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2012 December – 2013 April: Dickson Inlet (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p67 Table 28 Dickson Inlet, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

21 Dec 12 – 11 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.13, Diuron 21, Hexazinone 0.12, Simazine 0.12, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.02, Galaxolide (PDMS 0.13)

27 Feb 13 – 2 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.43, Atrazine 5.5, DE Atrazine 0.54, DI Atrazine 0.1,, Diuron 9.5, Hexazinone 1.5, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.41, Tebuthiuron 0.06, Metolachlor 0.12, Imidacloprid 0.17, Pendimethalin (PDMS 0.01)

 

2012 April – 2013 May: Dunk Island (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p66 Table 27 Dunk Island, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

23 Apr 12 – 29 May 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.26, DE Atrazine 0.04,, Diuron 3.2, Hexazinone 0.33, Tebuthiuron 0.24, Metolachlor 0.02, Imidacloprid 0.01

29 May 12 – 12 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 0.22,, Diuron 3.0, Hexazinone 0.78, Prometryn 0.01, Tebuthiuron 0.07, Terbutryn 0.1

12 Jul 12 – 29 Aug 12: Ametryn 0.07, Atrazine 0.11, Diuron 2.82, Hexazinone 0.57,Simazine 0.03, Tebuthiuron 0.09, Metolachlor 0.19

29 Aug 12 – 4 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.27, Atrazine 0.4, DE Atrazine 0.08, Diuron 0.58, Hexazinone 0.14, Prometryn 0.01, Tebuthiuron 0.02, Metolachlor 0.05

4 Nov 12 – 15 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.11, Diuron 0.41,  Hexazinone 0.08, Simazine 0.01, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.02

15 Dec 12 – 9 Jan 13 (PDMS): Galoxolide 0.04

9 Jan 13 – 4 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.11, Atrazine 0.29, Diuron 11,  Hexazinone 2, Simazine 0.02, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.29, Imidacloprid 1.4

4 Feb 13 – 15 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.19, Atrazine 3.4, DE Atrazine 0.07, Diuron 15,  Hexazinone 3.8, Simazine 0.06, Tebuthiuron 0.11, Metolachlor 0.28, Imidacloprid 0.26

15 Mar 13 – 8 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.09, Atrazine 1.1, DE Atrazine 0.03, Diuron 5.2,  Hexazinone 1.1, Tebuthiuron 0.14, Metolachlor 0.07, Imidacloprid 0.49

8 Apr 13 – 14 May 13: Ametryn 0.14, Atrazine 0.73, Diuron 6.7,  Hexazinone 2.1, Tebuthiuron 1.9, Metolachlor 0.22, Imidacloprid 0.21 (Metolachlor 6.8 PDMS)

 

2012 May – 2013 May: Normanby Island (Qld). Pesticides detected: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p65 Table 26 Normanby Island, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

5 May 12 – 21 Jul 13: Ametryn 0.1, Atrazine 1.1, DE Atrazine 0.03,, Diuron 2.9, Hexazinone 0.71, Tebuthiuron 0.15, Terbutryn 0.18

June 12 (PDMS): Galaxolide 0.18

21 July 13 – 31 Aug 13: Ametryn 0.05, Atrazine 0.34,, DE Atrazine 0.07,  Diuron 0.93, Hexazinone 0.1, Simazine 0.06, Tebuthiuron 0.02

Aug 12 (PDMS): Galaxolide 0.04

31 Aug 13 – 2 Nov 13: Ametryn 0.37, Atrazine 0.25, Diuron 1.0, Hexazinone 0.11, Prometryn 0.05,  Simazine 0.03, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.07

Oct 12 (PDMS): Galaxolide 0.04

2 Nov 12 – 22 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.1, DE Atrazine 0.02, Diuron 0.4, Hexazinone 0.04, Simazine 0.04, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.01, Imidacloprid 0.05

22 Dec 12 – 18 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.42, Atrazine 1.2, DE Atrazine 0.06, Diuron 1.2,  Hexazinone 0.22, Prometryn 0.1,  Simazine 0.07, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.11, Imidacloprid 0.14

8 Feb 13 – 2 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.04, Atrazine 1.4, DE Atrazine 0.14, Diuron 5.1,  Hexazinone 1.1, Simazine 0.09, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.06

2 Mar 13 – 26 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.07, Atrazine 2.2, DE Atrazine 0.2, Diuron 4.5,  Hexazinone 1.1, Simazine 0.04, Tebuthiuron 0.35, Metolachlor 0.07

26 Apr 13 – 3 May 13: Ametryn 0.11, Atrazine 3.4, DE Atrazine 0.48, Diuron 11.0,  Hexazinone 2.5, Simazine 0.11, Tebuthiuron 1.9, Metolachlor 0.16

2012 September – 2013 April: Fitzroy Island (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p64 Table 25 Fitzroy Island, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

5 Sep 12 – 4 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.19, Diuron 1.4, Hexazinone 0.12, Tebuthiuron 0.02, Metalochlor 0.02

4 Dec 12 – 14 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 1.8,, DE Atrazine 0.2,  Diuron 9.0, Hexazinone 1.0, Simazine 0.18, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metalochlor 0.08, Imidacloprid 0.08

14 Mar 13 – 3 May 13: Ametryn 0.3, Atrazine 6.5, DE Atrazine 0.74,  Diuron 19, Hexazinone 3.7,  Simazine 0.15, Tebuthiuron 1.5, Metolachlor 0.25,

April 13 (PDMS): Galaxolide 0.09

 

2012 May – 2013 May: Green Island (Qld). Pesticide detections: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p63 Table 24 Green Island, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

5 May 12 – 2 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.54, DE Atrazine 0.08,  Diuron 1.3, Hexazinone 0.34, Simazine 0.08,  Tebuthiuron 0.06, Terbutryn 0.05

2 Jul 12 – 29 Aug 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.06, Diuron 2.3, Hexazinone 0.09,  Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.01

29 Aug 12 – 8 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.02, Diuron 0.38, Hexazinone 0.01,  Tebuthiuron 0.01

8 Dec 12 – 15 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.11, Diuron 0.59, Prometryn 0.01,  Simazine 0.05, Galoxolide 0.06

15 Jan 13 – 4 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.04, Atrazine 0.43, DE Atrazine 0.04, Diuron 3.0, Hexazinone 0.42,  Simazine 0.09, Tebuthiuron 0.02, Metolachlor 0.05

4 Feb 13 – 3 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.32, DE Atrazine 0.03, Diuron 2,2, Hexazinone 0.31,  Simazine 0.07, Tebuthiuron 0.02, Metolachlor 0.04

