome at the request of the Seaspray Foreshore Committee.

It would appear that there is no control over such operations against what are merely nuisance insects. The Department of Agriculture has no powers under the Aerial Spraying Act, nor is it proper that it should interfere in what is a Health problem…

Eagle Point Camping Area
Paynesville, Bairnsdale Shire.

Council have and will be again hiring the services of an aerial sprayer.
Substances Used.

Malathion, DDT, Baylene

Mr Street has objected to the Shire.

23.12.1969

1967

Aerial Spraying

Shire of Bairnsdale.

Location treated – at Payneseville and Eaglepoint.
Area – 87 acres
Material Used – Baytex
Rate per acre – 4 oz.
Total Quantity – 17 pints 8 oz.

2015 January – April: Community Fights Plantation Aerial Spraying Bellingen (NSW).

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Community fights chemical weed spraying in Gladstone state forest

Su2It has been described as a laid-back, tree-fringed town with a community that prides itself on making a living out of organic farming and healthy lifestyles.

So when residents around Bellingen in the state’s north were told that the nearby Gladstone State forest was about to be aerially sprayed by the Forestry Corporation with a cocktail of chemical weed killers they reacted angrily and immediately mounted a campaign to stop it.

“We set up camps in the forest, on the helipad site and the entrance to the forest to run around-the-clock on-ground vigilance at all times,” said resident and No Spray No Way campaigner Susan Weil.

“Forestry Corporation was not allowed to conduct any aerial spraying while there werecommunity members in the forest and we took full advantage of this protocol,” Ms Weil told Fairfax Media.Trouble started with the announcement from the Forestry Corporation that an area that had become overrun with weeds after it was logged for hardwood was going to be sprayed from a helicopter to kill the weeds before a new plantation of timber was planted. Forestry Corporation said it was planning to mix four chemcials and herbicides: Glyphosate, Metsulfurin Methyl, Fluroxypyr and Simazine and the adjuvants Liaise and Pulse, to do the job.Ms Weil said the community wasconcerned the chemicals, all of which were on a priority spray drift list for review by the federal government’s Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority, would drift onto their properties and runoff into water system around the area, affecting residents, water quality, animals, including koalas and the environment.“We are not going to wear it,” she said.Greens MP David Shoebridge has slammed the aerial spraying as the “cheapest and nastiest” option for weed control.

Mr Shoebridge said it was made worse by Forestry Corporation’s “mass industrial logging programme, which leaves clear ground open for weeds to flourish”.

“Instead of implementing evidence based long-term weed management practice, we have seen Forestry Corporation opting for the aerial spraying of a chemical cocktail which will drift into houses, waterways and pollute the precious habitat,” he said.

Jo Immig, the co-ordinator of the National Toxics Network, said there had been no studies done on the effects of mixing the four chemicals together.

Ms Immig also said the chemical Simazine is known to linger in the environment, is a ground-water pollutant and is banned in Europe.

“The biggest problem is that the Bellingen area has a high rainfall and lots of waterways where the chemical pesticides could run into. Run-off is the key thing. It is crazy to do this, both  socially and environmentally.”

Chemical expert Dr Barry Noller from the Centre for Mine Land Rehabilitation at the University of Queensland said the chemicals all have relatively low toxicity to humans when taken individually.

“However mixtures of a range of compounds like these may give a higher response than the individual compounds. Although there is no advice given for the toxicity of such a mixture, it is unlikely to shown anything but minor toxicity to people,” he said.

He said that spray drift might also enter creeks but  would break down quickly.

A spokeswoman for Forestry Corporation said the spraying was on hold for the moment while they consult the community about other options.

http://www.stoptheaerialspray.org/?p=371

2015 May: Kuranda State Forest cleared. Pesticides: Glyphosate, Fluroxypur

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Friends of the Earth Kuranda

May 2015

Clear Felling and Aerial Spraying of Kuranda State Forest

The Department has informed FoE that HQ Plantations holds a 99 year licence for 4,200 hectares of Kuranda State Forest which is progressively clear felled and replanted with Caribbean pine.

The plantation says that they use helicopters to spray a mixture of glyphosate and fluroxypyr herbicide at the rate of 100 litres per hectare to kill any weeds or regrowth of the native vegetation.

Fluroxypyr is listed on the label as being highly toxic to freshwater fish and aquatic invertebrates and glyphosate has just been reclassified by the World Health Organisation a month ago as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans’ – based on the fact that it is found to be carcinogenic to animals.

The reclassification of glyphosate by the WHO is of great concern as the chemical runoff from the pine plantations goes into the Barron River which is used as Kuranda’s town water supply.

Spray drift is also seen as a problem with the close proximity of homes and Kuranda town centre being just a few kilometres away.

The nature corridors that have been left along creeks and streams for the wildlife such as cassowaries are totally inadequate considering the aerial spraying.

The selling of this plantation licence as part of the Bligh government asset sales without proper consultation was clearly ill advised considering that the government now has to spend hundreds of millions of dollars to implement ways to reduce this type of agricultural and chemical runoff that is seriously damaging the reef.

FoE thinks it is time to call for an end to this type of industrial logging adjacent to the World Heritage Area which chnages diverse native forests into single species plantations – and especially if the wood is to be used for woodchips.

1981 July: Bright/Wandiligong concerns over pine plantation aerial spraying. Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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Border Morning Mail
Wednesday, July 29, 1981

Mums run scared

Protest on use of 245T

Bright and Wandiligong residents are planning to serve the Victorian Forests Commission with an interim injunction.

The injunction will be a last minute bid to stop the spraying of the controversial herbicide 245T over the area’s pine plantations.

Several pregnant women are preparing to leave the area if the spraying goes ahead.

But the Myrtleford district forester, Mr Bernie Evans, defended the proposed use of the herbicide and said the commission had no case to answer.

Mr Evans said 245T was the cheapest, safest and most effective way of eradicating woody weeds in pine plantations.

He confirmed that a helicopter and ground crew were standing by at a private airstrip near Myrtleford.

The secretary of the Wandiligong Preservation Committee, Mrs Coral Bennett, said she did not believe the spraying would have been made public if the news had not leaked out.

She said people who pumped water from creeks were worried about contaminated run-off.

Ïf there was nothing to fear from the spraying, the commission could have advertised it in the local paper,” she said.

A Wandiligong woman, Mrs Marti Wesley, said yesterday she would leave town if the spraying went ahead.

Mrs Wesley said the spraying was a direct threat to the life of her unborn child.

“I know the links will take a long time to prove,” she said.

“But I don’t intend to stay around and let myself and my baby become statistics.

“I’ll leave until I think it’s safe to come back.”

Unless the spraying is completed by July 31, it will have to be postponed until next year.

Residents of the Myrtleford-Bright-Wandiligong area discovered late last week that the Forests Commission planned to use the herbicide to eradicate silver wattle scattered throughout 1000ha of pine plantations close to the three towns.

A farmer who had been approached for permission to land a helicopter on his property rang and the ABC and the news was out.

The Forests Commission plan had been approved by the Victorian Poisons Review Committee.

But residents likely to be affected had apparently not yet been notified.

The first many heard of the plan was through a radio news bulletin.

Mrs Bennett said local people were worried about aerial spraying because there was no guarantee where it would go.

“As well as the potential effect on the living and unborn, we have to consider what effect spraying would have on our water and local crops such as apples and nuts,” she said.

“We’ve has all sorts of assurances from the Forests Commission.

“But they mean nothing to us.

“In this weather, everything pours out of the hills and onto the creeks and that’s where we all get our water from.

“I don’t think they want to admit any link between 245T and birth defects – but that doesn’t give them the excuse to use it.

“The people who make these decisions are unlikely to become pregnant.”

Mrs Bennett said many people felt the commission just wanted a quick kill and was not concerned about possible consequences.

“I’ve never seen people so stirred up about an issue – everyone’s talking about it,” she said.

About 30 Bright and Wandiligong women met yesterday to consider their next step.

Many expressed fears about the effects on their water supply, which is pumped from creeks and into tanks.

And a group of residents has approached the Forests Commission to half the spraying until a series of questions could be answered.

They want a detailed scientific investigation into the program’s possible effects.

Unless they receive an answer today, they will press ahead with plans to halt the spraying with a temporary injunction.

The member for Benambra, Mr Lieberman said he had conveyed concern to the Victorian Forests Minister, Mr Austin.

“I have been assured these expressions of concern will be carefully examined,” he said.

“Mr Austin will make sure the full details of the spraying are made known.

“There will be no spraying on urban areas.”

Mr Evans said the wattle had to be eradicated and 245T treatment would keep the plantations free for up to 30 years.

“Wattle and other plants can’t coexist with pine without serious effects on our production,” he said.

“If we didn’t spray, we’d have to slash by hand, which would be both costly and ineffective.

“Correctly applied, the herbicide is completely safe for all.”

Mr Evans said the herbicide would be applied at a rate of 1.1kg a he, which was 13 times less than the application of a combination of 24D and 245T during the Vietnam war.

During the war, the toxic dioxin content of the chemical could have been as high as 50ppm.

But in Victoria it had to be less than 0.1ppm.

He said the batch to be used in the area had been proved to contain less than 0.005ppm.

Under agreement with the Poisons Review Committee, the commission will be unable to spray herbicides after July 31, because it could then be hazardous to the district’s main crop – tobacco.

1990’s: Gunnedah (NSW) 500 people report symptoms of spray drift.

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Sydney, 21 June 1999
 
REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS BEFORE STANDING COMMITTEE ON STATE DEVELOPMENT INQUIRY INTO THE USE AND MANAGEMENT OF PESTICIDES IN NEW SOUTH WALES
At Sydney on Monday 21 June 1999
The Hon. I. COHEN: In your report to this Committee you mentioned that
two people, one of whom is a Dr David Cook a local general practitioner in Gunnedah,
stated that 500 people reported symptoms such as fatigue, headaches and gastro-intestinal
upsets thought to be related to pesticides. The other person you mentioned was Mr Peter
Clancy who reported that following aerial spraying on nearby cotton fields a large number
of children suffered sores on exposed skin and were extremely fatigue d and lacked
concentration, and often had to be sent home. Has there been any further investigation into
those specific matters? In the light of this type of information, which I understand has been
repeated in many areas, do you have any opinion on how we should look at financial
liability, and how we prove these types of issues?

 

http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/committee.nsf/0/959661deae00f40aca256cf500149c9b/$FILE/transcript%20001.pdf

1998: Gunnedah (NSW) enveloped by cloud of Curacron. (Profenofos)

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Sydney, 21 June 1999
REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS BEFORE STANDING COMMITTEE ON STATE DEVELOPMENT INQUIRY INTO THE USE AND MANAGEMENT OF PESTICIDES IN NEW SOUTH WALES
At Sydney on Monday 21 June 1999
p3 The last spray season was a disaster; cattle from New South Wales were contaminated with endosulfan, which threatened exports and led to the national registration authority
introducing tough new controls on all cotton industries.
The town of Gunnedah was enveloped in a cloud of curacon, a cotton chemical. Community claims of illness were dismissed as psychosomatic.

… A plane crashed and spilled its load in Gunnedah.

http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/committee.nsf/0/959661deae00f40aca256cf500149c9b/$FILE/transcript%20001.pdf

1996: The Pocket (NSW). Child’s birthday party sprayed: Pesticide: 2,4-D

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REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS BEFORE STANDING COMMITTEE ON STATE DEVELOPMENT
INQUIRY INTO THE USE AND MANAGEMENT OF PESTICIDES IN NEW SOUTH WALES
At Lismore on Wednesday 4 August 1999
p 328 Mrs VAIL:
Mr SCANLON: Yes. I would like to bring something to your attention, if I may, as
an example of an incident that occurred in 1996. One Sunday afternoon in 1996, in an area
known as The Pocket, which is located in the northern part of the Byron shire, parents and
young children were exposed to spray drift as the landowner and his contractor sprayed the
pesticide 2,4-D in close proximity to a child’s third birthday party.
When approached by a concerned parent about what chemical he was using, the
contractor responded by saying, “Hippy killer.” The Environment Protection Authority in
this case successfully prosecuted the persons responsible. It is important to note that the
contractor involved in this particular incident held a pesticide handler’s certificate.
CHAIRMAN: Are you saying that the Environment Protection Authority successfully prosecuted the persons responsible?
Mr SCANLON: Yes.
CHAIRMAN: We have been told that the Environment Protection Authority has
successfully prosecuted only one person in the last 20 years. So that must be the person.
The Hon. I. COHEN: No. There was one in Dorrigo as well – and aerial sprayer
in the Dorrigo area.
Mr SCANLON: May I expand on that by saying that if individuals are applying for such certificates, such as the pesticide handler’s certificate, then it is important that they be
licensed. Let us be optimistic and say it is a one-off case where an individual may have been
negligent, but the fact is that the frustration and concern of the parents of the children at that party was quite unnecessary.
CHAIRMAN: Was that 2,4D amine or ester?
Mr SCANLON: I think in this day it is amine.

 

http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/committee.nsf/0/959661deae00f40aca256cf500149c9b/$FILE/transcript%20004.pdf

1990’s: Bilambil (NSW). Banana Spray Drift.

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REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS BEFORE STANDING COMMITTEE ON STATE DEVELOPMENT
INQUIRY INTO THE USE AND MANAGEMENT OF PESTICIDES IN NEW SOUTH WALES
At Lismore on Wednesday 4 August 1999
p 319/320 Mrs VAIL:
The Hon. J. R. JOHNSON: Are there bananas at Yelgun, Billinudgel, Byron Bay and Stokers Siding?
Mrs VAIL: Yes.
The Hon. J. R. JOHNSON: Is there aerial spraying of those bananas?
Mrs VAIL: Yes.
The Hon. J. R. JOHNSON: Do you have complaints from that area to your body?
Mrs VAIL: Yes.
The Hon. J. R. JOHNSON: From all of those areas?
Mrs VAIL: Not the Stokers Siding area. I am not very familiar with Stokers Siding. I mean, I know Stokers Siding, but I am not very familiar with the topography there and where
the bananas are there. I do know that the other place that they have a lot of trouble with is up on the Gold Coast, at Bilambil. A lot of them complain.
The Hon. J. R. JOHNSON: Bilambil is in New South Wales.
Mrs VAIL: Yes.
http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/committee.nsf/0/959661deae00f40aca256cf500149c9b/$FILE/transcript%20004.pdf

1990’s: Middle Pocket/Billinudgel/Yelgun area. Multiple Spray Drift Events

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REPORT OF PROCEEDINGS BEFORE STANDING COMMITTEE ON STATE DEVELOPMENT
INQUIRY INTO THE USE AND MANAGEMENT OF PESTICIDES IN NEW SOUTH WALES
At Lismore on Wednesday 4 August 1999
p 315 Mrs VAIL:
The other thing that is most important on this issue, particularly in the Middle Pocket area, is that since 1995, when the Carr Government came to office previously, we were promised many things, but since then there have been 17 unannounced aerial spraying incidents outside school bus hours in the Middle Pocket/ Billinudgel/Yelgun area. Despite mediation, we still do not know when this pilot is coming in.
There have been 28 unannounced aerial spraying incidents during school bus hours
that have been reported to the Environment Protection Authority and have been documented by the Environment Protection Authority. Despite 28 reported incidents, there have been no prosecutions at all. It is a case of business as usual. The children are still waiting on public roads for their school buses in the morning, and the pilot is still coming in despite pledges that he made to Ian Armstrong in 1991 that he would not spray while children were likely to be waiting at bus stops. He renewed that pledge with Ian Causley. Pam Allan, as Minister for the Environment, sent him a letter reminding him of his duty of care. The letter was sent to all aerial operators that they had a duty of care.
Despite all of this, the pilot is still coming in and spraying during school bus hours.
So, until we get the amendments in during the next parliamentary session, this will continue tohappen. Poison Watch, as a group, will not sit back for another season and watch our
children sprayed as they go to school.
http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/committee.nsf/0/959661deae00f40aca256cf500149c9b/$FILE/transcript%20004.pdf

1993: North Ocean Shores (NSW). Wildlife killed. Pesticides: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D

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Hansard NSW Legislative Council 29th April 1993
NORTH OCEAN SHORES

The Hon. R. S. L. JONES [5.57]: North Ocean Shores is probably one of the most intensively studied development sites in Australia. It is located 40 kilometres north of Byron Bay. It comprises 850 hectares, situated mostly in the shire of Byron. Years of controversy culminated in an exhaustive public hearing presided over by Commissioner Simpson at Mullumbimby in 1990. He recommended that environmental protection zoning be put in place over most of the land because of its outstanding natural and cultural conservation value. Byron Shire Council planners then proceeded to prepare an appropriate local environment plan, but at the eleventh hour the newly elected group of Byron shire councillors used their majority to defer much of the elevated ridge country for reinvestigation. This has occurred on countless occasions….