3 Mar 13 – 2 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 3.9, DE Atrazine 0.41, DI Atrazine 0.15,  Diuron 5.4, Hexazinone 1.2,  Simazine 0.1, Tebuthiuron 0.09

2 Apr 13 – 12 May 13: Ametryn 0.11, Atrazine 1.5, DE Atrazine 0.12,  Diuron 5.3, Hexazinone 1.3,  Simazine 0.04, Tebuthiuron 1.4, Metolachlor 0.13, Imidacloprid 0.17

2012 August – 2013 February: Low Isles Queensland. Pesticide: Ametryn, Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone, Simazine, Tebuthiuron, Metolachlor

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p62 Table 23 Low Isles, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

24 Aug 12 – 11 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.04, Diuron 0.41, Hexazinone 0.04, Tebuthiuron 0.01

10 Dec 12 – 11 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.1, Diuron 0.7, Hexazinone 0.05, Simazine 0.02, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.01

11 Jan 13 – 15 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.12, Diuron 2.2, Hexazinone 0.46, Simazine 0.02, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.03

 

1974 Werribee South (Vic). Milk residues. Dieldrin exceeding Health Guidelines

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Werribee South Milk Detections

13/9/74:

HCB: Between 0.01-0.08ppm

Lindane: Between 0.01-0.03ppm

DDE: Between 0.03-0,5ppm

DDT: Between 0.05-0.65ppm

Dieldrin: Between 0.01-0.41ppm

1974 August – 1975 June: Wallace (Vic) Milk Residues. Pesticides: DDE, TDE, DDT, HCB, Lindane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Wallace Milk Detections

9/6/75: DDE 0.08ppm

24/4/75: DDE 0.06ppm, TDE 0.08ppm, DDT 0.1ppm

25/2/75: DDE 0.06ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.01ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.05ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.04ppm

1974 August – 1975 June: Stanhope (Vic). Milk residues: Pesticides: DDE, HCB, Lindane, TDE, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Stanhope Milk Detections

9/6/75: DDE 0.05ppm

7/4/75: DDE 0.03ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.006ppm, Lindane 0.004ppm, DDE 0.04ppm, TDE 0.03ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.05ppm, Dieldrin 0.02ppm

1974 August – 1975 July: PDC Werribee (Vic). Milk Residues. Pesticides. Excessive Dieldrin levels

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

PDC Werribee Milk Detections

1/7/75: HCB 0.3ppm, Lindane 0.1ppm, DDE 0.3ppm, Dieldrin 0.1ppm

14/4/75: DDE 0.2ppm, Dieldrin 0.006ppm

25/2/75: HCB 0.02ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.27ppm, Dieldrin 0.08ppm

2/12/74: HCB 0.025ppm, DDE 0.17ppm, Dieldrin 0.09ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.05ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.4ppm, Dieldrin 0.18

5/8/74: HCB 0.05ppm, DDE 0.4ppm, Dieldrin 0.07ppm

1974 August – 1975 July: Traralgon (Vic). Milk Residues. Pesticides: Lindane, DDE, HCB

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Traralgon Milk Detections

1/7/75: Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.004ppm, DDE 0.05ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.03ppm

1974 June – 1975 September + 2014 April: Camperdown (Vic) Milk Residues. Pesticides: HCB, DDE, Lindane, Triclopyr (water)

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Camperdown Milk Detections

2/9/75: HCB 0.005ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

7/7/75: Lindane 0.1ppm, DDE 0.3ppm

12/5/75: Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.03ppm

3/3/75: DDE 0.02ppm

2/9/74: DDE 0.01ppm

?/6/74: HCB 0.008ppm, Lindane 0.4ppm

7/4/14: Camperdown Water Supply – Triclopyr 0.04ug/L

1974 June – 1975 September: Colac (Vic) Milk detections. Pesticides: HCB, DDE, Lindane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Colac Milk Detections

2/9/75: HCB 0.005ppm, DDE 0.03ppm

9/7/75: Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.06ppm

12/5/75: DDE 0.02ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm

3/3/75: DDE 0.03ppm

8/1/75: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.009ppm

2/9/74: DDE 0.02ppm

?/6/74: HCB 0.01ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

1975 September – 1974 June: Warrnambool (Vic) Milk residues. Pesticides: Lindane over guideline limits

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Warrnambool Milk Detections

2/9/75: DDE 0.01ppm

15/7/75: DDE 0.01ppm

18/3/75: DDE 0.02ppm

14/1/75: Lindane 0.03ppm

3/9/74: HCB 0.02ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

?/6/74: Lindane 0.26ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

1974 August – 1975 December: Shepparton (Vic) Milk residues. Pesticides: DDE, Lindane, DDT, Dieldrin, HCB,

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Shepparton Milk Detections

2/12/75: DDE 0.02ppm

21/10/75: Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.05ppm

10/6/75: DDE 0.04ppm, DDT 0.1ppm, Dieldrin 0.03ppm

8/4/75: DDE 0.05ppm

2/10/74: HCB 0.008ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.05ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.09ppm, Dieldrin 0.04ppm

?/6/74: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.05ppm, DDE 0.09ppm, DDT 0.08ppm

1974 August – 1975 December: Moe (Vic) Milk detections. Pesticides: Lindane, DDE, TDE, DDT, HCB

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Moe Milk Detections

1/12/75: Lindane 0.01ppm, DDT 0.02ppm, DDT 0.03ppm

7/4/75: DDE 0.04ppm

24/2/75: Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.03ppm, TDE 0.11ppm, DDT 0.07ppm

?/10/74: Lindane 0.02ppm, HCB 0.009ppm, DDE 0.03ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.05ppm

1974 August – 1975 November: Leongatha (Vic) Milk residues. Pesticides: DDE, Dieldrin, TDE, DDT, HCB, Lindane, BHC, Carbophenothion

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Leongatha Milk Detections

28/11/75: DDE 0.02ppm

3/9/75: DDE 0.01ppm, Dieldrin 0.03ppm

16/7/75: DDE 0.03ppm

14/5/75: DDE 0.03ppm

13/5/75: DDE 0.06ppm, TDE 0.05ppm, DDT 0.06ppm

12/3/75: DDE 0.04ppm, TDE 0.07ppm

8/1/75: HCB 0.01ppm

?/12/74: HCB 0.007ppm, Lindane 0.009ppm, DDE 0.02ppm, BHC 0.037ppm, Carbophenothion 0.47ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.05ppm

1974 June – 1976 January: Strathmerton (Vic) Milk residues. Pesticides: DDE, HCB, Lindane,

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Strathmerton Milk Detections

8/1/76: DDE 0.03ppm

2/9/75: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.008ppm, DDE 0.05ppm

7/7/75: DDE 0.04ppm,

12/5/75: DDE 0.03ppm

9/3/75: DDE 0.02ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm

8/1/75: Lindane 0.07ppm

?/12/74: DDE 0.024ppm

3/9/74: DDE 0.05ppm

?/6/74: DDE 0.06ppm

1974 June – 1976 January: Dennington (Vic). Milk residues. Pesticides: DDE, TDE, DDT, Dieldrin, HCB, Lindane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Dennington Milk Detections

6/1/76: DDE 0.2ppm, TDE 0.2ppm, DDT 0.1ppm

11/11/75: DDE 0.2ppm, TDE 0.3ppm, DDT 0.1ppm

2/9/75: DDE 0.1ppm, Dieldrin 0.03ppm

15/7/75: HCB 0.01ppm, DDE 0.27ppm, TDE 0.11ppm

19/5/75: DDE 0.1ppm

18/3/75: DDE 0.14ppm, TDE 0.03ppm

14/1/75: DDE 0.12ppm

?/12/74: DDE 0.091ppm

3/9/74: DDE 0.23ppm

?/?/74: Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.3ppm

?/6/74: DDE 0.2ppm

1974 September – 1976 January + 2011 November: Cobden (Vic). Milk Residues: Pesticides: DDE, HCB, Lindane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Cobden Milk Detections

5/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm

10/11/75: DDE 0.02ppm

2/9/75: HCB 0.005ppm, DDE 0.03ppm

7/7/75: Lindane 0.1ppm, DDE 0.1ppm

12/5/75: DDE 0.06ppm

3/3/75: DDE 0.05ppm

8/1/75: HCB 0.008ppm

?/12/74: DDE 0.015ppm

2/9/74: DDE 0.11ppm

7/11/11: Wannon Water Cobden Mecoprop 0.01ug/L

1974 June – 1976 January: Cobram (Vic). Milk residues. Pesticides: HCB, Lindane, DDE, TDE, DDT

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Cobram Milk Detections

5/1/76: HCB 0.01ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.1ppm, TDE 0.08ppm, DDT 0.2ppm

10/11/75: DDE 0.03ppm

2/9/75: HCB 0.007ppm, TDE 0.09ppm, DDE 0.08ppm, DDT 0.09ppm

7/7/75: Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.09ppm, TDE 0.3ppm, DDT 0.3ppm

12/5/75: DDE 0.06ppm

4/3/75: DDE 0.05ppm

8/1/75: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.008ppm, DDE 0.03ppm

?/12/74: HCB 0.004ppm, DDE 0.023ppm

3/9/74: HCB 0.02ppm, DDE 0.1ppm

?/6/74: HCB 0.008ppm, Lindane 0.09ppm, DDE 0.08ppm,

?/?/74: Lindane 0.06ppm, DDE 0.17ppm

1974 June – 1976 January: Drouin (Vic) Milk Detections. Pesticides: DDE, HCB, Lindane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Drouin Milk Detections

5/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm

2/9/75: HCB 0.005ppm, DDE 0.04ppm

8/7/75: DDE 0.03ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm

14/5/75: DDE 0.05ppm

3/3/75: DDE 0.05ppm

8/1/75: DDE 0.03ppm

?/12/74: DDE 0.022ppm

2/11/74: DDE 0.02ppm

?/6/74: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

1974 June – 1976 January: Bacchus Marsh (Vic) Milk residues. Pesticides: DDE, Lindane, HCB, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Bacchus Marsh Milk Detections

5/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm

4/9/75: DDE 0.03ppm

27/5/75: DDE 0.04ppm

3/3/75: Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.04ppm

?/12/74: HCB 0.006ppm, Lindane 0.015ppm, DDE 0.025ppm

?/6/74: HCB 0.008ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.04ppm, Dieldrin 0.02ppm

 

1974 June – 1976 January: Kiewa (Vic). Milk detections. Pesticide: DDE

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Kiewa Milk Detections

6/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm

2/9/75: DDE 0.06ppm

19/5/75: DDE 0.06ppm

4/3/75: DDE 0.08ppm

8/1/75: DDE 0.05ppm

?/12/74: DDE 0.028ppm

?/6/74: DDE 0.08ppm

 

1974 August – 1976 February: Merrigum (Vic). Milk detections. Pesticides: DDE, Lindane, Endrin, HCB, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Merrigum Milk Detections

2/2/76: DDE 0.05ppm

1/12/75: DDE 0.05ppm

9/6/75: DDE 0.1ppm

7/4/75: DDE 0.1ppm

24/2/75: Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.1ppm, Endrin 0.13ppm

2/12/74: DDE 0.1ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.01ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.16ppm, Dieldrin 0.03ppm

?/?/74: DDE 0.06ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.18ppm, Dieldrin 0.07ppm

1974 August – 1976 February: Tatura (Vic). Milk detections. Pesticides: DDE, Dieldrin, HCB, Lindane,

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Tatura Milk Detections

2/2/76: DDE 0.04ppm

9/6/75: DDE 0.07ppm, Dieldrin 0.03ppm

7/4/75: DDE 0.1ppm

24/2/75: DDE 0.05ppm

2/12/74: DDE 0.06ppm

?/?/74: DDE 0.05ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.007ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.1ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.11ppm

 

1975 June – 1976 February: Maffra (Vic) Milk detections. Pesticides: DDE, Lindane, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Maffra Milk Detections

2/2/76: DDE 0.03ppm

1/12/75: DDE 0.03ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm

9/6/75: DDE 0.02ppm, Dieldrin 0.04ppm

 

1974 August – 1976 February: Longwarry (Vic) Milk detections. Pesticides: DDE, TDE, HCB, Lindane, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Longwarry Milk Detections

2/2/76: DDE 0.05ppm, TDE 0.09ppm

9/6/75: DDE 0.05ppm

8/4/75: DDE 0.08ppm, TDE 0.06ppm

13/3/75: DDE 0.04ppm

24/2/75: Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.04ppm

7/1/75: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm

?/12/74: HCB 0.004ppm, Lindane 0.007ppm, DDE 0.022ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.06ppm, Dieldrin 0.02ppm

?/?/74: Lindane 0.06ppm, DDE 0.06ppm

1974 September – 1976 February: Warragul (Vic) Milk detections. Pesticides: DDE, TDE, Dieldrin, HCB, Lindane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Warragul Milk Detections

2/2/76: DDE 0.04ppm, TDE 0.09ppm

14/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm

2/9/75: DDE 0.02ppm, Dieldrin 0.03ppm

1/7/75: HCB 0.01ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.05ppm

?/6/74: DDE 0.014ppm

12/5/75: DDE 0.04ppm

13/3/75: DDE 0.04ppm, TDE 0.02ppm

3/9/74: DDE 0.02ppm

1974 June – 1976 January: Toora (Vic) Milk Residues. Pesticides: DDE, TDE, DDT, Chlordane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Toora Milk Detections