Irresponsible pesticide use is also taking place – hormonal poisons such as 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T have been applied in North Ocean Shores up to and including 1985, with 2,4-D still being sprayed by air and being the subject of ground application. Dead wallabies, possums, lizards and birds – such as magpies and currawongs – have been viewed after such spraying operations over 15 years in North Ocean Shores. Dead koalas have also been located. This area should be protected.

http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/hansart.nsf/V3Key/LC19930429033

2002: Dwellingup State Forest. Removal of 25 pesticide drums. Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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1965: Jandowae (Qld) 2,4,5-T spraying Brigalow “Scrub”

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Queensland Parliamentary Debates [Hansard] Legislative Assembly
TUESDAY, 23 NOVEMBER 1965

p1777

Some of the most difficult brigalow country anywhere in the State is to be found north of Jandowae, going towards Durong. It is very melon-holey. It was considered to be unsuitable
for agriculture, although it is wonderful fattening country. With the clearing of the brigalow
scrub, there was very heavy regrowth of brigalow. I should like now to pay a tribute to some
people who are doing a marvellous job in the development of this country. I refer to one
gentleman who today is possibly nearing 80. He is Mr. ***, and he has done a
remarkable job. He used the Sheiner Majestic plough, and, latterly, a Connor Shea twin-disc
plough. He is getting rid of brigalow suckers and planting the land with lucerne, Rhodes grass, green panic, and similar grasses. The turn-off of fat cattle from that country is quite
remarkable.
The statement of the hon. member for Fassifern that spraying of brigalow suckers was not
very successful brought to mind the work of Mr. ***’s daughter and her husband, Mr. and
Mrs. ***. This is being done in smaller areas, admittedly, but it boils down to the fact that a person has to be prepared to work hard to develop land. Mr. and Mrs. **** are
applying 2,4,5-T with a wetting agent, and they are applying it with a knapsack spray. I was
talking to *** recently and he told me that he has never had any difficulty in getting university students to come out there in their holidays. He pays them well and they
are really prepared to work. In the hot weather they begin at 4 a.m. and work till 8 or 9, rest
in the hot hours of the day, then go on again in the evening…
http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/hansard/1965/1965_11_23.pdf

1960’s: Mullewa – Geraldton Trainline. Flower death through spray drift.

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Legislative Assembly (Western Australia)
Tuesday, the 8th September, 1970

Tuesday 8 September 1970

p628

For many years the area between Yandanooka. and Three Springs was considered to have the best show of double red everlasting flowers that could be seen anywhere. These were growing in great profusion along the railway line. I regret to say, however, that now it is not possible to find one everlasting flower in that area. This is all due to the fact that spraying
has been carried out for the control of different types of weeds.

The same thing has happened on the Mullewa-Geraldton railway line. The crop of everlastings along that railway line was the pride of the district, hut the flowers
in this area have also been wiped out.

If a lot of spraying Is to be carried out, the Minister and his department
should be warned and should ensure that no more of our wildflowers are destroyed.
The Bill goes a long way towards further tightening up the Act, and this is
a step in the right direction.

However, I do not think the measure goes far enough in providing protection for our wild flowers in places such as Geraldton and the others I have mentioned.

1960’s: Yandanooka – Three Springs Rail Line (WA). Spraydrift killed off Flowers

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Legislative Assembly (Western Australia)
Tuesday, the 8th September, 1970

Tuesday 8 September 1970

p628

For many years the area between Yandanooka. and Three Springs was considered to have the best show of double red everlasting flowers that could be seen anywhere. These were growing in great profusion along the railway line. I regret to say, however, that now it is not possible to find one everlasting flower in that area. This is all due to the fact that spraying
has been carried out for the control of different types of weeds.

The same thing has happened on the Mullewa-Geraldton railway line. The crop of everlastings along that railway line was the pride of the district, hut the flowers
in this area have also been wiped out.

If a lot of spraying Is to be carried out, the Minister and his department
should be warned and should ensure that no more of our wildflowers are destroyed.
The Bill goes a long way towards further tightening up the Act, and this is
a step in the right direction.

However, I do not think the measure goes far enough in providing protection for our wildflowersin places such as Geraldton and the others I have mentioned.

1970: Utakarra (WA). Leaking Drum Kills Tomato Crops. Pesticide: 2,4-D Ester

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Legislative Assembly (Western Australia)
Tuesday, the 8th September, 1970

Tuesday 8 September 1970

p628

There are other incidents which could be quoted in connection with this type of spraying. The member for Northern has quoted one-it probably came to his notice as a railwayman-which referred to a leaking drum of 2,4-D ester which was being carried by a train that had stopped to carry out the shunting of stock. Not very much of the spray leaked out of the drum, but it was enough to destroy an entire field of tomatoes at the Utakarra
siding.

This constitutes a warning to the people who are in control of spraying operations
and it indicates the dangers that exist, particularly when highly volatile aerial
sprays are being used. As has been pointed out. 2,4-D ester and some of the other
sprays are really quite lethal; a view with which I entirely agree.

1970: Waggrakine (WA). Peacrop destroyed by Spray Drift. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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Legislative Assembly (Western Australia)
Tuesday, the 8th September, 1970

Tuesday 8 September 1970

p627/8

Prom the records of the Department of Agriculture it will be found that a garden
of peas consisting of several acres in the Waggrakine area was completely wiped
out. To appreciate the position fully one would need to have seen the garden in
question both before and after the disaster. Only then would one be able to
realise the danger that there Is in these volatile sprays.

When the matter was taken up with the departmental officers the only cause they
could find for the burning out of these several acres of peas was the spray being
used by farmers for the control of weeds in the Dongara area. The layman could
be excused for wondering why this spray had missed other gardens while landing
on this particular spot.

According to the departmental officers and I understand this is the correct explanation-
the spray was held in suspense for several days and then, as was mentioned by the member for Gascoyne, the prevailing southerly wind caused it to drift towards the Waggrakine area from the Dongara wheatfields and It eventually landed on these several acres of peas
which were destroyed.

There are other incidents which could be quoted in connection with this type of spraying. The member for Northern has quoted one-it probably came to his notice as a railwayman-which referred to a leaking drum of 2,4-D ester which was being carried by a train that had stopped to carry out the shunting of stock. Not very much of the spray leaked out of the drum, but it was enough to destroy an entire field of tomatoes at the Utakarra
siding.

This constitutes a warning to the people who are in control of spraying operations
and it indicates the dangers that exist, particularly when highly volatile aerial
sprays are being used. As has been pointed out. 2,4-D ester and some of the other
sprays are really quite lethal; a view with which I entirely agree.

1970: Dongara Area. Spray Drift. Pesticide: 2,4-D Ester

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Legislative Assembly (Western Australia)
Tuesday, the 8th September, 1970

Tuesday 8 September 1970

p625/7

Mr. NORTON: The information I have given was passed to me by the member for
Geraldton. I believe this information was gleaned after inquiries were made about
spraying in the Dongara area, and after It was known that only one aircraft was
operating for the spraying of 2.4-D ester. It was found that the crops in the area
adjacent to Geraldton had been affected. No doubt the member for Geraldton will
have something to say about this incident. It was also mentioned in this House in
previous speeches. ..

There is another aspect that concerns me when there is a drift of volatile hormones.
In the Greenough and Geraldton areas, in particular, the prevailing wind is a southerly or south-westerly, but In the morning there can be aL perfect calm. The spraying of a property could commence In the morning, but before it is completed the southerly wind could begin
to blow and a volatile hormone spray could drift many miles into an area when tomatoes and peas were being grown, and those crops are highly susceptible to hormone sprays.

1978 October: Geraldton (WA) Minister Hunt calls for a ban on 2,4-D Ester due to damage to Tomato Industry.

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Legislative Assembly (Western Australia)
Tuesday, the 17th October, 1978

p3871

I also wish to refer to the health problems associated with 2,4-D. I am sure everyone is
familiar with the controversy which has raged far and wide as to whether the spray is safe or
dangerous. We have all heard of alleged problems concerning birth defects and so on. I will not enter that debate because I do not know enough about the subject and I do not know whether or not there is sufficient conclusive evidence on the subject. I am awaiting the results of inquiries such as the one being held in Victoria to see what information is brought forward.

However, there is sufficient suspicion for us to be concerned. None of us in this place would want to be associated with 2,4-D in any form if we knew it had deleterious effects on our health.

I want to make the point to the Minister for Health that most of the town of Geraldton has
been affected by the spray. Many rose gardens and backyard tomato bushes in the town have been affected. Some people have claimed that every rose and tomato garden is affected, but I do not believe that because I know of some which have not been affected.
There is substantial evidence to indicate that at least a considerable part of the town has been affected by 2,4-D of one strength or another….

Mr CARR: Government action is warranted on the subject. The Government should ban all
volatile esters and, in particular, it should specifically ban 2,4-D ester. I will not go further
and say it should ban 2,4-D amine because quite frankly I do not know enough about the extent of the damage it causes. It is clear that the 2,4-D ester goes everywhere and is most indiscriminate. There is a spray available which can be used with much greater safety. As I understand it, the amine spray drifts about the same distance water would drift, and once it settles it stays settled.

That would be a viable alternative to 2,4-D. I repeat that the Government should ban 2,4-D
ester throughout the State and in particular in regions anywhere at all close to tomato gardens or residential areas…

 

1978 October; Glenfield (WA). Tomato crop damage due to 2,4-D Ester Spray Drift.

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Legislative Assembly (Western Australia)
Tuesday, the 17th October, 1978

p3867

MR CARR (Geraldton) [8.31 p.m.]: I would like to take this opportunity during the general
Budget debate to deal with three matters of concern to my electorate. The first concerns
damage done to tomato crops by the herbicide 2,4-D ester. This is a matter of very great concern to tomato growers in the Geraldton area; particularly this year, although it has been a problem for many years.

Members will be familiar with the publicity given recently to damage to tomato gardens. Last
night’s issue of the Daily News carried the suggestion that the Government may be on the
verge of announcing an inquiry into the problem. I do not know whether that is true or not; I hope it is, but I would prefer to see the Government take far stronger action than that….

Various estimates have been made of the damage that has occurred to tomato crops this
year. Some people have suggested that 95 to 100 per cent of the crops have been affected. The

Geraldton Guardian of the 12th October gives three estimates of the damage. I quote as
follows-

A group of 10 tomato growers has written to the Guardian saying the damage to their
crops varies from 75 to 95 percent loss. And president of Geraldton-Greenough
Market Gardeners’ Association, Mr John Moor estimated a loss of between 50 and 60
percent.

Geraldton Tomato Growers’ Association president Mr John Dines, has given the most
conservative estimate 60 percent for all the crops in the Geraldton region. There may be some dispute as to the extent of the damage, but I suggest it is something like half or more of the crops in the Geraldton area….

Mr CARR: There is much for members to be interested in. I am pleased the Minister for
Agriculture is in the Chamber as the matter does concern him. I would like to compare the 2,4-D ester with the 2,4-D amine. There is a much more serious problem associated with the 2,4-D ester. The reason is that the ester drifts over tremendous distances and vaporises very easily. It can drift over distances of 40 miles. Farmers who are familiar with the smell of 2,4-D have reported smelling the spray on the Abroihos Islands. This illustrates the extent to which this spray can drift and cause trouble,..

The spray can hang in the air for periods of several days. Another problem is that after the
spray has settled on a crop, it can vaporise on a hot day and once it is in the air again it can be moved about by the wind. A farmer therefore can spray in apparent safety and the spray can settle on the crop but with the advent of hot weather the problem is reactivated when the spray vaporises…

Following previous problems a 19-kilometre restricted zone has been introduced around
Geraldton, from Mt. Scott, in which it is illegal to use 2,4-D ester. This zone is useless in fact when one considers the spray can drift over distances of 40 miles. Part of the zone boundary comes within six miles of Geraldton. The restricted zone covers a 19 kilometre radius from Geraldton, from the coast near the Duller River to the Midland railway line. Where it meets that line it takes off in a direction towards the mouth of the Greenough River. Anyone knowing anything of Geraldton will realise the area is subject to strong southerly winds which make this restricted zone quite ineffective.

Another danger is that this spray is so volatile. If the spray has been carried in a vehicle and that vehicle is brought into the town, the spray can be released in that town. In transferring the spray into a plane or boom spray unit, some of the spray can spill in the back of the vehicle used. When the vehicle is driven back to the town the spray can vaporise very easily and so cause problems.

It appears that rail trucks bring the spray into the Geraldton station. Whenever possible the rail trucks are inspected at the Walkaway Siding outside the 19-kilometre limit to ensure the
containers are not broken. I understand there was a case this year where a container of 2,4-D ester was found open when it arrived in Geraldton. The truck also included tomato dust and so one can guess the damage done to that….

It is written by Mr A. Haagensen, a Department of Agriculture adviser. It reads as follows-
I inspected tomato crops between Glenfield and Narngulu. Every crop I looked at showed
leaf damage typical of damage caused by hormone herbicides such as 2.4.D.
* Damage was seen as early as the I18th of August on ***’s Property and
damage has been seen on recent transplants at ***’s property. Because of the extensive area affected and the long period over which damage has developed it is my opinion that the hormone has come from outside the restricted spraying area.

That officer also wrote to a Mr *** as follows- I inspected your tomatoes at Utakarra on
September 34, 1978, the leaves and fruits I inspected showed damage typical of damage
caused by hormone herbicides such as 2.4.D. The loss will be considerable as flowers
have aborted and young fruits are distorted. It is possible that more than three quarters of
the production will be lost….

1978 October: Narngula (WA). Tomato Crop damage: Spray drift 2,4-D Ester.

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Legislative Assembly (Western Australia)
Tuesday, the 17th October, 1978

p3867

MR CARR (Geraldton) [8.31 p.m.]: I would like to take this opportunity during the general
Budget debate to deal with three matters of concern to my electorate. The first concerns
damage done to tomato crops by the herbicide 2,4-D ester. This is a matter of very great concern to tomato growers in the Geraldton area; particularly this year, although it has been a problem for many years.

Members will be familiar with the publicity given recently to damage to tomato gardens. Last
night’s issue of the Daily News carried the suggestion that the Government may be on the
verge of announcing an inquiry into the problem. I do not know whether that is true or not; I hope it is, but I would prefer to see the Government take far stronger action than that….

Various estimates have been made of the damage that has occurred to tomato crops this
year. Some people have suggested that 95 to 100 per cent of the crops have been affected. The

Geraldton Guardian of the 12th October gives three estimates of the damage. I quote as
follows-

A group of 10 tomato growers has written to the Guardian saying the damage to their
crops varies from 75 to 95 percent loss. And president of Geraldton-Greenough
Market Gardeners’ Association, Mr John Moor estimated a loss of between 50 and 60
percent.

Geraldton Tomato Growers’ Association president Mr John Dines, has given the most
conservative estimate 60 percent for all the crops in the Geraldton region. There may be some dispute as to the extent of the damage, but I suggest it is something like half or more of the crops in the Geraldton area….

Mr CARR: There is much for members to be interested in. I am pleased the Minister for
Agriculture is in the Chamber as the matter does concern him. I would like to compare the 2,4-D ester with the 2,4-D amine. There is a much more serious problem associated with the 2,4-D ester. The reason is that the ester drifts over tremendous distances and vaporises very easily. It can drift over distances of 40 miles. Farmers who are familiar with the smell of 2,4-D have reported smelling the spray on the Abroihos Islands. This illustrates the extent to which this spray can drift and cause trouble,..