14/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm

3/9/75: DDE 0.02ppm

13/3/75: DDE 0.05ppm, TDE 0.04ppm

7/1/75: DDE 0.08ppm, TDE 0.14ppm, DDT 0.12ppm

6/74: Chlordane 0.05ppm, DDE 0.01ppm

?/74: HCB 0.006ppm, Lindane 0.011ppm, DDE 0.046ppm, TDE 0.015ppm

1974 September – 1976 January: Darnum (Vic). Milk Residues. Pesticides: DDE, Dieldrin, HCB, Lindane, BHC

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Darnum milk detections

14/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm,

2/9/75: DDE 0.02ppm, Dieldrin 0.02ppm

1/7/75: HCB 0.01ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

13/3/75: DDE 0.02ppm

8/1/75: Lindane 0.02ppm

?/12/74: DDE 0.034ppm, BHC 0.4ppm

3/9/74: DDE 0.02ppm

1974 August – 1976 January: Poowong (Vic). Milk residues. Pesticides: HCB, DDE, Lindane, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Poowong milk detections

Jan 1976: DDE 0.05ppm

9/6/75: DDE 0.03ppm

7/4/75: DDE 0.02ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.006ppm, Lindane 0.004ppm.

5/8/74: DDE 0.06ppm, Dieldrin 0.02ppm

1953 January: Irrigation Weed Poisoning. Pesticide

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Fisheries Office
Swan Hill,
21/1/1953

The Superintendent,
Fisheries Branch,
Sydney

Weed poisoning by Victorian State Rivers and Water Supply Commission.

I have to report that on the 17th January I attended a weed killing experiment carried out by Victorian State Rivers and Water Supply Commission at Lake Boga.

Two irrigation channels were treated, each with a different type of poison, effect of poison on fish life is as follows.

Channel No.1

About 11.30am on the 17th of January, 40 gallons of E.F.805M, was released in a irrigation channel near Lake Boga. E.F.805M. is a Vacuum Oil Co. product, (weed killer).

A mixture of E.F.805M and water was pumped into the Channel through a fine spray, the process took about 1 hour. As the weed killer was taken downstream by the run of water in the channel, water turned a milky colour, about 20 minutes after operations began small carp were observed leaping from water, ten minutes later large numbers of carp from 1/2″ to 6″ in length began to float to the surface, by this time the water was very milky from place of pumping to about 60 yards downstream.

It was noticed that poison had no effect on fish where water was not milky. When operations ceased (1 Hour) the water was milky for about 130 yards downstream from pump and dead Carp were floating to surface in large numbers throughout this area. I counted 158 dead fish in 40 yards, this would be no accurate count as many fish could not float to the surface owing to the thick weeds in the channel. About 2 hours later larger carp were observed floating on the water and number of dead Yabbies were observed on the bank.
Channel No.2

About 2.30 p.m on the 17th January, 40 gallons of E.F.860M, was released in an irrigation channel near Lake Boga. About 10-15 minutes after operations began water began to turn milky to about 35 yards downstream from point where poison was released.

Small carp and Redfin began leaping from water. Ten minutes later dead fish began to float to the surface, it was noticed that many small Redfin had leaped onto the bank in an attempt to escape poison, as weed killer spreads slowly I am of the opinion that many of the larger fish may have swan downstream ahead of it.

About 45 minutes after operations began all marine life in an area 50 yards downstream from pump appeared to be extinct, large numbers of small Carp, Redfin were floating on the surface, Yabbies had ceased to move among the weeds and no shrimps were apparent. When pumping operations ceased water was discoloured to about 150 yards downstream and poison was still moving further down the channel, about 1 hour later dead Carp and Redfin were observed on the surface doe about 350 yards downstream.

I removed 6 Carp and 6 Redfin which were floating on the surface but still kicking, the fish were placed in a tin of freshwater, the Redfin died but all Carp revived and were kept for 48 hours when they were destroyed by me.

1974 September: Werribee South. Spray drift. Pesticides: Dieldrin, DDT

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Werribee Pesticide Survey 26 November 1974

… As a result of a high pesticide reading in PDC depot milk sampled at Metropolitan Dairy Broadmeadows…

I sampled each individual farm of the drift on 12/9/74. Results which have just been made available, showed 7 excessive readings in Dieldrin and one high DDT sample.

… One common factor emerged from my investigations. All seven farms had adjoining market gardens. In several instances farmers remembered sprays being used on vegetables about that time.

Enquiries at Werribee South store showed that a chemical “Dieldrin” contaiing Dieldrin is widely used as an insecticide. I suggest that spray-drift from market gardening spraying is responsible for the high Dieldrin level and most likely the DDT case also.

1976 January: Vervale milk contaminated: Pesticide: Endrin.

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30th January 1976 – Chief Division of Dairying

Contamination of Milk with Endrin.

On 28.1.76 advice was received by *** at Warragul that several cows on the ***, *** Vervale, had been affected by spray used on a potato crop on the same farm.

The substances sprayed onto the crop the previous day had been supplied by ***… The products were Shell products Dilhane 45 and a proprietary pesticide mixture containing 30% endrin.

Despite attempts to prevent the collection of milk from this herd, the milk tanker did take the milk. This tanker of milk was subsequently run to waste at the *** Drouin, on the instructions of the General Manager after he received advice of the contamination from this Department.

An order was placed on the farm under Section 75 of the Milk & Dairy Supervision Act prohibiting the removal of milk from the farm, initially for 72 hours, later for an indefinite period.

Samples of the milk and pasture have been taken from the property of *** and of milk from neighbouring farms that also had pasture contaminated by the spray.

Milk arriving in Melbourne from Milk depots collecting milk in the Koo-Wee-Rup and Thorpdale areas is also being sampled for pesticide analysis.

Samples will be taken from the *** farm at 3 day intervals… These samples will be from bulked milk from cows not affected by the spray. Every effort will be made to remove the prohibition of sale order as soon as possible, but it is considered that the pesticide level on the bulked milk of non-affected cows will need to be near 0.3ppm.

1974 – 1975: Wentworth (NSW). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Merbein (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Mildura (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Robinvale (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Swan Hill (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974- 1975: Lake Boga (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Barham (NSW). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Cohuna (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Echuca (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Tocumwal (NSW) Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Cobram (Vic) Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1975 -1975: Yarrawonga (Vic) Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Corowa (NSW) Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Murray River, Howlong, Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Tempehos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Murray River, Albury Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1975 September: Mount Macedon. Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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1975 September

Lands Department.