The spray can hang in the air for periods of several days. Another problem is that after the
spray has settled on a crop, it can vaporise on a hot day and once it is in the air again it can be moved about by the wind. A farmer therefore can spray in apparent safety and the spray can settle on the crop but with the advent of hot weather the problem is reactivated when the spray vaporises…

Following previous problems a 19-kilometre restricted zone has been introduced around
Geraldton, from Mt. Scott, in which it is illegal to use 2,4-D ester. This zone is useless in fact when one considers the spray can drift over distances of 40 miles. Part of the zone boundary comes within six miles of Geraldton. The restricted zone covers a 19 kilometre radius from Geraldton, from the coast near the Duller River to the Midland railway line. Where it meets that line it takes off in a direction towards the mouth of the Greenough River. Anyone knowing anything of Geraldton will realise the area is subject to strong southerly winds which make this restricted zone quite ineffective.

Another danger is that this spray is so volatile. If the spray has been carried in a vehicle and that vehicle is brought into the town, the spray can be released in that town. In transferring the spray into a plane or boom spray unit, some of the spray can spill in the back of the vehicle used. When the vehicle is driven back to the town the spray can vaporise very easily and so cause problems.

It appears that rail trucks bring the spray into the Geraldton station. Whenever possible the rail trucks are inspected at the Walkaway Siding outside the 19-kilometre limit to ensure the
containers are not broken. I understand there was a case this year where a container of 2,4-D ester was found open when it arrived in Geraldton. The truck also included tomato dust and so one can guess the damage done to that….

It is written by Mr A. Haagensen, a Department of Agriculture adviser. It reads as follows-
I inspected tomato crops between Glenfield and Narngulu. Every crop I looked at showed
leaf damage typical of damage caused by hormone herbicides such as 2.4.D.
* Damage was seen as early as the I18th of August on ***’s Property and
damage has been seen on recent transplants at ***’s property. Because of the extensive area affected and the long period over which damage has developed it is my opinion that the hormone has come from outside the restricted spraying area.

That officer also wrote to a Mr *** as follows- I inspected your tomatoes at Utakarra on
September 34, 1978, the leaves and fruits I inspected showed damage typical of damage
caused by hormone herbicides such as 2.4.D. The loss will be considerable as flowers
have aborted and young fruits are distorted. It is possible that more than three quarters of
the production will be lost….

1978 October. Abrolhos Islands (WA) Spray Drift. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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Legislative Assembly (Western Australia)
Tuesday, the 17th October, 1978

p3867

MR CARR (Geraldton) [8.31 p.m.]: I would like to take this opportunity during the general
Budget debate to deal with three matters of concern to my electorate. The first concerns
damage done to tomato crops by the herbicide 2,4-D ester. This is a matter of very great concern to tomato growers in the Geraldton area; particularly this year, although it has been a problem for many years.

Members will be familiar with the publicity given recently to damage to tomato gardens. Last
night’s issue of the Daily News carried the suggestion that the Government may be on the
verge of announcing an inquiry into the problem. I do not know whether that is true or not; I hope it is, but I would prefer to see the Government take father stronger action than that….

Mr CARR: There is much for members to be interested in. I am pleased the Minister for
Agriculture is in the Chamber as the matter does concern him. I would like to compare the 2,4-D ester with the 2,4-D amine. There is a much more serious problem associated with the 2,4-D ester. The reason is that the ester drifts over tremendous distances and vaporises very easily. It can drift over distances of 40 miles. Farmers who are familiar with the smell of 2,4-D have reported smelling the spray on the Abroihos Islands. This illustrates the extent to which this spray can drift and cause trouble,
The spray can hang in the air for periods of several days. Another problem is that after the
spray has settled on a crop, it can vaporise on a hot day and once it is in the air again it can be moved about by the wind. A farmer therefore can spray in apparent safety and the spray can settle on the crop but with the advent of hot weather the problem is reactivated when the spray vaporises.

 

2010’s?: Gin Gin (NSW). Bee Deaths Unspecified Neonicotinoids Suspected: Other Pesticides: Fipronil, Phenyl Pyrazole

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p 13 “Several beekeepers working river gum sites on the Macquarie River at Warren and Gin Gin suffered severe bee losses due to cotton spray ‘drift’ on to hives. The cotton crops are seed treated with a neonicotinoid at planting which is highly systemic. The cotton plants were then sprayed with Fipronil and Phenyl pyrazole which are also highly systemic. I suspect that there was a high probability that the two chemicals have combined within the cotton plants to provide a perfect storm for a major loss of bees to all the beekeepers involved. The EPA and APVMA need to start somewhere with independent evaluation”

The Senate
Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport
References Committee
Future of the beekeeping and pollination service industries in Australia July 2014

2010’s?: Warren (NSW). Bee Losses Unspecified Neonicotinoids Suspected. Other Pesticides: Fipronil, Pyrazole

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p 13 “Several beekeepers working river gum sites on the Macquarie River at Warren and Gin Gin suffered severe bee losses due to cotton spray ‘drift’ on to hives. The cotton crops are seed treated with a neonicotinoid at planting which is highly systemic. The cotton plants were then sprayed with Fipronil and Phenyl pyrazole which are also highly systemic. I suspect that there was a high probability that the two chemicals have combined within the cotton plants to provide a perfect storm for a major loss of bees to all the beekeepers involved. The EPA and APVMA need to start somewhere with independent evaluation”

The Senate
Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport
References Committee
Future of the beekeeping and pollination service industries in Australia July 2014

1968: Pinkenba (Qld) Spray drift from industrial plants

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The Minister dealt with crop damage caused by spray drift.
I raised another matter with the Minister relating to damage caused to crops by hormone spray escaping from factories where the chemicals are manufactured.
Crops at Pinkenba and in the lower Nudgee area have been damaged by hormones from the chemical plants in the Hamilton area, but appraently farmers are not insured against the effects of hormones.
The trouble has been traced to the manufacturing plants at Pinkenba, and one plant has been found to be mainly responsible.
I asked the Minister to look into this matter and his inspectors investigated it from the point of view of drift from spraying operations,but that did not cause the trouble.
It is caused by the drift of hormones from the manufacturing plants.
p1165 Queensland Parliamentary Debates, Legislative Assembly Friday 1 November 1968
http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/hansard/1968/1968_11_01.pdf

1964: Geraldton (WA). Spray drift losses to tomatoes. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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Mr Sewell (Geraldton): “That leads me to refer to the position in which the growers in Geraidton found themselves in July or August last.
The loss which occurred in the tomato crop was very heavy, but the total has not yet been assessed, because the season has not been concluded.
Unfortunately the end is very near, and this resulted from the use of the insecticide 2,4-D.
Last Year the Singapore market took 38,000 cases of tomatoes from Geraldton. and that represented a handy source of income to the State, and particularly to the Geraldton district.
This yea rtha tmarket was supplied with 21,000 cases,be-cause the season closed much earlier,and that will probably result in the loss of some portion of the Singapore
market.That was caused by the trouble experienced in the use of herbicides.”
p1436 Legislative Assembly Western Australia 13th October 1965.
http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/Hansard%5Chansard1870to1995.nsf/vwMainBackground/19651013_Assembly.pdf/$File/19651013_Assembly.pdf

1958: Burdekin Region (Qld) Spray Drift

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Prior to 1958 only two cases of crop damage, both in cotton, were reported in the Burdekin area following herbicide application by aircraft.
In 1958 and 1959, incidents involving damage through application of herbicides by aircraft in Queensland led to the appointment of a select committee to study the problem.
p1593 Agricultural Chemicals Distribution Control Bill
Hansard – Queensland Parliamentary Debates Legislative Assembly 11 November 1966
http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/hansard/1966/1966_11_11.pdf

1960’s: Burke Street Ayr (Qld). Spray drift from cane fields.

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Mr Coburn: …In Burke Street Ayr ,there are about 30 homes behind which there are canefields. The cane grows almost up to the back fences of these residences.
On many occasions I have seen planes flying low over the crop spraying it with poison, much of which must find its way into these homes.
The effect of this on the health of the occupants is hard to gauge. Sometimes they themselves do not know why they are feeling ill and do not attribute it to the spraying.
If they were injured, or even if death was caused by the spraying, under the Bill they would have no claim against the operator who did the spraying.
p1617 Agricultural Chemicals Distribution Control Bill
Hansard – Queensland Parliamentary Debates Legislative Assembly 11 November 1966
http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/hansard/1966/1966_11_11.pdf

1972 July: Toorbul (Qld). Widespread Spraydrift. Pesticides: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D

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Queensland Parliamentary Debates [Hansard] Legislative Assembly Thursday, 10 August 1972

p 104 Questions Upon Notice [10 August 1972]

Damage by Aerial Spraying, Pine Rivers, Caboolture and Landsborough Shires

Mr. Frawley, pursuant to notice, asked The Minister for Primary Industries, –

(1) Is he aware of the widespread damage in Redcliffe, Narangba, Deception Bay, Burpengary, Caboolture and Toorbul areas to the fruit and vegetable crops and beekeepers’ apairies, believed to have been caused by aerial spraying of 2,4-D Amiene and 2,4,5-T Ester by Cropair Aviation Pty Ltd.?

(2) Are these hormone sprays being supplied to Cropair Aviation Ltd, by A.C.F. Austral Fertilizers Pty Ltd, the company which supplies fertilizers to the district’s fruit and vegetable growers?

(3) As Cropair Aviation Pty Ltd has or intends to spread these dangerous hormone sprays over thousands of acres of land in Pine Rivers Shire, over the adjoining boundaries of the City of Redcliffe, what guarantees can he give that there will be no effects from it to thousands of residents living in these areas and to the wild life, both flora and fauna, and the fish and prawn-breeding areas of Deception Bay?

(4) Will he take immediate steps to have all operations stopped until all complaints have been investigated?

(5) Will he give his assurance that he will have the matter of misting machines and aeroplanes spreading hormones with in these
areas delayed until a thorough investigation has been made and will he also consider making it law that only after the issue of a permit by the local D.P.I. officer may any person be allowed to use hormone sprays?

Answers:-

( 1) “Crop damage in these areas has been reported to my Department but the extent of the damage and its cause has not yet been established. The possibility of the damage resulting from spraying operations, other than aerial spraying, cannot be ruled out. The Standards Branch of my Department has a number of complaints of damage under investigation.”

(2) “My Department does not have direct knowledge of the supply of chemicals from one company to another. Our responsibility is to ensure that any chemical used is registered and is used according to directions.”

(3) “When 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T are used in accordance with registered directions there is no danger to humans and   any effect on wild life and non-target flora would be minimal. Any such effects must be considered in relation to the necessity to control major weed pests.”

(4) “An officer of Cropair Aviation Pty. Ltd. has advised my Department that no further aerial spraying will be under-taken in the area while investigations are under way.”

(5) “Current legislation provides control over the operations of aerial agricultural pilots and weed control operators on the ground. It is considered that these controls are adequate.”

1972 July: Caboolture (Qld) Widespread Spraydrift. Pesticides: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D

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Queensland Parliamentary Debates [Hansard] Legislative Assembly Thursday, 10 August 1972

p 104 Questions Upon Notice [10 August 1972]

Damage by Aerial Spraying, Pine Rivers, Caboolture and Landsborough Shires

Mr. Frawley, pursuant to notice, asked The Minister for Primary Industries, –

(1) Is he aware of the widespread damage in Redcliffe, Narangba, Deception Bay, Burpengary, Caboolture and Toorbul areas to the fruit and vegetable crops and beekeepers’ apairies, believed to have been caused by aerial spraying of 2,4-D Amiene and 2,4,5-T Ester by Cropair Aviation Pty Ltd.?

(2) Are these hormone sprays being supplied to Cropair Aviation Ltd, by A.C.F. Austral Fertilizers Pty Ltd, the company which supplies fertilizers to the district’s fruit and vegetable growers?

(3) As Cropair Aviation Pty Ltd has or intends to spread these dangerous hormone sprays over thousands of acres of land in Pine Rivers Shire, over the adjoining boundaries of the City of Redcliffe, what guarantees can he give that there will be no effects from it to thousands of residents living in these areas and to the wild life, both flora and fauna, and the fish and prawn-breeding areas of Deception Bay?

(4) Will he take immediate steps to have all operations stopped until all complaints have been investigated?

(5) Will he give his assurance that he will have the matter of misting machines and aeroplanes spreading hormones with in these
areas delayed until a thorough investigation has been made and will he also consider making it law that only after the issue of a permit by the local D.P.I. officer may any person be allowed to use hormone sprays?

Answers:-

( 1) “Crop damage in these areas has been reported to my Department but the extent of the damage and its cause has not yet been established. The possibility of the damage resulting from spraying operations, other than aerial spraying, cannot be ruled out. The Standards Branch of my Department has a number of complaints of damage under investigation.”

(2) “My Department does not have direct knowledge of the supply of chemicals from one company to another. Our responsibility is to ensure that any chemical used is registered and is used according to directions.”

(3) “When 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T are used in accordance with registered directions there is no danger to humans and   any effect on wild life and non-target flora would be minimal. Any such effects must be considered in relation to the necessity to control major weed pests.”

(4) “An officer of Cropair Aviation Pty. Ltd. has advised my Department that no further aerial spraying will be under-taken in the area while investigations are under way.”

(5) “Current legislation provides control over the operations of aerial agricultural pilots and weed control operators on the ground. It is considered that these controls are adequate.”

1972 July: Burpengary (Qld) Widespread Spraydrift. Pesticides: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D

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Queensland Parliamentary Debates [Hansard] Legislative Assembly Thursday, 10 August 1972

p 104 Questions Upon Notice [10 August 1972]

Damage by Aerial Spraying, Pine Rivers, Caboolture and Landsborough Shires

Mr. Frawley, pursuant to notice, asked The Minister for Primary Industries, –

(1) Is he aware of the widespread damage in Redcliffe, Narangba, Deception Bay, Burpengary, Caboolture and Toorbul areas to the fruit and vegetable crops and beekeepers’ apairies, believed to have been caused by aerial spraying of 2,4-D Amiene and 2,4,5-T Ester by Cropair Aviation Pty Ltd.?

(2) Are these hormone sprays being supplied to Cropair Aviation Ltd, by A.C.F. Austral Fertilizers Pty Ltd, the company which supplies fertilizers to the district’s fruit and vegetable growers?

(3) As Cropair Aviation Pty Ltd has or intends to spread these dangerous hormone sprays over thousands of acres of land in Pine Rivers Shire, over the adjoining boundaries of the City of Redcliffe, what guarantees can he give that there will be no effects from it to thousands of residents living in these areas and to the wild life, both flora and fauna, and the fish and prawn-breeding areas of Deception Bay?

(4) Will he take immediate steps to have all operations stopped until all complaints have been investigated?

(5) Will he give his assurance that he will have the matter of misting machines and aeroplanes spreading hormones with in these
areas delayed until a thorough investigation has been made and will he also consider making it law that only after the issue of a permit by the local D.P.I. officer may any person be allowed to use hormone sprays?

Answers:-

( 1) “Crop damage in these areas has been reported to my Department but the extent of the damage and its cause has not yet been established. The possibility of the damage resulting from spraying operations, other than aerial spraying, cannot be ruled out. The Standards Branch of my Department has a number of complaints of damage under investigation.”

(2) “My Department does not have direct knowledge of the supply of chemicals from one company to another. Our responsibility is to ensure that any chemical used is registered and is used according to directions.”

(3) “When 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T are used in accordance with registered directions there is no danger to humans and   any effect on wild life and non-target flora would be minimal. Any such effects must be considered in relation to the necessity to control major weed pests.”

(4) “An officer of Cropair Aviation Pty. Ltd. has advised my Department that no further aerial spraying will be under-taken in the area while investigations are under way.”

(5) “Current legislation provides control over the operations of aerial agricultural pilots and weed control operators on the ground. It is considered that these controls are adequate.”