… In the small catchments at Mt Macedon where streams are used directly for domestic water supplies, spraying of blackberries in or adjacent to these streams could result in contamination of water.

There would be little dilution of contaminated water with uncontaminated water and, in the cases of 2,4,5-T and amitrole, residues exceeding the levels of 0.02 ppm (2,4,5-T) and 0.01ppm (amitrole) set by the National Health and Medical Research Council could occur in domestic supplies…

Experimental evidence suggests that there is little movement of 2,4,5-T from treated areas into streams in run-off water and, therefore, any spraying outside of 10 metres from catchment streams should not result in contamination

Would you please see that the policy of the Board, as outlined above, is implemented in the Mt.Macedon area…

1982 January: Fish Kill East Goulburn Channel (Vic). Pesticide: Endosulfan.

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission
19th January 1982

Fish Kill – Drain 4 and East Goulburn Channel 12 – Shepparton

On the 5th of January, 1982 I investigated a report from Head Baliff *** of a fish kill in Drain No.4, Shepparton. Drain 4 is part of the irrigation system in that it discharges into the East Goulburn Channel 12 which is also a source of domestic supply…

The results of the investigation are as follows:

1. A large number of redfin and carp were dead in the Number 4 drain and along the East Goulburn Channel 12. Sizes of the fish varied from 5 to 50 cm and would have numbered well over 200 individuals over 2 to 3 kilometres of the watercourse. It was difficult to estimate the number of dead fish as the kill was at least 3 days old when observed.

2. It was obvious that the kill was due to a toxic substance in the water. This was established by examination of the dead fish. Upstream of the point where the 5/4 drain enters the Drain, live fish and other aquatic life was seen. Downstream of that point no aquatic life was observed.

3. A tomato crop on *** was sprayed some 4 days prior to this investigation by Field Air (Benalla) Pty Ltd.

In the event of any overspray occurring it would eventually discharge into drain 4.

After investigating all possible sources of contamination of the water the only factor which could be established was that overspray into the channel or the drain may have caused the fish kill.

On the 14th of January I saw the owner of the tomato crop *** who said that Field Air (Benalla) Pty Ltd had sprayed his crop on the 1st of January with Thiodan (Endosulfan) and Copper Cocide…

1967 June: Truck Accident Sunday Creek (Vic). Pesticides: DDT, Phosmet

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4th July 1967 From: Deputy Chief Chemist

Pesticide Incident – Hume Highway – Sunday Creek 29th June, 1967

At approximately 2 a.m. 29th June, a semi trailer with a mixed load including pesticides crashed beside the bridge over Sunday Creek on the Hume Highway, a few miles south of Seymour. The driver escaped before a fire developed which destroyed most of the load.

At 10.30am *** Chief Irrigation Officer of the SR&WSC phoned to advise that a load of Imidan had entered Sunday Creek. The initial report was 44 gallon drums which later was corrected to 5 gallon drums and DDT also received mention. I.C.I. disclaimed any responsibility and eventually it was found that the load had been consigned by Monsanto. Monsanto accepted some degree of responsibility of the accident at 1.30pm…

The load had consisted of –

50 drums (5 gallons) 25% D.D.T. Solution
20 drums (5 gallons) 15% Imidan Solution
both in inflammable solvent…

After the accident a fierce fire developed which destroyed most of the pesticide load and other goods.

An insepection at the scene of the accident disclosed that 3 drums of DDT and 1 drum of Imidan were in the water. These drums were damaged but leakage was small and negligible contamination was likely from this source. The drums were removed from the stream and placed beyond the fire which was still burning.

There was evidence that during the fire drums had burst on the seams and the burning contents (up to 300 gallons) had flowed from the seat of the fire to the waters edge. There was no means of telling whether this burning liquid had entered the water but this appeared unlikely…

Water samples were drawn from the site of the accident and from sites 20 yards upstream and downstream in Sunday Creek.

Analyses made the next day disclosed the following –

Upstream sample: DDT (nil), Imidan (nil, less than 0.02 ppm)
Accident site: DDT (1.3ppm) Imidan (nil)
Downstream sample (20 yards): DDT 0.014ppm, Imidan Nil

These results suggest negligible contamination of the Goulburn Water System.

A sample of water from the site of the accident was taken after clean up operations. This sample contained 0.85 ppm. This figure is probably indicative of further contamination from the bank during cleanup operations.

The calculated pesticide residue in the Goulburn River on the basis of stream flow and determined residues in Sunday Creek, would have been no greater than 0.0003ppm and it is considered that this would have been for a relatively short time…

2006 September – 2007 August: Bull Creek (WA). Pesticides: Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Bull Creek WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: 20ng/L (Replicate A), 20ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 14ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 4ng/L ( Replicate A), 4.5ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND% 4

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 7.7ng/L

Simazine: 54ng/L

Atrazine: <1ng/L

Hexazinone: <1ng/L

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 9.4ng/ED, 2.5Cw. (Replicate B) 13ng/ED, 3.5Cw. 32 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 2.6ng/ED, 0.7Cw. (Replicate B) 6.8ng/ED, 1.8Cw. 26 ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 32%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 27ng/L (Replicate A), 26ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 1.2ng/L (Replicate A), 0.9ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.1ng/L (Replicate A), 0.1ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 13

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 48ng/ED, 15Cw. (Replicate B) 36ng/ED, 11Cw. 28 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 43ng/ED, 13Cw. (Replicate B) 40ng/ED, 13Cw. 5.8 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 8.4ng/ED, 2.7Cw. (Replicate B) 10ng/ED, 3.3Cw. 20 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) 2.3ng/ED, 0.7Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 18%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 23 Apr 10ng/L, 23 Apr 10ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 10ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 19ng/L, 23 Apr 29ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 24ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <0.1ng/L, 23 Apr 4.4ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 2.2ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr 1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 16ng/L (Replicate A), 16ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 12ng/L (Replicate A), 11ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1g/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 3.5%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 6.1ng/L (Replicate A), 6.8ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 130ng/L (Replicate A), 140ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 1.3ng/L (Replicate A), 1.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 7.1ng/L (Replicate A), 8.6ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: >30ng/L (Replicate A), >30ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 6ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 39ng/L (Replicate A), 54ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 17

2006 September – 2007 August: Corfield Street, Southern River, WA. Pesticides: Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Corfield Street, Southern River, WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 44ng/L (Replicate A), 37ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 7ng/L ( Replicate A), 6ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 7ng/L ( Replicate A), 6ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: 0.7ng/L (Replicate A), 0.6ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 32ng/L