1972 July: Deception Bay (Qld) Widespread Spray Drift. Pesticides: 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T

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Queensland Parliamentary Debates [Hansard] Legislative Assembly Thursday, 10 August 1972

p 104 Questions Upon Notice [10 August 1972]

Damage by Aerial Spraying, Pine Rivers, Caboolture and Landsborough Shires

Mr. Frawley, pursuant to notice, asked The Minister for Primary Industries, –

(1) Is he aware of the widespread damage in Redcliffe, Narangba, Deception Bay, Burpengary, Caboolture and Toorbul areas to the fruit and vegetable crops and beekeepers’ apairies, believed to have been caused by aerial spraying of 2,4-D Amiene and 2,4,5-T Ester by Cropair Aviation Pty Ltd.?

(2) Are these hormone sprays being supplied to Cropair Aviation Ltd, by A.C.F. Austral Fertilizers Pty Ltd, the company which supplies fertilizers to the district’s fruit and vegetable growers?

(3) As Cropair Aviation Pty Ltd has or intends to spread these dangerous hormone sprays over thousands of acres of land in Pine Rivers Shire, over the adjoining boundaries of the City of Redcliffe, what guarantees can he give that there will be no effects from it to thousands of residents living in these areas and to the wild life, both flora and fauna, and the fish and prawn-breeding areas of Deception Bay?

(4) Will he take immediate steps to have all operations stopped until all complaints have been investigated?

(5) Will he give his assurance that he will have the matter of misting machines and aeroplanes spreading hormones with in these
areas delayed until a thorough investigation has been made and will he also consider making it law that only after the issue of a permit by the local D.P.I. officer may any person be allowed to use hormone sprays?

Answers:-

( 1) “Crop damage in these areas has been reported to my Department but the extent of the damage and its cause has not yet been established. The possibility of the damage resulting from spraying operations, other than aerial spraying, cannot be ruled out. The Standards Branch of my Department has a number of complaints of damage under investigation.”

(2) “My Department does not have direct knowledge of the supply of chemicals from one company to another. Our responsibility is to ensure that any chemical used is registered and is used according to directions.”

(3) “When 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T are used in accordance with registered directions there is no danger to humans and   any effect on wild life and non-target flora would be minimal. Any such effects must be considered in relation to the necessity to control major weed pests.”

(4) “An officer of Cropair Aviation Pty. Ltd. has advised my Department that no further aerial spraying will be under-taken in the area while investigations are under way.”

(5) “Current legislation provides control over the operations of aerial agricultural pilots and weed control operators on the ground. It is considered that these controls are adequate.”

1972 July: Narangba (Qld) Widespread Spray Drift. Pesticides: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D

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Queensland Parliamentary Debates [Hansard] Legislative Assembly Thursday, 10 August 1972

p 104 Questions Upon Notice [10 August 1972]

Damage by Aerial Spraying, Pine Rivers, Caboolture and Landsborough Shires

Mr. Frawley, pursuant to notice, asked The Minister for Primary Industries, –

(1) Is he aware of the widespread damage in Redcliffe, Narangba, Deception Bay, Burpengary, Caboolture and Toorbul areas to the fruit and vegetable crops and beekeepers’ apairies, believed to have been caused by aerial spraying of 2,4-D Amiene and 2,4,5-T Ester by Cropair Aviation Pty Ltd.?

(2) Are these hormone sprays being supplied to Cropair Aviation Ltd, by A.C.F. Austral Fertilizers Pty Ltd, the company which supplies fertilizers to the district’s fruit and vegetable growers?

(3) As Cropair Aviation Pty Ltd has or intends to spread these dangerous hormone sprays over thousands of acres of land in Pine Rivers Shire, over the adjoining boundaries of the City of Redcliffe, what guarantees can he give that there will be no effects from it to thousands of residents living in these areas and to the wild life, both flora and fauna, and the fish and prawn-breeding areas of Deception Bay?

(4) Will he take immediate steps to have all operations stopped until all complaints have been investigated?

(5) Will he give his assurance that he will have the matter of misting machines and aeroplanes spreading hormones with in these
areas delayed until a thorough investigation has been made and will he also consider making it law that only after the issue of a permit by the local D.P.I. officer may any person be allowed to use hormone sprays?

Answers:-

( 1) “Crop damage in these areas has been reported to my Department but the extent of the damage and its cause has not yet been established. The possibility of the damage resulting from spraying operations, other than aerial spraying, can-not be ruled out. The Standards Branch of my Department has a number of complaints of damage under investigation.”

(2) “My Department does not have direct knowledge of the supply of chemicals from one company to another. Our responsibility is to ensure that any chemical used is registered and is used according to directions.”

(3) “When 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T are used in accordance with registered directions there is no danger to humans and   any effect on wild life and non-target flora would be minimal. Any such effects must be considered in relation to the necessity to control major weed pests.”

(4) “An officer of Cropair Aviation Pty. Ltd. has advised my Department that no further aerial spraying will be under-taken in the area while investigations are under way.”

(5) “Current legislation provides control over the operations of aerial agricultural pilots and weed control operators on the ground. It is considered that these controls are adequate.”

1972 July: Redcliffe (Qld) Widespread Spray Drift. Pesticides: 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T

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Queensland Parliamentary Debates [Hansard] Legislative Assembly Thursday, 10 August 1972

p 104 Questions Upon Notice [10 August 1972]

Damage by Aerial Spraying, Pine Rivers, Caboolture and Landsborough Shires

Mr. Frawley, pursuant to notice, asked The Minister for Primary Industries, –

(1) Is he aware of the widespread damage in Redcliffe, Narangba, Deception Bay, Burpengary, Caboolture and Toorbul areas to the fruit and vegetable crops and beekeepers’ apairies, believed to have been caused by aerial spraying of 2,4-D Amiene and 2,4,5-T Ester by Cropair Aviation Pty Ltd.?

(2) Are these hormone sprays being supplied to Cropair Aviation Ltd, by A.C.F. Austral Fertilizers Pty Ltd, the company which supplies fertilizers to the district’s fruit and vegetable growers?

(3) As Cropair Aviation Pty Ltd has or intends to spread these dangerous hormone sprays over thousands of acres of land in Pine Rivers Shire, over the adjoining boundaries of the City of Redcliffe, what guarantees can he give that there will be no effects from it to thousands of residents living in these areas and to the wild life, both flora and fauna, and the fish and prawn-breeding areas of Deception Bay?

(4) Will he take immediate steps to have all operations stopped until all complaints have been investigated?

(5) Will he give his assurance that he will have the matter of misting machines and aeroplanes spreading hormones with in these
areas delayed until a thorough investigation has been made and will he also consider making it law that only after the issue of a permit by the local D.P.I. officer may any person be allowed to use hormone sprays?

Answers:-

( 1) “Crop damage in these areas has been reported to my Department but the extent of the damage and its cause has not yet been established. The possibility of the damage resulting from spraying operations, other than aerial spraying, can-not be ruled out. The Standards Branch of my Department has a number of complaints of damage under investigation.”

(2) “My Department does not have direct knowledge of the supply of chemicals from one company to another. Our responsibility is to ensure that any chemical used is registered and is used according to directions.”

(3) “When 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T are used in accordance with registered directions there is no danger to humans and   any effect on wild life and non-target flora would be minimal. Any such effects must be considered in relation to the necessity to control major weed pests.”

(4) “An officer of Cropair Aviation Pty. Ltd. has advised my Department that no further aerial spraying will be under-taken in the area while investigations are under way.”

(5) “Current legislation provides control over the operations of aerial agricultural pilots and weed control operators on the ground. It is considered that these controls are adequate.”

1990: Hamilton (Vic). Eastern Barred Bandicoot. Dieldrin Residues.

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p577 “Studies attempting to define the cause of the continuing decline in the population of the Eastern Barred Bandicoot (Perameles gunnii) in Hamilton, western Victoria, showed that dieldrin residues were present in the limited number of samples examined (Lenghaus at al 1990)… The extent to which exposure to dieldrin contributed to the death or debilitation of individual animals is unknown, as are any effects that insecticides may have had on the insects or arthropods which are included in the bandicoot diet”

1991 State of the Environment Report. Agriculture and Victoria’s Environment. Office of the Commissioner for the Environment.

1988: Horsham (Vic) Wimmera River. Pesticide: DDT

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p576 “Residues of DDT and other organochlorines have been found in waterways in a recent survey in the Horsham district in the Wimmera (Bell, EPA, unpublished data). This study was initiated following reports of fish and yabby kills in the Horsham area in previous spraying seasons. Insecticide use is intensive in the area, particularly on legume crops (mainly field peas) to control budworm (Heliothis spp.) and pea weevil. Some 195,000 ha of legumes (139,000 ha of field peas) were grown in the Mallee and Wimmera in the 1989-90 season (ABS 1991).

The use of organochlorine insecticides is now prohibited and synthetic pyrethroids are largely the chemical of choice. Much spraying is done by aerial operations. Synthetic pyrethroids are very toxic to aquatic organisms but detection is difficult because these chemicals are non-persistent and break down rapidly in water and after ingestion.

Ten sites, including four dams (one private, three located at Government facilities), two irrigation channels, three sites on the Wimmera River and one wetland site, were selected to monitor the effects of pesticide spraying both before and during the 1988 field pea cropping season. Water and sediment samples were collected and monitored for organochlorine, organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides. Results of the survey were inconclusive as to the effects of current agricultural management on pesticide levels, because too little data were obtained and wet weather conditions meant that pesticide spraying was less intensive than usual. However, the results did show that organochlorines at levels greater than the thresholds for harmful effects on aquatic ecosystems still persisted on occasion, in both water and sediment. Synthetic pyrethroid residues were detected in one site where yabby kills had occurred, but it was not possible to detect synthetic pyrethroid residues in dead yabbies.”

1991 State of the Environment Report. Agriculture and Victoria’s Environment. Office of the Commissioner for the Environment.

1977: Panton Hill (Vic). DDT and Dieldrin residues in Kookaburras.

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p574 “In another early study, Parry (1973) reported DDT contamination in Laughing Kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguinea). The specimens, collected from the inner Melbourne suburb of Brunswick and from Panton Hill just outside of Melbourne revealed low concentrations of DDE in liver, muscle and brain and dieldrin in liver. Insufficient data was available to predict whether these concentrations had an adverse effect on species survival. However, the author commented on the longevity of kookaburras (between 12 and 25 years) and emphasised the long period over which production could be affected.”

1991 State of the Environment Report. Agriculture and Victoria’s Environment. Office of the Commissioner for the Environment.

1977: Brunswick (Vic): DDT and Dieldrin contamination of Kookaburras.

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p574 “In another early study, Parry (1973) reported DDT contamination in Laughing Kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguinea). The specimens, collected from the inner Melbourne suburb of Brunswick and from Panton Hill just outside of Melbourne revealed low concentrations of DDE in liver, muscle and brain and dieldrin in liver. Insufficient data was available to predict whether these concentrations had an adverse effect on species survival. However, the author commented on the longevity of kookaburras (between 12 and 25 years) and emphasised the long period over which production could be affected.”

1991 State of the Environment Report. Agriculture and Victoria’s Environment. Office of the Commissioner for the Environment.

 

1986 October: Pimpinio (Vic). Dead yabbies in water storage. Pesticide: Fenvalerate.

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Wimmera Mail Times October 27 1986: Dead Yabbies found in “two of the towns four water storgaes and also in dams near Nhill and Pimpinio”

10 November 1986: ADCRC Meeting “Mr … reported that the tissue tests on yabbies found dead and dying in three storages around Rainbow showed the insecticide Fenvalerate to be present at 10 parts per billion. However, the channel waters and sediments tested did not show positive results for either Fenvalerate or for the synthetic pyrethroids which were also sprayed, although Fenvalerate was detected in some puddle samples.”

20 March 1987 DCFL Memorandum:In October 1986, aerial spraying of field peas for pea weevil and heliotis resulted in extensive yabby mortalities in water stored and farm dams in the Rainbow area. The RWC immediately closed the Rainbow urban storages and took samples of water, sediments and yabbies for chemical analysis. No chemicals were found in water or sediments, but fenvalerate … was detected at a concentration of 10 parts per million in yabbies…

22 June 1987 Rural Water Corporation (RWC): In 1986 the Rainbow storage was contaminated with insecticide resulting in death of yabbies. The cause was identifed as the aerial spraying of pea crops. DCFL reported 9 other yabbie kills plus one of fish. Subsequent to the contamination of the Rainbow storage no further contamination of any waterway was reported…

21 July 1987: “The Water Commission continues to be concerned that off-target aerial spraying of insecticides or pea crops this year could contaminate water supplies…”

24 July 1987 RWC Memorandum: “… the issue of avoiding potential contamination of water supplies is vital… The urban storages should be highlighted on a plan and the contractors informed that the RWC opposes spraying near flowing channels, storages containing water and within 100m of urban storages…” [Aerial spraying of Wimmera Pea crops].

28 September 1987: RWC Memorandum: The Commission has had recent concerns with off-target spraying of insecticides in the Wimmera and Mallee where urban storages have been polluted. In the present act there is only provision for declaring horticultural areas as hazardous areas, but not waterways or storages…

29 September 1987 Rural Water Corporation

Re: Spray drift from spraying field pea crops adjacent to Rural Water Commission waterways.

“… The seriousness of water contamination was highlighted last year where there was a large yabbie kill in one of the Rainbow urban storages. Fortunately no-ill effects were passed onto the people of Rainbow. The contamination in this case was due to spray drift entering the storage from aerial spraying of a pea crop immediately adjacent to the storage…”

“Last year the urban storage of the RWC at Rainbow was polluted with insecticide from off-target aerial spraying of a field pea crop. There were also other fish and yabby kills in the Wimmera for the same reason…”

29 September 1987 RWC to ADCRC: “You asked to be kept informed of initiatives taken by the RWC to avoid repitition of insecticide contamination of urban storages in the Wimmera and Mallee by aerial spraying…”

October 2 1987: Spray forum Horsham – 200 people attended. In 1985/6 616,000ha of crops and 16,000ha of pasture were sprayed with herbicides. 45,000ha of crops and 8,000ha of pasture sprayed with insecticides.

Time covered in FoI request: 25/6/05 – 20/8/07:

Wimmera Mallee Pipeline being constructed. This will substantially reduce risk of runoff into channels.

Current Pesticide Testing Regimes:

NATA accredited laboratory working on behalf of GWMWater, scan checks for traces of; Lindane, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Heptachlor Epoxide, 4-4-DDD, 4-4-DDE, 4,4-DDT, Hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Testing appears to be based on annual checks however it appears that some supplies are not tested annually and some more than annually. Due to the information sourced from the FoI further explanations are impossible.

No positive results detected.

http://baddevelopers.nfshost.com/Docs/foewaterreport.htm#Grampians

2009 January: Weegena (Tas) Timber Plantations spraydrift concerns

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Gunns denies residents poisoned by aerial spraying

 

Timber company Gunns has rejected claims residents in northern Tasmania have been poisoned by aerial chemical spraying.

A number of people who attended a sustainable farming meeting at a property at Weegena, near the Mersey River, say drift from spraying has made them sick.

Neil Graham’s property is next to a Gunns plantation and he says he went outside for a closer look at the spraying.

“Within about 20 minutes, I had an irritation within my lungs and probably within half an hour of that, you could smell it,” he said.

He says his symptoms got worse overnight.

While a Gunns spokesman says there is no basis to the claims, acting Greens leader Kim Booth says there is photographic evidence to prove the company was in breach of regulations.

“These photos clearly show a helicopter that is spraying in contravention of the regulations and spraying adjacent to a river, which is a drinking water supply for many Tasmanians,” she said.

“It also contaminated the air shed; it goes for miles and miles and miles, the spray drift.”

The Department of Primary Industries is investigating the incident.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2009-01-22/gunns-denies-residents-poisoned-by-aerial-spraying/2590108

2007 May: Priory (Tas) Plantation spray drift concerns.

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Plantation company rejects spray claims

Plantation timber company Great Southern Plantations says it followed proper procedures during a ground-based spraying operation near St Helens on Tasmania’s east coast over the weekend.

Paula Michael, who lives at Priory, near St Helens, claims that she watched pesticide from the plantation spraying drift across the George River, which supplies St Helens’ water.

David Ikin from Great Southern Plantations has rejected the claim.

He says it’s not possible that the spray could have reached the river.

“We’d left a 25-metre buffer between where we were spraying and the river, the winds were very very light – in the order of about 5 kilometres an hour – and weather conditions were ideal,” he said.

“We’re satisfied that no spray would have got into the water.”

Mr Ikin says an experienced operator carried out the spraying.

Some residents are also upset about local council procedures for reporting water contamination, after Paula Michael claimed it took her several hours to get hold of the council to report the incident.

St Helens’ local GP, Alison Bleaney, is angry that the Break O’Day Council hasn’t made it easier for residents to report their concerns.

Dr Bleaney says the town has had water contamination problems in the past, and the council should have had better systems in place by now.

“There should be a Break O’Day Council emergency incident protocol, which says ‘phone this number if there is a problem'”, she said.

“We should be able to phone that number, that number should be manned and we should be able to tell the people who are in control whether it’s water or sewage or whatever the problem is.”

The Break O’Day Mayor, Robert Legge, has vowed to fix the council’s emergency reporting system.

“I think the whole thing’s an absolute mess,” he said.

“If this is the case of what happened, that emergency numbers could not be contacted, then there’s something wrong with the system.”

Mr Legge says he’ll order immediate action to fix the reporting system.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2007-05-14/plantation-company-rejects-spray-claims/2548190

2005 January: Swan Hill (Vic) Spray drift. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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Weed damaging grape vines

Grapegrowers around Swan Hill say their vines are being affected by drift from weed spraying on broadacre farms up to 20 kilometres away.

Widespread rain has prompted strong summer weed growth, but viticulturists say their vines are being damaged by the hormone sprays farmers are using to kill the weeds.

The president of the Swan Hill Wine Grapegrowers Association, Colin Free, says it is the second year spray-related vine distortion has been reported in the area.

He says legal options are still being considered but farmers need to be more aware of weather conditions suitable for the use of sprays such as 2-4-D.

“Horticultural areas are working their ways out into the Mallee areas further than what they have been before, so perhaps the exclusion zones do need to be widened and also possibly some exclusion zones introduced into New South Wales,” he said.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2005-01-18/weed-damaging-grape-vines/620926

2008 November: Lebrina (Tas) hardwood plantation insecticide drift

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Fears over chemical spraying

A couple in Tasmania’s north-east fear they will lose customers from their accommodation business after their property was sprayed with insecticide this morning.

Howard and Michelle Carpenter claim insecticide drifted onto their property near Lebrina from spraying to stop an insect infestation in neighbouring plantations.

A spokesman for Gunns says the timber company tried to address the concerns of neighbours and used an organic chemical when spraying close to adjoining properties.

Michelle Carpenter says she is concerned that the insecticide could drift across from the plantations and onto her land.

“It’s not so much the movement of the chemical on the ground to get into rainwater, it’s more the drift that you have to be aware of with this one,” Ms Carpenter said.

“The fact that we rely on rainwater now in the catchment area off the roof, but yes, its the drift that is the big worry.”

Editor’s note: This story has been amended as the Gunn’s spokesman said spraying with an organic insecticide had occurred close to the poperty not over it.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2008-11-18/fears-over-chemical-spraying/211028

2009 November: Pampas (Qld). Spray Drift

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Firm fined for spray damage

FORMER AgForce grains president Lyndon Pfeffer’s company Crake Proprietary Limited has been fined $7500 for damaging a neighbouring property’s cotton crop.
The damaged was caused by chemical spray drift.
Crake Propriety Limited pleaded guilty in the Pittsworth Magistrates Court last month for using a chemical and not complying with the instructions on the label.
The incident occurred in November, 2009 at a property in Pampas.
Mr Pfeffer is a Millmerran grain grower and director of Crake Propriety Limited.
He declined to comment.

http://www.thechronicle.com.au/news/toowoomba-lyndon-pfeffer-agforce/758172/

2004 March: Yamba (South Australia). Spray drift concerns.

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Farmers consider spray drift problem

Posted

South Australia’s Riverland grape growers and farmers are working together to prevent more vines being damaged from some sprays used on broadacre farms.

About 50 growers and farmers attended an information session about the problem known as spray drift at an affected vineyard in Yamba yesterday.

More than 19 cases of spray drift have been discovered in the Riverland, costing those growers hundreds of thousands of dollars in damaged vines.

PIRSA agronomist Graham Fromme says most farmers do the right thing, but the spray drift continues to be a problem.

“It’s disappointing that the majority of farmers, as I said, are aware and there’s just the few odd ones who either take the chance, or don’t spray under the right conditions, or use the wrong products that possibly cause the problems and, you know, the majority of farmers who live adjacent to horticultural areas are quite aware of what happens,” he said.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2004-03-10/farmers-consider-spray-drift-problem/149026

2005 March: Liverpool Plains (NSW) Spray Drift. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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Herbicide spray drift hits crops

Posted

Farmers on the Liverpool Plains have reported significant damage to their crops because of herbicide spray drift.

Cotton Australia’s Ross Brown says summer crop growers are expecting considerable yield loss because of the drift from phenoxy-based products and those containing 24-D.

Mr Brown says growers and applicators are either ignoring or unaware of the risk factors involved in spraying with the herbicides, particularly in the summer.

He says the hot weather creates improved conditions for spray drift.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2005-03-02/herbicide-spray-drift-hits-crops/1527936

2012 March: Porongurup Vineyard Spray Drift. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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Porongurup wine grapes damaged by herbicide spray drift

Some Porongurup wine producers in WA’s Great Southern are concerned about grapevine damage, seemingly from spray drift of herbicides being used in summer weed control.

Some growers have reported damage to the Department of Agriculture and Food and it appears that it’s consistent with the effects of phenoxy herbicides such as 2,4-D drifting on to vines.

Angelo Diletti, from Castle Rock winery, is one grower affected.

“It’s widespread within our vineyard. The growing tips of the vines have a typically mis-shapen leaves, almost certain hormone damage,” he said.

“At this stage it’s growing tips, so it probably hasn’t affected this year. What it will do in the future I don’t know.”

The Department of Agriculture agrees that it is phenoxy damage and urges growers spraying summer weeds to be very careful in monitoring spraying conditions to avoid sprays drifting into susceptible crops such as grapes.

http://www.abc.net.au/site-archive/rural/news/content/201203/s3460355.htm

1990’s: Harcourt (Vic). Health concerns related to pesticides.

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CHEMICAL COWBOYS -a story of Guillain Barre Syndrome
By William Simmons, Manangatang, Victoria, Australia

“…These cases now will spend many months and years being fought out by lawyers in courts but the chemicals will still be used. In a small community outside Westwood at Harcourt, an apple growing area of country Victoria, it was revealed that birth defects and pregnancy problems were worse here than any parts of Australia. We have the statistics, we
suspect the orchard sprays but we continue to spray for the sake of productivity. What is productivity and at what cost to some are we prepared to accept to achieve these results?…”

1999 October: Wakool (NSW). Vineyard Exposure.

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CHEMICAL COWBOYS -a story of Guillain Barre Syndrome
By William Simmons, Manangatang, Victoria, Australia

“…I was working in a vineyard at Wakool in October 1999 when I got sprayed. My life will never be the same. I was working in the vineyard for approximately five months before I got sprayed. The day it happened I was working with the leading hand de-budding vines. The vines we were working in run from row 1 to row 123. At 10.00am we were close to the top of row 68/69 and stopped for morning tea. We had only sat down for some 2-3 minutes when the owner of the property arrived in an octopus double lane sprayer down row 70/71 and sprayed us. The thick vapour was impossible to escape and the smell was repugnant. The owner quickly took off down the next available row and left the property….”

1988 December: Kensington (Vic) United Transport Services Fire.

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1988 – 1989: Croydon South Dorset Road. ICI Merrindale Research Station

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1997 December – 1998 November: Imbil (Qld). Pesticides: Atrazine and metabolites.

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Source: APVMA

http://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/atrazine-phase-6-second-draft-final-review-report.pdf

The reconsideration of approvals of the active constituent atrazine,registrations of products containing atrazine, and their associated labels.

SECOND DRAFT FINAL REVIEW REPORT Including additional assessments
Timber Plantation Trials

p55 Surface Water Monitoring for Atrazine in Queensland Timber Plantations

Surface water monitoring in Queensland was conducted in a hoop pine plantation at
Imbil in the south-east corner of the State. The 8 ha study site was situated on silty clay
soils, at an elevation of 100-300 m with slopes of 5 to 30o. Atrazine was manually
applied along the tree row, by knapsack at 5 kg/ha (overall rate 2.25 kg/ha) on six
occasions over a 2 year period. The subtropical climate demanded more frequent
treatments in order to achievesatisfactory weed control, but also leads to a shorter half-
life for atrazine in soil. Summer rainfall is dominant at this subtropical location, and
was near average at 1130 mm in year 1 and well above at 1703 mm in year 2, with a
correspondingly high number of flood events (19 at the upstream station and 21
downstream). One large storm in February of the second year delivered 540 mm over a
3 day period and caused a major flood event.
Atrazine was applied four times in the first year, in December 1997 and April, August
and November 1998. Flood events occurred 2, 34 and 53 days after the first treatment,
1 and 9 days after the second, 27 and 91 days after the third, and 2, 29 and 43 days after
the fourth in the high CAR (94%). Atrazine concentrations at the upstream station
remained in the low ppb range for the first and last treatments, but reached 109μg/L for the second treatment (in the second event) and 127.7μg/L for the third (first event). Atrazine was accompanied by significant amounts (in the order of 10%) of the dealkylated metabolites DEA and DIA, the former being predominant. Peak concentrations at the low CAR (4.4%) downstream station, after each application were 7.6, 18.2, 105.5 and 25.6μg/L (note not always in the first flood event, and that the duration of the peaks was brief).
Previous experience with hoop pine plantation establishment had indicated that surface
runoff is much more likely to be generated from point sources than from the general
plantation area, the high infiltration capacity of which is enhanced by slash retention and contoured windrows which pond runoff water. Direct contamination of watercourses was discounted as these were protected and chemical was applied manually.
Road areas (including access tracks and snig tracks within the plantation) were suspected as the main source of contamination because of their high rainfall runoff coefficient. Drainage outlets compounded the problem as they flowed directly to watercourses via roadside drains, rather than being directed back into the general plantation area via water
spreading structures.
A number of procedural changes were introduced in late 1998 to minimise the risk of
contamination. Roadside transfer of herbicide mix from tanker to knapsacks was

restricted to areas where drainage was directed back into the plantation, with staff
instructed to minimise the possibility of spillage during transfer and test the spray units
only within the plantation area. Application to potential point sources in the general
plantation area, such as access tracks and snig tracks, was to be avoided.
Treatments in 1999 occurred in February and October, with flood events at the high CAR station 11, 77, 126, 189 and 234 days after the first treatment and 1 and 13 days after the second. Atrazine concentrations, at the upstream stations, were elevated after the first treatment, reaching 41.8μg/L in the first of two events 11 days after treatment, and 50.4μg/L in the second. Concentrations remained in the low ppb range after the second treatment. At the downstream station, concentrations did not exceed 2.3μ g/L…”

1996 October – 1997 August: Mt Canobolas (NSW) Atrazine experiments.

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Source: APVMA

http://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/atrazine-phase-6-second-draft-final-review-report.pdf

The reconsideration of approvals of the active constituent atrazine,registrations of products containing atrazine, and their associated labels.

SECOND DRAFT FINAL REVIEW REPORT Including additional assessments
Timber Plantation Trials

p53 Surface Water Monitoring for Atrazine in NSW Timber Plantations

Surface water monitoring in NSW was conducted at Canobolas in the central-west of the state near the town of Orange.

Two moderately sloping catchments on the eastern and western sides of Mt Canobolas were chosen. Ground spraying used on the first site, aerial spraying on the second site. Liquid formulations used during the first year and core-coated granules in the second year.

Atrazine concentrations were monitored at two locations. “Concentrations remained below 1 ug/L at both upstream locations in the second year… They were above the threshold in the first year for about 2 months at one station (maximum 2.9 ug/L 25 days after treatment) and about a month at the other station (maximum 20 ug/L on the morning of the fourth day after treatment, declining to 5 ug/L by the evening of the second day)… desethylatrazine (DEA) was found at the former station at concentrations up to 0.9ug/L, but only after the second day of the trial…The second rotation site was served by two monitoring stations, one at the exit of the plantation and the second 7 km downstream. Atrazine concentrations in stream water leaving the site did not exceed 1 ug/L in the first year, except for the day of treatment when 13ug/L was recorded. In the second year, a marked spike of atrazine (61ug/L) was detected in water at the first weir on the first day after treatment (20 August 1997). Concentrations remained elevated at this location for the next three months (26.5ug/L on 5 September, 4.7ug/L on 8 October, 1.2ug/L on 7 November). Residues were diluted below 0.2ug/L at the downstream monitoring station, except for a single sample in September 1997 containing 0.6ug/L. Metabolites remained undetectable in the first season, but desethylatrazine reached 1ug/L in September 1997 at the upstream station….Two flood events were sampled, 131 days after the first treatment and 15 days after the second. Peak concentrations at the high CAR station were 1.0 and 26.5 ug/L respectively…”

 

1974 August: Pine Creek (SA). Pesticides in Trench: HCB, Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor Epoxide, DDE

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1974 July: Coffin Bay (SA). Pesticides in Spotted Whiting. Lindane, Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor Epoxide, DDE

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

 

1975 February: Renmark (SA). Pesticides in Murray Cod, Redfin, Callop.

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1975 February: Loxton (SA). Pesticides in Murray Cod: HCB, Lindane, Dieldrin, DDE, DDD, DDT

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1975 January: Cowell (SA). Pesticides in Snapper. HCB, Lindane, Dieldrin, DDE, DDT

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1974 August – October: Whyalla (SA). Pesticides in Snapper, Garfish, Spotted Whiting

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1974 October: Bluff Beach (SA). Pesticides in Snook: Lindane, Dieldrin, DDE

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1974 April – 1975 February: Gurra Lakes (SA). Pesticides in Bream, Callop, Redfin, Catfish

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1974 March: Tickera (SA) Pesticides in Whiting: HCB, Lindane, Dieldrin, DDT

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

 

 

2013 January: Newhaven (Vic) Spray Drift Complaint. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos.

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The mysterious case of the Newhaven poisoning

Sentinel-Times, February 5

February 16, 2013

NEWHAVEN residents say they are mystified by claims that a man was poisoned by insecticide spray drifting from the Newhaven recreation reserve last month. 

On February 5, the South Gippsland Sentinel-Times reported that a Newhaven man, Phillip Bagley, was seeking compensation from Bass Coast Council for an incident in which he alleged spray from an insecticide reached his house in Wencliff Court on January 18.

The Sentinel-Times reported: “A HazMat team was despatched to the property along with an ambulance. After being transported to Wonthaggi Hospital, Phillip underwent an ECG but was soon sent home.’’

Mr Bagley told the Sentinel-Times he was still suffering from the after-effects of the poisoning, including shortness of breath and his lungs filling with a thick mucus, and his doctor had told him to pull out his vegetable garden in case it was contaminated. He said he was more concerned for others, with a primary school and other houses even closer to the oval.

The Bass Coast Post spoke to several residents in the same street. None wished to be identified but all said they had been unaware of spray drift and did not suffer any health effects. 

To reach Mr Bagley’s place, which is at least 50 metres from the oval, the spray would have had to go over another property or through a windbreak and over a high fence.

Ambulance Victoria told the Bass Coast Post an ambulance team was called to attend a 64-year-old Newhaven man with headaches but did not take him to hospital. 

Newhaven Primary School principal Andrew Strickland said the spraying had not affected the school. “Our school garden has been fully cleared of any impact. The Department of Primary Industries did a full investigation and found the council conduct was appropriate. We have had contact with the council and they have been very open.’’

In a letter to the Environment Protection Authority, which Mr Bagley copied to the Bass Coast Post, he stated that while trying to contact the council’s environment officer he was put through to another staff member “who spoke in a caustic manner and claimed that I complained all the time”.

“I explained that if they obeyed the law I would have nothing for the authorities to take them to task.”