Simazine: 74ng/L

Atrazine: <1ng/L

Hexazinone: 6.8ng/L

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 96ng/ED, 30Cw. (Replicate B) 107ng/ED, 34Cw. 11 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 5300ng/ED, 1700Cw. (Replicate B) 6680ng/ED, 2140Cw. 23 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 0.8ng/ED, 0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <82ng/ED, 26Cw. (Replicate B) 88ng/ED, 28Cw. 6.7 ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 13%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 59ng/L, 23 Apr 47ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 53ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 48ng/L, 23 Apr 12ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 30ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 1.5ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 15ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 10ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 785ng/L (Replicate A), 857ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.4ng/L (Replicate A), 0.4ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 0.9ng/L (Replicate A), 0.7ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 25ng/L (Replicate A), 23ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: 1g/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 16%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 21ng/L (Replicate A), 18ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 630ng/L (Replicate A), 620ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 4.3ng/L (Replicate A), 4.1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 24ng/L (Replicate A), 24ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: 1ng/L (Replicate A), <0.3ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 19ng/L (Replicate A), 16ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 14ng/L (Replicate A), 15ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 14ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 31ng/L (Replicate A), 30ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), 11ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 11

2006 September – 2007 May: Mills Street Compensating Basin, Welshpool (WA). Pesticides: Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Mills Street, Compensation Basin, WA

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 190ng/ED, 50Cw. (Replicate B) 120ng/ED, 33Cw. 45 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 43ng/ED, 11Cw. (Replicate B) 32ng/ED, 8.6Cw. 29 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 160ng/ED, 42Cw. (Replicate B) 110ng/ED, 28Cw. 37 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 31ng/ED, 8.3Cw. (Replicate B) 14ng/ED, 3.7Cw. 76 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 9.9ng/ED, 2.7Cw. (Replicate B) 5.6ng/ED, 1.5Cw. 55 ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) 32ng/ED, 8.6Cw. (Replicate B) 16ng/ED, 4.2Cw. 70 ND%

Mean ND 52%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 26ng/L (Replicate A), 18ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 0.5ng/L (Replicate A), 0.3ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: 0.9ng/L (Replicate A), 0.7ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 2ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 72ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 27

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 162ng/ED, 52Cw. (Replicate B) 138ng/ED, 44Cw. 16.4 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 27ng/ED, 8.8Cw. (Replicate B) 26ng/ED, 8.5Cw. 3.1 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 14ng/ED, 4.8Cw. (Replicate B) 15ng/ED, 4.8Cw. 1.3 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 6.9%

 

2006 September – 2007 August. Liege Street Wetland (WA). Pesticides: Multiple.

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Liege Street Wetlands, WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 14ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 0.6ng/L ( Replicate A), 1ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 36ng/L

Simazine: 43ng/L

Atrazine: 3.4ng/L

Hexazinone: <1ng/L

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 7.6ng/ED, 2Cw. (Replicate B) 7.8ng/ED, 2.1Cw. 2.9 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 4ng/ED, 1.1Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 2ng/ED, 1Cw. (Replicate B) 0.3ng/ED, 0.6Cw. 14 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 2.9%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), 0.6ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 0

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 162ng/ED, 52Cw. (Replicate B) 138ng/ED, 44Cw. 16.4 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 27ng/ED, 8.8Cw. (Replicate B) 26ng/ED, 8.5Cw. 3.1 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 14ng/ED, 4.8Cw. (Replicate B) 15ng/ED, 4.8Cw. 1.3 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 6.9%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 220ng/L, 23 Apr 199ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 209ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 18ng/L, 23 Apr 22ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 20ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 9.1ng/L, 23 Apr 10ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 9.5ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 14ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 13ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1g/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 10%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 8.8ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 12ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 2.2ng/L (Replicate A), 2.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 1.8ng/L (Replicate A), 1.8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: 0.9ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 6ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 5

2006 September – 2007 August: Belmont South (WA). Pesticides: Multiple.

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Belmont South WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: 19ng/L (Replicate A), 19ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 10ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 2.5ng/L ( Replicate A), 2.8ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: 0.6ng/L (Replicate A), 0.7ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 11ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 6ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 22ng/L

Simazine: 47ng/L

Atrazine: <1ng/L

Hexazinone: <1ng/L

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 31ng/ED, 8.4Cw. (Replicate B) 23ng/ED, 6.2Cw. 30 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 34ng/ED, 9.2Cw. (Replicate B) 25ng/ED, 6.6Cw. 31 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 2ng/ED, 0.5Cw. (Replicate B) 2.3ng/ED, 0.6Cw. 14 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 8.9ng/ED, 2.4Cw. (Replicate B) 6.8ng/ED, 1.8Cw. 26 ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 25%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 0.4ng/L (Replicate A), 0.4ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.5ng/L (Replicate A), 0.4ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 10ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 16

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 34ng/ED, 11Cw. (Replicate B) 51ng/ED, 16Cw. 39.6 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 3620ng/ED, 1160Cw. (Replicate B) 4260ng/ED, 1360Cw. 16 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 16ng/ED, 5.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) 1.1ng/ED, 0.4Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 49ng/ED, 15Cw. (Replicate B) 77ng/ED, 24Cw. 44 ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 4.8ng/ED, 1.5Cw. (Replicate B) 8.7ng/ED, 2.8Cw. 57 ND%

Mean ND 39%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 25ng/L, 23 Apr 8.5ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 16ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 7655ng/L, 23 Apr 74ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 3870ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 43ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 21ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 49ng/L, 23 Apr 1.7ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 25ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr 2.1ng/L, 23 Apr 1.8ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 1.9ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 14ng/L (Replicate A), 16ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 58ng/L (Replicate A), 54ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.8ng/L (Replicate A), 0.9ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 11ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1g/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 7.3%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 1.6ng/L (Replicate A), 1.9ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 15ng/L (Replicate A), 15ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 0.4ng/L (Replicate A), 0.2ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 0.4ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: >30ng/L (Replicate A), >30ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 6ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 11

2006 September – 2007 August: Perth Airport Main Drain. Pesticides: Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Perth Airport South Main Drain WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 0.6ng/L ( Replicate A), 0.7ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 18ng/L

Simazine: 21ng/L

Atrazine: 6ng/L

Hexazinone 11ng/L

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 24ng/ED, 6.4Cw. (Replicate B) 17ng/ED, 4.4Cw. 34 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 35ng/ED, 9.3Cw. (Replicate B) 32ng/ED, 8.5Cw. 9 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 8.1ng/ED, 2.2Cw. (Replicate B) 6.7ng/ED, 1.8Cw. 19 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 14ng/ED, 3.9Cw. (Replicate B) 13ng/ED, 3.6Cw. 7.4 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 6.6ng/ED, 1.8Cw. (Replicate B) 5.1ng/ED, 1.4Cw. 25 ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 4.5ng/ED, 1.2Cw. (Replicate B) 4.8ng/ED, 1.3Cw. 4.9 ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 17ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1.4ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 30