In his letter, Mr Bagley asks if the EPA has the power to prosecute the council. “If not then could you point me to the agency that can as I will not rest until responsibility and appropriate penalties are decided.”

The Bass Coast Post asked the council how many other complaints Mr Bagley had made but the council declined to answer.

Mr Bagley has, however, made complaints against other institutions. The Education Department paid for a high fence between his property and Newhaven Primary School in response to his concerns about noise from the playground.

Mr Bagley also complained to Newhaven College about car parking problems in his street during big events.

Bass Coast infrastructure maintenance manager Jamie Sutherland confirmed that on January 18 the council was spraying an insecticide called Chlorpyrifos to prevent insect damage to the oval grass.

He said Chlorpyrifos had a strong odour, which some people found unpleasant, and the council was investigating odourless alternatives to minimise public concerns.

But he said the council had investigated the complaint and was confident proper procedures were followed.

“Before using any chemical sprays, we always conduct a risk assessment and do pre-start checks to ensure conditions are suitable. In addition, we included an anti-drift agent, which helps to prevent the spray from drifting. We are very confident that the spray did not drift onto nearby properties.

“Our investigation concluded that all of the correct procedures were followed and we have appropriate approvals and licences to use these products.”

2005: Balmoral (NSW). Dioxins in Bream

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

2005: Clifton Gardens (NSW). Dioxins in Bream

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

2005: Fort Denison (NSW). Dioxins in Bream

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

2005: Drummoyne (NSW). Dioxins in Bream

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

2005: Breakfast Point (NSW). Dioxins in Bream

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

2005: Silverwater (NSW). Dioxins in Bream

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

1990’s: Sales Rivulet (Tas). Pesticide: Cypermethrin

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Abstract

Cypermethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, was aerially sprayed on a Eucalyptus nitens plantation in northern Tasmania, Australia. Several tributary streams of the Meander River draining the plantation received direct spray drift contamination of the order of 0.05 mg/m2. Increases in invertebrate drift of over 200-times were observed on the day of spraying in Sales Rivulet. Drift was significantly elevated for 8 days after spraying, recovering both in density and relative abundance after early winter floods. Plecoptera and ephemeroptera comprised 89–92% of the drift immediately after spraying, compared with 6–21% pre-spraying and at an uncontaminated site. Benthic abundances of plecoptera and ephemeroptera decreased after spraying in all small streams draining the plantation. Early winter floods were observed to facilitate recolonisation at affected sites. Resident Salmo trutta were collected from the streams before and during 6 months after spraying. Plasma chloride, glucose and protein concentrations were not affected by the spraying event. Significant transient changes in muscle RNA/DNA levels as well as brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase levels and hepatic mixed function oxygenase activity were related to the spraying event. These changes commenced around day 7 and persisted until day 26. Changes in fish diet were also observed, related to the sequence of abundant and depauperate invertebrate drift after spraying. Pathological symptoms in fish were apparently related to dietary intake of cypermethrin from dead and dying invertebrate drift.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0166445X93900556

1989 – 1991: Takone (Tas) approximate. Pesticide: Atrazine

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Buffer strips and streamwater contamination by atrazine and pyrethroids aerially applied to Eucalyptus nitens plantations. Jan L Barton and Peter E Davies. Inland Fisheries Commission, Hobart, Tasmania.

Summary

Concentrations of pesticides in streams draining 20 plantations of Eucalyptus nitens in Tasmania were examined in relation to buffer strip width. Atrazine concentrations on the day of spray in streams draining 15 plantations were significantly negatively correlated with riparian buffer strip width but not buffer quality. Concentrations following the first rain event in one month after spraying were highly positively correlated with day of spray concentrations and were only weakly correlated with other site characteristics. Streams with 30 m buffer strips had median atrazine concentrations less than 20 ug/L at all times and these buffer widths are recommended for minimising short term ecological impact on streams.

In streams draining five plantations that were aerially sprayed with the pyrethroids alpha – or cypermethrin, pyrethroid concentration and short term changes in drift (downstream movement) of stream invertebrates were highly negatively correlated with buffer strip width but with no other variable. Drift of stream invertebrates is recommended as a biomonitor for the contamination of streams with pyrethroids on the day of spray, sensitive down to 0.1ug/L. Buffer strips of at least 50 m are recommended to minimise mortality of stream invertebrates from pyrethroid spraying.

Methods

Atrazine

Stream water at 29 sites from 18 streams draining 15 Eucalyptus nitens plantations (owned by either the Forestry Commission or Australian Pulp and Paper Mills) was sampled during 1989 -1991 for the determination of atrazine concentrations…

Pyrethroids

Stream water from 7 sites in 7 streams draining 4 E.nitens plantations was sampled following operations spraying of alphamethrin in early (November – December) and 2 sites draining 1 plantation sprayed with cypermethrin were also sampled…

Results

Atrazine … Atrazine concentrations on the day of spray for all sites were significantly negatively correlated with buffer strip width, plantation catchment area, stream catchment area and length of stream within the catchment area ratio. They were not correlated with application rate and had only a marginal correlation with buffer strip quality… Median atrazine concentrations for streams <=10m, 20m and 30m buffer strip widths were 700, 58.1 and 5.4ug/L respectively…

Discussion

Only one of the plantations studied was sprayed from a light plane and this, combined with a complete lack of buffer strips and a high application rate (10kg/ha), resulted in the highest day of spray concentration found in the study (58 mg/L)…Contamination of streams draining plantations cannot be completely avoided if triazine herbicides are used. From the present study, it would appear that contamination can be minimised by the use of appropriate buffer strips. The maximum buffer strip examined in this study was 30 m. Median concentrations for all 30 m buffered streams were below 20 ug/L on all occasions following spraying, a concentration below which short term ecological effects are unilkely…

Pyrethroids

Peak (day of spray) pyrethroid concentrations were obtained on six occasions, ranging from <0.01 to 0.50 ug/L. These concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with buffer strip width, but not with any other site variable.

Discussion

Davies and Cook (1993) described the impact of a single spraying of cypermethrin on Sales Rivulet. They suggested that mayflies and stoneflies (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera) were the most sensitive taxa, showing the greatest response in both the drift and benthos. The present study further supports their observations with drift values being the highest for these groups at pyrethroid concentrations >0.1 ug/L and having the highest correlation with concentration. It appears that contamination of streams with low concentrations of pyrethroids from spray drift results in significant responses in invertebrate drift which are generally related to the mortality of mayflies and stoneflies (Davies and Cook 1993)

1989 – 1991: Guildford (Tas) approx. Pesticide Cypermethrin, Alpha-Cypermethrin

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Buffer strips and streamwater contamination by atrazine and pyrethroids aerially applied to Eucalyptus nitens plantations. Jan L Barton and Peter E Davies. Inland Fisheries Commission, Hobart, Tasmania.

Summary

Concentrations of pesticides in streams draining 20 plantations of Eucalyptus nitens in Tasmania were examined in relation to buffer strip width. Atrazine concentrations on the day of spray in streams draining 15 plantations were significantly negatively correlated with riparian buffer strip width but not buffer quality. Concentrations following the first rain event in one month after spraying were highly positively correlated with day of spray concentrations and were only weakly correlated with other site characteristics. Streams with 30 m buffer strips had median atrazine concentrations less than 20 ug/L at all times and these buffer widths are recommended for minimising short term ecological impact on streams.

In streams draining five plantations that were aerially sprayed with the pyrethroids alpha – or cypermethrin, pyrethroid concentration and short term changes in drift (downstream movement) of stream invertebrates were highly negatively correlated with buffer strip width but with no other variable. Drift of stream invertebrates is recommended as a biomonitor for the contamination of streams with pyrethroids on the day of spray, sensitive down to 0.1ug/L. Buffer strips of at least 50 m are recommended to minimise mortality of stream invertebrates from pyrethroid spraying.

Methods

Atrazine

Stream water at 29 sites from 18 streams draining 15 Eucalyptus nitens plantations (owned by either the Forestry Commission or Australian Pulp and Paper Mills) was sampled during 1989 -1991 for the determination of atrazine concentrations…

Pyrethroids

Stream water from 7 sites in 7 streams draining 4 E.nitens plantations was sampled following operations spraying of alphamethrin in early (November – December) and 2 sites draining 1 plantation sprayed with cypermethrin were also sampled…

Results

Atrazine … Atrazine concentrations on the day of spray for all sites were significantly negatively correlated with buffer strip width, plantation catchment area, stream catchment area and length of stream within the catchment area ratio. They were not correlated with application rate and had only a marginal correlation with buffer strip quality… Median atrazine concentrations for streams <=10m, 20m and 30m buffer strip widths were 700, 58.1 and 5.4ug/L respectively…

Discussion

Only one of the plantations studied was sprayed from a light plane and this, combined with a complete lack of buffer strips and a high application rate (10kg/ha), resulted in the highest day of spray concentration found in the study (58 mg/L)…Contamination of streams draining plantations cannot be completely avoided if triazine herbicides are used. From the present study, it would appear that contamination can be minimised by the use of appropriate buffer strips. The maximum buffer strip examined in this study was 30 m. Median concentrations for all 30 m buffered streams were below 20 ug/L on all occasions following spraying, a concentration below which short term ecological effects are unilkely…

Pyrethroids

Peak (day of spray) pyrethroid concentrations were obtained on six occasions, ranging from <0.01 to 0.50 ug/L. These concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with buffer strip width, but not with any other site variable.

Discussion

Davies and Cook (1993) described the impact of a single spraying of cypermethrin on Sales Rivulet. They suggested that mayflies and stoneflies (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera) were the most sensitive taxa, showing the greatest response in both the drift and benthos. The present study further supports their observations with drift values being the highest for these groups at pyrethroid concentrations >0.1 ug/L and having the highest correlation with concentration. It appears that contamination of streams with low concentrations of pyrethroids from spray drift results in significant responses in invertebrate drift which are generally related to the mortality of mayflies and stoneflies (Davies and Cook 1993)

1998-1999: Toolara (Qld). Pesticide: Simazine

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Simazine concentrations in soil groundwater and stream water following application to Pinus plantations in the coastal lowland forests of south-east Queensland. K.A.Bubb Queensland Forestry Research Institute. October 2000

“…The study had two components, the first being a large-scale catchment study site (903 ha) which assessed the level of simazine residues being transported from the point of application to the shallow unconfined aquifer and the major drainage stream over a 13-month period. The second component consisted of a seperate study on a small-scale study site (0.1 ha) to assess simazine persistence and its potential to leach in the course textured and relatively infertile soils of the area.

… Simazine was regularly detected in streamwater after surface runoff events but was below the current Australian drinking water health value. The detection of simazine in the unconfined aquifers at both sites indicated that it has the potential to leach to groundwater. However,  under routine applications it would seem that the groundwater concentrations were low and short lived (persistence < 6 weeks). The results indicated that simazine has a relatively short half-life (mean 13 days) in the course textured soils of the coastal lowlands of south-east Queensland…”

Mean simazine residues in perched aquifer at the small-scale study site following application 3 (25th March 1999)

<2 to 0.7ug/L. 0.6 to 0.7ug/L 14-21 days after treatment at groundwater depths between 0.43 and 0.7m

Mean Simazine residues (kg ha in soil following application) up to 96 days at one site.

1989 July: Collie River (WA). Pesticides: Atrazine, Hexazinone.

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The Results of Monitoring the Department of Conservation and Land Management Program of Applying Granulated Herbicides by Helicopter. A Report to the Environment Protection Authority. EPA Bulletin 435 June 1990.

In 1989 an investigation of the environmental impacts of two herbicides proposed for helicopter application by the Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), was carried out by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA)…

The environmental impacts of these chemicals on the aquatic environment was also monitored at five sites. The chemicals were leached into adjacent streams and intermittently detected at relatively low concentrations generally, but ranging from 0.8 to 38.0ug/L atrazine and 1.5 to 18ug/L hexazinone.

There was no observed effect on aquatic growth in the Blackwood River, however in the streams at two application sites there did appear to be some impact on aquatic invertebrate drift…

Water samples were also collected from the southern branch of the Collie River and from a stream site called Darrell. The samples were analysed for both atrazine and hexazinone… The treatment site area drained directly into the Collie River…
The concentrations of atrazine observed in the river on 24 July were very high and exceeded what would normally be considered as a safe limit for the maintenance and preservation of aquatic ecosystems…, but were unlikely to be sufficiently high to kill aquatic fauna.
The samples were taken in a wet period during a suddent heavy fall of rain (18mm) from the side of the river and directly downstream of the application area…

Grimwade Site: Hexazinone 4.4ug/L highest level 28/7/89, Atrazine 0.8ug/L highest level 28/7/89.

http://epa.wa.gov.au/EPADocLib/398_B435.pdf

1989 July: Balingup Brook (WA). Pesticides: Hexazinone, Atrazine

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The Results of Monitoring the Department of Conservation and Land Management Program of Applying Granulated Herbicides by Helicopter. A Report to the Environment Protection Authority. EPA Bulletin 435 June 1990.

In 1989 an investigation of the environmental impacts of two herbicides proposed for helicopter application by the Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), was carried out by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA)…

The environmental impacts of these chemicals on the aquatic environment was also monitored at five sites. The chemicals were leached into adjacent streams and intermittently detected at relatively low concentrations generally, but ranging from 0.8 to 38.0ug/L atrazine and 1.5 to 18ug/L hexazinone.

There was no observed effect on aquatic growth in the Blackwood River, however in the streams at two application sites there did appear to be some impact on aquatic invertebrate drift…

At Grimwade there was no control sampling site because the entire catchment of the small tributary was to have herbicide applied. The observed herbicide concentrations were relatively low during and after application and therefore an adverse impact on stream fauna was not expected.
Detection of atrazine at low concentrations was unexpected since it was not applied as part of the programme. Its presence indicates that there may be a residual component to this herbicide remaining in the soil from previous applications in the catchment two years ago or it may be a result of spraying firebreaks on 5 July 1989. The herbicides used on the firebreaks were 2kg/ha atrazine and 1.5kg/ha hexazinone…

Grimwade Site: Hexazinone 4.4ug/L highest level 28/7/89, Atrazine 0.8ug/L highest level 28/7/89.

http://epa.wa.gov.au/EPADocLib/398_B435.pdf

1989 July – 1989 August: Maidments site (Blackwood River) WA. Pesticides: Atrazine, Hexazinone.

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The Results of Monitoring the Department of Conservation and Land Management Program of Applying Granulated Herbicides by Helicopter. A Report to the Environment Protection Authority. EPA Bulletin 435 June 1990.

In 1989 an investigation of the environmental impacts of two herbicides proposed for helicopter application by the Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), was carried out by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA)…

The environmental impacts of these chemicals on the aquatic environment was also monitored at five sites. The chemicals were leached into adjacent streams and intermittently detected at relatively low concentrations generally, but ranging from 0.8 to 38.0ug/L atrazine and 1.5 to 18ug/L hexazinone.

There was no observed effect on aquatic growth in the Blackwood River, however in the streams at two application sites there did appear to be some impact on aquatic invertebrate drift…

At the Maidments site both hexazinone and atrazine were detected downstream of the target area. Again concentrations were not very high, however, there is some evidence suggesting that the small intermittent runnels at the head of the catchment may have contained significantly higher levels of herbicides for short periods during heavy rainfall.
These runnels only contain runoff during rainfall events. An independent sample from one of these intermittent runnels on 26 July contained 22mg/L atrazine and 5.8mg/L hexazinone. Some dilution can be expected downstream, particularly since only part of the stream catchment was sprayed.
A sample taken downstream during the same event but the day before measured 1.3 and 2.3 mg/L atrazine and hexazinone respectively. Likewise a downstream sample two days after measured 1.4 and 3.5mg/L atrazine and hexazinone respectively.

Maidments Site: Hexazinone 4.2ug/L highest level 20/8/89, Atrazine 2.1ug/L highest level 7/7/89.

http://epa.wa.gov.au/EPADocLib/398_B435.pdf

1989 August: Blackwood River (WA). South of Nannup. Pesticide: Hexazinone

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The Results of Monitoring the Department of Conservation and Land Management Program of Applying Granulated Herbicides by Helicopter. A Report to the Environment Protection Authority. EPA Bulletin 435 June 1990.

In 1989 an investigation of the environmental impacts of two herbicides proposed for helicopter application by the Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), was carried out by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA)…

The environmental impacts of these chemicals on the aquatic environment was also monitored at five sites. The chemicals were leached into adjacent streams and intermittently detected at relatively low concentrations generally, but ranging from 0.8 to 38.0ug/L atrazine and 1.5 to 18ug/L hexazinone.

There was no observed effect on aquatic growth in the Blackwood River, however in the streams at two application sites there did appear to be some impact on aquatic invertebrate drift…

Folly Site: Hexazinone 2.3ug/L highest level 14/8/89

http://epa.wa.gov.au/EPADocLib/398_B435.pdf

 

1991 – 1992: Darling River (NSW). Darling River sprayed with Algaecide to kill Blue Green-Algae.

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…Terry Pearce received the results of the tests. Immediately Mitchell broadcast an emergency message on Bourke’s local radio station warning of the “extreme danger” to humans and stock: “we don’t want to alarm people… [but] the toxin from blue-green algae is, in fact, in pure form more dangerous than cyanide.” Mitchell then hatched a plan to spray vast tracts of the Darling with an agricultural algaecide. When the NSW Pollution Control Commission refused to grant permission for the aerial spraying, Mitchell said he would go ahead anyway, and the Commission warned they would sue him personally if he did. That wasn’t going to stop “the Mouth from Louth.”

Mitchell procured 600 litres of a copper-based algaecide. A large cotton irrigation firm offered to donate the use of one of their crop dusters and a pilot. When residents in Bourke heard of the shire’s plans for aerial spraying of the chemical over their water supply a group formed to try to halt the action. The chemical had never been used for this purpose and wasn’t approved for use on open water. Concerned residents called the Pollution Control Commission, which assured them the spraying would not go ahead. On 9 November Mitchell had the crop duster pilot track the ailing Darling over forty kilometres, releasing the deep blue liquid algaecide onto the water and black soil plains below. The pilot commented that “zigzagging along the ever-twisting Darling was an interesting change after the repetitious runs spraying cotton.”

The National Parks and Wildlife Service opposed the use of the chemical. Ian Smalls, the principal scientist of the Department of Water Resources, said if he’d known he would have strongly advised against its use. Copper-based algaecides work by attracting algae with its nutrient content. The algae absorb it through their cell wall and a digestive enzyme breaks down the algaecide and releases copper into the cell, killing the algae.

Thirsty weather: drought-stricken western New South Wales in 2007. Mark Merton

When used as directed, the algaecide is not toxic to humans. The reason so many authorities objected to its use – apart from its being untested in such circumstances – was that the algaecide causes the dead algae to release their neurotoxins into the water immediately. Smalls said the effect was “like putting pins in a balloon, releasing other materials.” According to the manufacturer’s website these toxins could persist for twenty-eight days. Authorities feared mass fish kills could result, as well as the potential for poisoning of stock and humans.

One Bourke resident wrote a letter to the Sydney Morning Herald asking if the Darling River was being “used as a guinea pig for experimenting with chemicals” and accusing Mitchell of using ten times the recommended concentration. Mitchell didn’t see his actions as a massive gamble. He claimed he had verbal permission from the Department of Agriculture in Orange and that the spraying had been a success. The department refuted this, telling the Herald, “We were waiting for Wally to get back to us to obtain official permission. He never did.”

For Wally Mitchell, a grazier himself, responsible for the safety of the shire’s people and its economically valuable stock, and getting nowhere with urban authorities, the dangers posed by a rapidly growing toxic algal bloom must have outweighed the risks of using the relatively benign algaecide. To some of the residents, however, it seemed as if some of the primary producers of the region had taken on the cavalier and reckless culture that they said the foreign-owned cotton firms had introduced.

http://insidestory.org.au/no-triple-bypass-no-miracle-cure-just-a-long-haul-back

1985 – 1987: Mt Lofty Golf Course (SA). Pesticides: Multiple.

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Mount Lofty Golf Course

1985/6

Chlorpyrifos: 10.71% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 14.29% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 25% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 82.14% (frequency of detection), 2.4ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 60.71% (frequency of detection), 1.35ug/L (highest detection)

Vinclozolin: 40% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

1986/7

Chlorpyrifos: 35.71% (frequency of detection), 0.05ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 14.29% (frequency of detection), 0.23ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 28.57% (frequency of detection), 0.09ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 21.43% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 100% (frequency of detection), 6.6ug/L (highest detection)

Propzamil: 42.86% (frequency of detection), 0.58ug/L (highest detection)

Vinclozolin: 42.8% (frequency of detection), 0.05ug/L (highest detection)

Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia. K Thoma

Department of Agriculture South Australia

Technical Paper No. 131

June 1988

1984 – 1986: Gore Creek (site 2 SA). Pesticides: Dieldrin, Lindane, Dachtal, Propyzanil

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Gore Creek site 2

1984/5

DIeldrin: 47.06% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 17.65% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 29.41% (frequency of detection), 0.12ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 5.88% (frequency of detection), 0.05ug/L (highest detection)

1985/6

Lindane: 13.33% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia. K Thoma

Department of Agriculture South Australia

Technical Paper No. 131

June 1988

1984 – 1987: Gore Creek/Cox Creek (SA). Pesticides: Multiple

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Gore Creek/Cox Creek

1984/5

DDT and Metabolites: 33.33% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 75% (frequency of detection), 9ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 8.33% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

1985/6

DDT and Metabolites: 33.33% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 16.67% (frequency of detection), 0.04ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 83.33% (frequency of detection), 11ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 33.33% (frequency of detection), 0.93ug/L (highest detection)

Chlorothalonil: 5.55% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Vinclozolin: 75% (frequency of detection), 0.01ug/L (highest detection)

1986/7

Chlorpyrifos: 28.57% (frequency of detection), 0.59ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 35.71% (frequency of detection), 0.19ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 42.86% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 64.29% (frequency of detection), 31ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 50% (frequency of detection), 0.9ug/L (highest detection)

Vinclozolin: 22.42% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia. K Thoma

Department of Agriculture South Australia

Technical Paper No. 131

June 1988

1984 – 1986: Sutton Creek (SA). Pesticides: DDT, Lindane, Dachtal, Propyzamil

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Sutton Creek

1984/5

DDT and Metabolites: 21.05% (frequency of detection), 0.07ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 89,47% (frequency of detection), 0.74ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 31.58% (frequency of detection), 0.18ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 36.84% (frequency of detection), 0.12ug/L (highest detection)

1985/6

DDT and Metabolites: 33.33% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 13.33% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia. K Thoma

Department of Agriculture South Australia

Technical Paper No. 131

June 1988

1984 – 1987: Vince Creek (Boynthon Rd) (SA). Pesticides: Multiple

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Vince Creek/Boynthon Road

1984/5

Chlorpyrifos: 26.32% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 47,37% (frequency of detection), 0.2ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 84.21% (frequency of detection), 0.35ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 10.53% (frequency of detection), 0.01ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 68.42% (frequency of detection), 8.6ug/L (highest detection)

Propzamil: 38.84% (frequency of detection), 3.72ug/L (highest detection)

Chlorothalonil: 5% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

1985/6

Chlorpyrifos: 4.35% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 39.13% (frequency of detection), 0.07ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 13.04% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 4.35% (frequency of detection), 0.01ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 65.22% (frequency of detection), 2.4ug/L (highest detection)

Propzamil: 65.22% (frequency of detection), 1.1ug/L (highest detection)

1986/7

Chlorpyrifos: 23.08% (frequency of detection), 0.22ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 30.77% (frequency of detection), 0.09ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 38.46% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 84.62% (frequency of detection), 7.5ug/L (highest detection)

Propzamil: 53.85% (frequency of detection), 0.89ug/L (highest detection)

Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia. K Thoma

Department of Agriculture South Australia

Technical Paper No. 131

June 1988

1984 – 1985: Vince Creek (SA). Pesticides: Chlorpyrifos, DDT, Lindane, Endosulfan, Dachtal, Propyzamil, Chlorothalonil

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Vince Creek

1984/5

Chlorpyrifos: 18.75% (frequency of detection), 4.3ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 87.5% (frequency of detection), 1.18ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 81.25% (frequency of detection), 0.07ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 81.25% (frequency of detection), 0.25ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 43.75% (frequency of detection), 2.3ug/L (highest detection)

Propzamil: 6.25% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Chlorothalonil: 25% (frequency of detection), 0.53ug/L (highest detection)

1985

DDT and Metabolites: 40% (frequency of detection), 0.16ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 20% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 20% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Propzamil: 13.33% (frequency of detection), 0.14ug/L (highest detection)

Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia. K Thoma

Department of Agriculture South Australia

Technical Paper No. 131

June 1988

2005 December: Port Jackson Bream Dioxin Results (NSW)

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

1984 July – 1987 January: Cox Creek (SA). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia.

K Thoma. Department of Agriculture South Australia Technical Paper No. 131 June 1988

Summary

Residue concentrations from selected pesticides in waters draining the Piccadilly Valley, a horticultural catchment, were monitored from July 1984 until January 1987.

Water samples were collected fortnightly from several locations within the study catchment to assess the effects of specific land uses on water quality. Two run-off events were intensively  sampled for their full duration. Samples were also taken further downstream to assess the effects of dilution and degradation upon stream water quality. Sediment samples were collected irregularly in the study catchment and further downstream.

Pesticide residues were detected in 83.5% of all water samples and in 100% of the sediment samples. Highest concentrations were detected during the growing season and particularly during run-off events occurring shortly after  pesticide applications.

Residue concentrations of DDT and Chlorpyrifos exceeded Maximum Residue Level Recommendations from the National Health and Medical Research Council on two occasions in streams in the Piccadilly Valley…

Conclusions

The highest residue concentrations were detected from the herbicides Dachtal and Propyzamide, followed by the organochlorines Endosulfan, DDT and Lindane. These findings are in agreement with studies conducted in the United States where powder formulations of herbicides and the persistent organochlorine insecticides were found to contribute the highest pesticide residue concentrations in run-off from intensive agricultural watersheds.

Increasing residue concentrations and detection frequencies of Dachtal and Endosulfan, particularly in the 1986/87 growing season, point to an increased use in the study catchment. Erratic fluctuations of residue concentrations and detection frequencies of Chlorpyrifos, Propyzamide and Chlorothalonil made the identification of a trend in pesticide use impossible…

DDT and Chlorpyrifos residues exceeded NH&MRC Maximum Residue Level recommendations during a run-off event and once during the routine monitoring program…Higher residue concentrations, particularly for the persistent organochlorines, could accumulate in bottom sediment of Mt Bold reservoir, which acts as a sink for sediment and sediment-bound pesticides.

The organochlorine insecticides DDT, Lindane, Endosulfan and to a lesser extent the organophosphorus insecticide Chlorpyrifos were detected in sufficiently high concentrations to adversely affect aquatic environments for extended periods of time according to water quality criteria recommended by the Victorian Environment Protection Authority. Bottom feeding organisms would be exposed to high concentrations of DDT in finely textured sediment. High concentrations of a multitude of pesticides during run-off events would affect a wide range of organisms.

Cox Creek

1984/5

Chlorpyrifos: 60.87% (frequency of detection), 0.52ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 69.57% (frequency of detection), 1.4ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 86.61% (frequency of detection), 0.32ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 8.7% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

Parathion: 12.04% (frequency of detection), 0.48ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 100% (frequency of detection), 12.5ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 52.17% (frequency of detection), 3.6ug/L (highest detection)

Chlorothalonil: 13.04% (frequency of detection), 0.09ug/L (highest detection)

1985/6

Chlorpyrifos: 33.33% (frequency of detection), 0.07ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 40.74% (frequency of detection), 1.35ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 26.63% (frequency of detection), 0.06ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 14.81% (frequency of detection), 0.05ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 92.59% (frequency of detection), 17ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 66.67% (frequency of detection), 28ug/L (highest detection)

Chlorothalonil: 3.7% (frequency of detection), 0.01ug/L (highest detection)

Vinclozolin: 72.72% (frequency of detection), 0.33ug/L (highest detection)

1986/7

Chlorpyrifos: 52.38% (frequency of detection), 0.13ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 76.19% (frequency of detection), 0.55ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 28.57% (frequency of detection), 0.2ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 38.1% (frequency of detection), 1.01ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 10% (frequency of detection), 39ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 57.14% (frequency of detection), 6.7ug/L (highest detection)

Chlorothalonil: 4.76% (frequency of detection), 6.07ug/L (highest detection)

Vinclozolin: 47.61% (frequency of detection), 0.3ug/L (highest detection)

Run Off Events

15-17/4/86

Chlorpyrifos 0.13ug/L

DDT and Metabolites: 0.37ug/L

Lindane: 0.05ug/L

Endosulfan 0.12ug/L

Dachtal 9.7ug/L

Propyzamide: 0,1ug/L

Run Off Events

5-7/12/86

Chlorpyrifos 5.2ug/L

DDT and Metabolites: 7.26ug/L

Lindane: 0.16ug/L

Endosulfan 17.4ug/L

Dachtal 88ug/L

Propyzamide: 36ug/L

Sediment

Dachtal 100-300ug/kg (3700ug/kg high)

DDT 300-1400ug/kg (Swingler Bridge 1838 ug/kg 18/3/87)

 

2007 July – 2008 January: Macquarie River Coupe (approx). Pesticides: Simazine, Desisopropyl Atrazine

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Approximate Location – Source Tim Morris MP FoI 28/2/08

11/7/07: Macquarie River Bridge downstream of Coupe – Simazine 0.78ug/L

31/7/07: Macquarie River Coupe Bridge – Simazine 2.07ug/L

10/8/07: Macquarie River Coupe Bridge – Simazine 2.73ug/L

4/9/07: Macquarie River Coupe Bridge – Simazine 1.72ug/L

20/9/07: Macquarie River Coupe DT-0.40 – Desisopropyl Atrazine 0.45ug/L, Simazine 1.77ug/L

23/10/07: Macquarie River Coupe Bridge – Simazine 0.82ug/L

23/11/07: Macquarie River Coupe Bridge – Simazine 0.52ug/L

6/12/07: Macquarie River Coupe Bridge – Simazine 0.46ug/L

16/1/08: Macquarie River Bridge upstream of Coupe – Simazine 0.29ug/L

2005 June: Little Swanport River (Tas). Pesticide: Terbacil

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23/6/05: Little Swanport River Flood Monitoring Terbacil 0.2ug/L

24/6/05: Little Swanport River Flood Monitoring Terbacil 0.2ug/L, 0.32ug/L, 0.29ug/L, 0.23ug/L

25/6/05: Little Swanport River Flood Monitoring Terbacil 0.31ug/L, 0.25ug/L, 0.29ug/L, 0.19ug/L, 0.24ug/L

26/6/05: Little Swanport River Flood Monitoring Terbacil 0.18ug/L

27/6/05: Little Swanport River Flood Monitoring Terbacil 0.23ug/L, 0.1ug/L

Source Agricultural Chemicals in Waterways. Tim Morris MP 28/2/08

1995: Macquarie Marshes (NSW). Ibis nestlings deaths. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

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http://ntn.org.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/polluterpaysmythlegend.pdf

1990: Wallace Lake (NSW). Chlorpyrifos residues in eggs.