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 46ng/ED, 15Cw. (Replicate B) 46ng/ED, 15Cw. 0.1 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 110ng/ED, 36Cw. (Replicate B) 110ng/ED, 36Cw. 0.3 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 30ng/ED, 9.6Cw. (Replicate B) 29ng/ED, 9.5Cw. 0.9 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 11ng/ED, 3.7Cw. (Replicate B) 4.3ng/ED, 1.4Cw. 92 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 11ng/ED, 3.8Cw. (Replicate B) 10ng/ED, 3.2Cw. 16 ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 2.9ng/ED, 0.9Cw. (Replicate B) 8.6ng/ED, 2.3Cw. 0.7 ND%

Mean ND 24%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 19ng/L, 23 Apr 72ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 45ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 61ng/L, 23 Apr 71ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 66ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 8.3ng/L, 23 Apr 22ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 15ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr 13ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 6.5ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 3.7ng/L, 23 Apr 11ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 7.3ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr 2.7ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 1.3ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 82ng/L (Replicate A), 83ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 14ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), 0.8ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 15ng/L (Replicate A), 16ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1g/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 8.3%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 22ng/L (Replicate A), 31ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 41ng/L (Replicate A), 50ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 9.8ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: 3.2ng/L (Replicate A), 4.8ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 8.5ng/L (Replicate A), 8.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: <1ng/L (Replicate A), 0.3ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 13ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 10

1964/5: Bamawm Drain Weed Control. Pesticide: Amitrole

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Details of Testing and Results

1964/5 Forty seven samples (including one standard) were submitted for analysis in this season.

One sample from the Deakin Drain gave a just detectable result of (0.03ppm) and one sample from the Bamawm drain contained 0.1ppm. This was taken just downstream of the spray team.

1964/5: Deakin Drain (Vic). Aquatic Weed Control. Pesticide: Amitrole

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Details of Testing and Results

1964/5 Forty seven samples (including one standard) were submitted for analysis in this season.

One sample from the Deakin Drain gave a just detectable result of (0.03ppm) and one sample from the Bamawm drain contained 0.1ppm. This was taken just downstream of the spray team.

1961 March: Tongala (Vic). Weed Control in Drains. Pesticide: Amitrole – highest level 19,500ug/L

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Details of Testing and Results

1961. In the period 14/3/61 – 23/3/61 various formulations (Weedazol 50, Weedazol Total, Weedazol T1) were applied to water couch in 12 miles of drains at Tongala, and 77 samples were taken from drains to indicate the pattern and extent of contamination. Flow velocities in the drains varied from 0 – 0.9 MPH. Sampling at the outfall of this system gave a maximum of 0.70 p.p.m., but a more representative figure would be 0.30 p.p.m.

Samples taken 100 yards – 3/4 mile downstream of operating spray teams showed levels in the range of 0 – 19.5 p.p.m. The average contamination level was 0.25 p.p.m., representing 20% of applied material. There was no indication of reduction of contamination with distance downstream, or any consistent loss of activity with storage over three months…

1966: Whitfield and surrounds (Vic). Fish Kills

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Wangaratta fisherman, ***, said he had used a pressure pack insect spray to clear mosquitoes from a van in which he and a friend were camping in 1963.

They immediately became ill and vomited for two hours.

*** said he had seen a large quantity of dead minnows and carp taken from a lagoon near Myrtleford after an aircraft had passed over on a spraying run.

Near Whitfield, he had found 12 small trout dead in the King River after a storm.

A nearby farmer had told him that 10 days before he had sprayed blackberries on the bank, and had agreed that the rain had probably washed the poison into the stream.

Wangaratta Fly Fishing Club president, ***, said there appeared to have been a general decline in the sizes of rainbow trout taken from the King river in recent years…

***, said his theory was pesticides used in the area caused a slow poisoning of fish, both directly and through poisoned insects on which they fed.

He said that as a fisherman and not a naturalist he had also observed over the past eight years a decline in bird life along the Ovens, King and nearby streams…

Newspaper Article 1966. (Victorian Pesticide Inquiry)

1965 February: Myrtleford Region – Ovens River. Spray drift, water pollution.

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Mr *** of Myrtleford, told how fish deaths in the district had been reported within 24 hours of aerial spraying in February 1965.

A total of 17 reports had later come in from areas where aircraft had operated.

In one case, 400 dead fish had been counted.

In a personal investigation he had counted 21 dead fish in three-quarters of a mile of river alongside tobacco which had been air-sprayed.

“In wading up this water no sign of any aquatic life was seen”

“Immediately above the area sprayed there were many fish, nymphs and aquatic life and fish were rising to surface insects”.”

“It was the most conclusive thing I had seen.”

Mr Robbins said he had been told that spray had been found on the windows of a house on ground a mile from a tobacco crop sprayed from the air.

In another case, two people bathing in the Ovens river had been covered with spray.

Mr Robbins claimed aerial spraying was a major cause of stream contamination in the tobacco growing districts, causing the loss of fish and fish food.

Newspaper Article 1966. (Victorian Pesticide Inquiry)

1960’s: King River (Vic). Fish Kills from aerial spraying.

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***, himself a tobacco grower, said he had received many reports of fish deaths after aerial spraying in the King Valley.

Sometimes aircraft continued to spray as they crossed the river. Sometimes spray dripped from the pipes for periods after the pilot cut off the flow.

Newspaper Article 1966. (Victorian Pesticide Inquiry)

1960 December + 1963: Myrtle Creek Myrtleford Fish Kill. Pesticide: DDT

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In December 1960, fish died in the Myrtle Creek, Myrtleford, after boom-spraying of tobacco nearby with DDT…

Wodonga fisheries officer, ***, quoted another case on the Myrtle Creek in 1963 when a flash flood had lifted a tin of poison from a normally safe place.

The tin had leaked and dead fish were found.