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In 1990, opportunistic sampling found Chlorpyrifos in three eggs of the Little Terns (0.06-0.36ppm), in a liver sample from Little Terns (0.02ppm) and in a Pelican egg (0.5ppm) from the Wallace Lake colony on the central coast of NSW

http://ntn.org.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/polluterpaysmythlegend.pdf

1983 – 1984: Boobera Lagoon (NSW). Pesticide: Endosulfan

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In 1984, sampling by the NSW State Pollution Control Commission in response to a major fish kill, identified endosulfan residues in Gil Gil Creek, north west of Moree at levels of (0.9-1.5ug/L) well above the LC50 for trout (0.3ug/L). Follow up sampling of Boobera Lagoon in the MacIntyre Valley during 1983-1984 confirmed the presence of endosulfan and a report on pesticide monitoring from the central and north west regions in 1995, acknowledged that the detection of high levels of endosulfan residues in the environment was a consequence of its use in agriculture. In the 1989-99 sampling in the Murray Darling Basin, endosulfan was detected in 53% if water samples with the median levels ranging from 0.02ug/L to 0.04ug/L.

http://ntn.org.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/polluterpaysmythlegend.pdf

1988: Gwydir River (NSW). Catfish residues. Pesticide: Endosulfan

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Sampling of wild catfish in the Gwydir River NSW demonstrated a significant increase in endosulfan residues and its metabolites, endosulfan sulfate and isomers, in fish livers during summer (147.7 – 307.2 ug/kg) – Residues of Endosulfan in livers of wild catfish from a cotton growing area. Barbara Nowak (unplublished thesis) Uni.of Sydney 1988

http://ntn.org.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/polluterpaysmythlegend.pdf

1999 June: Bassendean (WA) Pesticide spill: Pesticide: Trifluralin

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2004 November: Mackay (Qld) Pesticide spill. Pesticide: Bifenthrim

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Pesticide Spill – Nebo Road (Daily Mercury) November 26 2004

SOUTH-BOUND traffic on Nebo Road slowed to a crawl yesterday morning after a collision between a sedan and a tray-back ute carrying pesticide.

The accident happened about 9.40am, opposite the Lantern Motor Inn and the Shell service station.

A 20-litre drum of Byfentrum [Bifenthrin?] (a pesticide similar to Aerogard) spilt onto the road in the collision and police restricted public access to the area until 11.10am, when it was declared safe.

The chemical was cleared by council workers and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Police and ambulance officers also attended, with ambulance workers treating one person for a minor injury.

No-one was taken to hospital.

Also yesterday, a two-vehicle accident occurred on Sydney Street, outside Coles Supermarket, at 8.15am. No-one was injured.

http://www.dailymercury.com.au/news/apn-pesticide-spill-restricts-nebo-road/77983/

2011 June: Nerada (Qld) Crop Duster Accident

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Pilot conscious after hitting powerlines at Nerada, near Innisfail

Courier Mail June 20 2011

EMERGENCY services are treating a pilot after the helicopter he was flying crashed into powerlines near Innisfail.

It is believed a crop duster crashed at about 8.57am at Nerada, near Innisfail.

Initial reports suggested the pilot, who was the only person in the helicopter, was conscious and breathing, an emergency services spokeswoman said.

http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/pilot-conscious-after-hitting-power-lines-at-nerada-near-innisfail/story-e6freon6-1226078307893

2010 May: Helicopter Spraying Crash Strzelecki Ranges, Gippsland.

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HB Rescue Pilot Dies in Crash (May 22 2010) – Hawkes Bay Today

A Hastings pilot killed when his helicopter hit power lines and crashed in Australia on Thursday has been identified as Lowe Corporation Rescue Service relief flyer and Hastings helicopter company owner Chris Mansell.
The 50-year-old father of two died when the helicopter hit power lines and plunged into a pine plantation while spraying at Ryton Junction, near Mirboo in the Gippsland area of Victoria, about 160km east of Melbourne.
The crash was almost identical to another in which Mr Mansell was injured in Hawke’s Bay 20 months ago.
Skyline Aviation managing director Mike Toogood, whose company provides the helicopter service to the Hawke’s Bay Helicopter Rescue Trust, said: “It’s pretty devastating, particularly after the earlier crash, and it’s hard to comprehend that he’s met his fate in such a similar situation.”
The owner of Bay Heliwork and having been in Australia for about two weeks on contract for a company whose helicopter he was flying at the time of the crash, Mr Mansell was a “very, very, competent” pilot, Mr Toogood said.

http://www.nzherald.co.nz/hawkes-bay-today/news/article.cfm?c_id=1503462&objectid=10995957

2014 December: Spray damage revegetation Lake Bolac (Vic)

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Spray damage to foreshore plantation devastates project volunteers at Lake Bolac – 2014 December

RARE and precious native plants have been killed by the illegal application of chemical spray at the Peter O’Rorke Native Grass and Wildflower Reserve on the foreshore at Lake Bolac.

A three metre wide strip at the bottom of the community run plantation has been sprayed from a vehicle travelling along the road. Police and Ararat Rural City Environment Officer, Deidre Andrews, have been informed. A clear breach of the law has occurred as it is an offence to cause wilful damage using chemical spray.

Project co-ordinator, Nolene Fraser, is extremely disappointed that the hard work carried out by volunteers to establish the plantation over the past three years, has been set back by such thoughtless action, while David Franklin, of Grassland Flora, Chatsworth, said it was a blatant example of destruction at a community site of what goes on in a broader context of damage to remnant native grasslands.

Una Allender, secretary of the Eel Festival, is shocked that this damage has occurred especially after the recent efforts of community members to weed and mulch the plantation and to prepare a section of it for a controlled burn.

The controlled burn will encourage the native species and help reduce the weed burden.

“It is hard to believe that anyone could spray this area accidentally, especially with a very prominent sign explaining what is planted on the site and why,” Ms Allender said…

http://www.araratadvertiser.com.au/story/2742448/spray-damage-to-foreshore-plantation-devastates-project-volunteers-at-lake-bolac/

2009 April: Langkoop (Vic) Crop Duster Accident.

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Crop spraying examined after fatal crash

Updated Crash investigators examining the fatal helicopter crash on the Victoria-South Australian border will look at how safety regulations could be improved for crop sprayers.

The crash near Langkoop claimed the life of 29-year-old Rhys Kirwan from Tarpeena in the south east of South Australia.

Mr Kirwin was spraying a forest plantation when he clipped power lines and crashed into trees.

Dave Grambauer from the Australian Transport Safety Bureau says crop spraying pilots are well trained to deal with tough flying conditions.

“What we’ll be doing is just gathering all the information and from there we’ll be determining what was the cause and hopefully some safety benefit will come of it,” he said.

“Within agricultural operations these pilots are trained as are other pilots … trained to do what they do.

“The training is set out and it’s done right through the organisations and the world and they come up to a standard to fly these types of operations.”

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2009-04-22/crop-spraying-examined-after-fatal-crash/1659188

1967 August: Black Rock (Vic). Anecdotes from a Bird Observer. Pesticide: Dieldin

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Bird Observer, the Bird Observers’ Club magazine, August 1967 by W.R. Wheeler and B. Salter

“In 1954 we built a home in Black Rock – a suburb 14 miles from the heart of Melbourne – on land which adjoined several hundred acres of golf courses. We retained as much of the native bush as possible, and planted hundreds more native shrubs, so that the native birds would be encouraged to come to the garden, and in proof of our success, since then I have recorded 121 species in or over the gardens.

Up to 1962 I was not aware of any effect which poisonous pesticides might have on my birds. I had no knowledge of pesticides in those days, but a record of their symptoms made at that time tallies exactly what I now know to be pesticide poisoning. The Yellow-faced honeyeaters were the earliest recognised victims; I found birds staggering about the garden, blundering into obstacles, unable to land or to remain perched, falling to the ground, screaming and in convulsion. I tried bringing them indoors, keeping them warm, feeding them nectar, raw egg, brandy, gin, Disprin, but always they died, in great distress. From the flock of 50 to 60, 20 died in the winter of 1963, just in the garden…it is possible that they pick up the poison in their “other” home, possibly the Mornington Peninsula where there are many orchards which are sprayed at frequent intervals.

Since 1964, the bodies of a considerable number of honey-eaters have been supplied to the Fisheries and Wildlife Department for analysis. The Department has reported that all bodies examined contained very high concentrations of Dieldrin…

1978 March: Melton (Vic). Pesticides of concern: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D

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Yarram Baby (Conservation Council of Victoria – Pumpkins Poisons and People July 1978

The State Government yesterday appointed a 12-man committee to probe child abnormalities and birth defects in the Yarram area in South Gippsland…

In State Parliament, Mr Billing (Lib, Springvale) asked the Assistant Minister for Health, Mr Jona, to include the Melton area in the investigation.

Mr Billing said there had been an increase in abnormalities in the Melton area in the past two years…

1977 August: Garden Sprays Dangerous – Clayton (Vic)

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Garden Sprays Dangerous – worker claims

The Age Wednesday, August 3 1977.

A nurseryman who says he was forced to retire because of “dangerous pesticides” has called for stricter controls on garden chemicals.

Mr Robert Weeks, 32, said he was employed by a Clayton flower farm for four months.

During this time he suffered nausea, burning lips, and, on one occasion, bleeding in the mouth, he says.

Mr Weeks, of Regent Street, Springvale claims he was frequently sick because of daily exposure to flower spraying.

“The day before I was due to leave, I inhaled a poison pesticide which caused a severe cramp in my chest,” he said. “I could hardly breathe, I thought I was going to lose consciousness.”

Mr Weeks said other workers also complained that the sprays caused them illness, including nausea and vomiting.

He said workers had not been provided with breathing apparatus to cope with constant exposure to pesticides.

“The only protective clothing we received was for wet weather, but nothing to stop us breathing in the poisons,” he said.

“On the occasion when I had the severe cramp, we were working on sterilising, or killing the ground, for new plants.

“The man on the tractor had some breathing equipment like a World War 1 gas mask, but we did not have any.

First they sprayed the ground with a spray with a heavy odor which made my eyes sting terribly, and then they put the poison in…

2013 January: Tully River. Pesticides: Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone, Imidacloprid

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix E p75 Table 36 TERRESTRIAL RUN-OFF ASSESSMENT- GRAB Sample RESULTS(ng.L-1)

27/1/13 Tully River (Tully mid between Goold and Bedarra Island): Atrazine 31, Diuron 140, Hexazinone 41, Imidacloprid 20

2013 February: Mary River Mouth. Pesticides: Atrazine, Diuron

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix E p75 Table 36 TERRESTRIAL RUN-OFF ASSESSMENT- GRAB Sample RESULTS(ng.L-1)

8/2/13 Mary River Mouth: Atrazine 11, Diuron 18

2013 March: Palm Island South. Pesticides: Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix E p75 Table 36 TERRESTRIAL RUN-OFF ASSESSMENT- GRAB Sample RESULTS(ng.L-1)

13/3/13 Palm Island South: Atrazine 28, Diuron 82, Hexazinone 19

2013 March: Seymour River (Qld). Pesticide: Diuron

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix E p75 Table 36 TERRESTRIAL RUN-OFF ASSESSMENT- GRAB Sample RESULTS(ng.L-1)

25/3/13 Seymour River – Mouth: Diuron 29

 

2013 January: Herbert River Channel North: Pesticide: Diuron, Simazine

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix E p75 Table 36 TERRESTRIAL RUN-OFF ASSESSMENT- GRAB Sample RESULTS(ng.L-1)

16/1/13 Herbert River – Channel North: Diuron 12

17/1/13 Herbert River – South (Mouth): Diuron 24, Simazine 22

17/1/13 Herbert River – Channel South: Diuron 15, Simazine 17

25/3/13 Herbert River – Mouth 1 Diuron 33

2012 May – 2013 April: North Keppel Island (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p74 Table 35 North Keppel Island, Fitzroy region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

15 May 12 – 10 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.32, DE Atrazine 0.05, Diuron 0.72, Hexazinone 0.05, Simazine 0.16, Tebuthiuron 0.11

10 Jul 12 – 7 Sep 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.26, DE Atrazine 0.06, DI Atrazine 0.09, Diuron 0.55, Hexazinone 0.7, Simazine 1.4, Tebuthiuron 5.2, Metolachlor 0.06

7 Sep 12 – 10 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.17, DE Atrazine 0.04, DI Atrazine 0.05,  Diuron 0.31, Hexazinone 0.03, Simazine 0.71,  Tebuthiuron 2.4, Metolachlor 0.02

10 Nov 12 – 10 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.21, DE Atrazine 0.04, Diuron 0.71, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.06, Tebuthiuron 0.69, Metolachlor 0.03

10 Dec 12 – 29 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.28, DE Atrazine 0.04, Diuron 0.9, Hexazinone 0.03, Simazine 0.1, Tebuthiuron 0.35, Metolachlor 0.3

29 Jan 13 – 11 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.45, Atrazine 8.1, DE Atrazine 0.67, DI Atrazine 0.58, Diuron 5.6, Hexazinone 1.6, Prometryn 0.06, Simazine 0.95, Tebuthiuron 57, Terbutryn 0.41,  Metolachlor 6.4

11 Feb 13 – 13 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.44, Atrazine 2.8, DE Atrazine 0.22, DI Atrazine 0.09, Diuron 5.1, Hexazinone 0.83, Prometryn 0.1, Simazine 0.14, Tebuthiuron 2.9, Bromacil 0.26,  Terbutryn 0.08,  Metolachlor 1.3

13 Mar 13 – 23 Apr 13: Atrazine 1.1, DE Atrazine 0.23, Diuron 1.4, Hexazinone 0.25, Simazine 0.1, Tebuthiuron 0.77,  Metolachlor 0.76

2012 May – 2013 April: Sarina Inlet (Qld). Pesticides Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p73 Table 34 Sarina Inlet, Mackay Whitsunday  region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

6 May 12 – 11 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.04, Atrazine 1.1, DE Atrazine 0.15, Diuron 1.3, Hexazinone 0.34, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.11, Tebuthiuron 0.96

11 Jul 12 – 27 Aug 12: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 2.2, DI Atrazine 0.18, Diuron 3.2, Hexazinone 1.2, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.16, Tebuthiuron 0.71, Metolachlor 0.18

27 Aug 12 – 9 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.09, Atrazine 2.3, DE Atrazine 0.43,  Diuron 3.7, Hexazinone 1.0, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.15,  Tebuthiuron 0.63, Metolachlor 0.26

9 Nov 12 – 6 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.05, Atrazine 0.8, DE Atrazine 0.14, Diuron 2.1, Hexazinone 0.5, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.17, Tebuthiuron 0.25, Metolachlor 0.09

6 Dec 12 – 17 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.26, Atrazine 6.4, DE Atrazine 0.6, Diuron 15, Hexazinone 6.1, Simazine 0.09, Tebuthiuron 12, Metolachlor 2.4, Imidacloprid 1.9

 

2012 May – 2013 May: Outer Whitsunday Islands. Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p72 Table 33 Outer Whitsunday, Mackay Whitsunday  region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

5 May 12 – 27 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 2.84, DE Atrazine 0.37,, Diuron 2.44, Hexazinone 0.37, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.15, Tebuthiuron 1.11, Metolachlor 0.04

27 Jul 12 – 31 Aug 12: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.34, Diuron 0.93, Hexazinone 0.11, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.02, Tebuthiuron 0.51

31 Aug 12 – 1 Oct 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.33, DE Atrazine 0.06,  Diuron 0.5, Hexazinone 0.06, Simazine 0.03,  Tebuthiuron 0.16, Metolachlor 0.04

1 Oct 12 – 3 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.17, Diuron 0.3,Tebuthiuron 0.04, Metolachlor 0.02

3 Nov 12 – 3 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.07, Diuron 0.32, Hexazinone 0.03, Prometryn 0.01, Tebuthiuron 0.02, Metolachlor 0.01

3 Dec 12 – 5 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.13, DE Atrazine 0.03, Diuron 0.25,  Hexazinone 0.02, Simazine 0.03, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.01

5 Feb 13 – 4 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.61 (PDMS 2.9), Atrazine 3.2, DE Atrazine 0.06, Diuron 38,  Hexazinone 6.8, Tebuthiuron 4.7, Metolachlor 0.58, Imidacloprid 0.52, Galaxolide (PDMS 0.08)

4 Mar 13 – 5 May 13: Ametryn 0.11, Atrazine 1.0, DE Atrazine 0.12, Diuron 2, Hexazinone 0.53, Simazine 0.07, Tebuthiuron 3.7, Metolachlor 0.39 (PDMS 4.6)

 

2012 June – 2012 September: Pioneer Bay (Qld). Pesticides: Ametryn, Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone, Tebuthiuron, Terbutryn

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p71 Table 32 Pioneer Bay, Mackay Whitsunday region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

3 Jun 12 – 16 Sep 12: Ametryn 0.2, Atrazine 0.07, Diuron 3.7, Hexazinone 0.1, Tebuthiuron 0.38, Terbutryn 0.19