Newspaper Article 1966. (Victorian Pesticide Inquiry)

2007 January – 2007 August: Helena River (WA). Pesticides: Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Helena River, WA

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 44ng/ED, 12Cw. (Replicate B) 40ng/ED, 11Cw. 9.5 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 19ng/ED, 5.1Cw. (Replicate B) 18ng/ED, 4.7Cw. 5.4 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 5ng/ED, 1.4Cw. (Replicate B) 2.1ng/ED, 0.6Cw. 83 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 6.7ng/ED, 1.8Cw. (Replicate B) 6.3ng/ED, 1.7Cw. 5.3 ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) 2.5ng/ED, 0.7Cw. – %

Mean ND 26%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 63ng/L (Replicate A), 54ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3 (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.2ng/L (Replicate A), 0.2ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 21

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 72ng/ED, 23Cw. (Replicate B) 61ng/ED, 19Cw. 16.9 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 110ng/ED, 36Cw. (Replicate B) 110ng/ED, 36Cw. 1.2 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 15ng/ED, 4.9Cw. (Replicate B) 19ng/ED, 6.1Cw. 21 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, 0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 7.7ng/ED, 2.5Cw. (Replicate B) 10ng/ED, 3.2Cw. 26 ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 3.1ng/ED, 1.0Cw. (Replicate B) 4.6ng/ED, 1.5Cw. 39 ND%

Mean ND 21%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 39ng/L, 23 Apr 54ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 46ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 90ng/L, 23 Apr 43ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 66ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 8.3ng/L, 23 Apr 5.1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 6.7ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 9.2ng/L, 23 Apr 7.1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 8.1ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr 1.8ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 0.9ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 121ng/L (Replicate A), 114ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 15ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 16%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 16ng/L (Replicate A), 11ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 150ng/L (Replicate A), 110ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 17ng/L (Replicate A), 14ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: 2.1ng/L (Replicate A), 1.9ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 8.3ng/L (Replicate A), 9.1ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: 3.7ng/L (Replicate A), 2.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: 0.3ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 21ng/L (Replicate A), 19ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: 102ng/L (Replicate A), 100ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 10

2006 September – 2006 October: Ellen Brook, Henley Brook (WA). Pesticides: Chlorpyrifos, Metolachlor, Diuron, Simazine, Atrazine

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Ellen Brook, Henley Brook WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 1ng/L ( Replicate A), 1ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 10ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), 0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND% 14

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 1.5ng/L

Simazine: 7.5ng/L

Atrazine: 5.5ng/L

Hexazinone: <1ng/L

2006 October – August 2007: Bennett Brook, Caversham (WA). Pesticides Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Bennett Brook, Caversham WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 2ng/L ( Replicate A), 2ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 0.9ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 1.4ng/L (Replicate A), 1.3ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 6%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 8.1ng/L

Simazine: 55ng/L

Atrazine: <1ng/L

Hexazinone: <1ng/L

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 5ng/ED, 1.3Cw. (Replicate B) 4.8ng/ED, 1.3Cw. 3.5 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 5.6ng/ED, 1.5Cw. (Replicate B) 5.3ng/ED, 1.4Cw. 5.1 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) 4.2ng/ED, 1.1Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) 15ng/ED, 0.4Cw. – %

Mean ND -%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 1ng/L (Replicate A)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A)

Chlorpyrifos: 0.2ng/L (Replicate A)

Chlordane Trans: 0.1ng/L (Replicate A)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A)

Mean ND%:

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 170ng/ED, 55Cw. (Replicate B) 170ng/ED, 55Cw. 1.2 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 96ng/ED, 30Cw. (Replicate B) 92ng/ED, 29Cw. 4.1 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 3ng/ED, 1Cw. (Replicate B) 3.5ng/ED, 1.1Cw. 12 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, 0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, 0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, 0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 6%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 5.1ng/L, 23 Apr 1.7ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 3.4ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 15ng/L, 23 Apr 1.9ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 8.4ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: present (Replicate A), present (Replicate B)

Mean ND 10%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 9.3ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 410ng/L (Replicate A), 380ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3.2ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 9.8ng/L (Replicate A), 11ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 7

2006 September – 2007 August: Bayswater Main Drain (WA). Pesticides: Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Bayswater Main Drain, Bayswater WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 2ng/L ( Replicate A), 2ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 0.6ng/L (Replicate A), 0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 44ng/L

Simazine: 52ng/L

Atrazine: 3.3ng/L

Hexazinone 4.9ng/L

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 43ng/ED, 12Cw. (Replicate B) 27 ng/ED, 7.1Cw. 46 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 130ng/ED, 35Cw. (Replicate B) 66ng/ED, 18Cw. 65 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 150ng/ED, 41Cw. (Replicate B) 66ng/ED, 18Cw. 78 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 3.7ng/ED, 1Cw. (Replicate B) 2.7ng/ED, 0.7Cw. 30 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 5.4ng/ED, 1.4Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 10ng/ED, 2.8Cw. (Replicate B) 9.9ng/ED, 2.7Cw. 1.2 ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) 1.9ng/ED, 0.5Cw. (Replicate B) 3.1ng/ED, 0.8Cw. 46 ND%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 0.8ng/L (Replicate A), 0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.3ng/L (Replicate A), 0.3ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 24

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 490ng/ED, 155Cw. (Replicate B) 360ng/ED, 114Cw. 30.1 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 150ng/ED, 46Cw. (Replicate B) 110ng/ED, 35Cw. 27 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 1040ng/ED, 333Cw. (Replicate B) 760ng/ED, 244Cw. 30 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 13ng/ED, 4.3Cw. (Replicate B) 9.6ng/ED, 3.1Cw. 32 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 17ng/ED, 5.4Cw. (Replicate B) 16ng/ED, 5.4Cw. 1 ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 12ng/ED, 4Cw. (Replicate B) 8.6ng/ED, 2.7Cw. 1.2 ND%

Mean ND 26%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 630ng/L, 23 Apr 82ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 350ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 197ng/L, 23 Apr 5ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 101ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 2900ng/L, 23 Apr 41ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 1470ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 26ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 26ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr 0.8ng/L, 23 Apr 3.6ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 2.2ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 24ng/L (Replicate A), 25ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: 25ng/L (Replicate A), 18ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 81ng/L (Replicate A), 59ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.6ng/L (Replicate A), 0.6ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 12ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 15ng/L (Replicate A), 21ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: 0.9ng/L (Replicate A), 0.9ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 14%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 27ng/L (Replicate A), 30ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 37ng/L (Replicate A), 40ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 13ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 5.4ng/L (Replicate A), 5.6ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: 5.0ng/L (Replicate A), 5.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 6ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 10ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 10ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 16ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 16

 

 

1960 July: Mildura complain of SRWSC impacting on vines. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

4th of July 1960

Chief Irrigation Officer … issued Circular L.D.46 on the 29/12/59 setting out the precautions to be taken when using sprays, the types of sprays, quantity for the various species of weeds, and concluding with the statement that before using a channel after it had been sprayed, the channel was to be flushed out and the flushing water disposed of on pasture paddocks or wastelands, and not so as to reach the river systems or horticultural plantings.

The District Engineers considered this statement, put a complete stoppage to their winter spraying program because it would be almost impossible to prevent flushing water reaching a river system.

The reason for the insertion of the statement concerned has now been ascertained with certainty, but before *** left for overseas he informed me that last Summer there were some citrus growers in the Mildura region who claimed the loss of leaf from the trees was due to the Commission’s use of chemicals spray on irrigation channels in the Goulburn-Murray District.

*** stated it was most unlikely the loss of leaf was due to the chemicals, but it more likely to have been caused by the heat wave experienced last summer. *** said that the amount of chemicals in the River Murray at Mildura was so infinitesimal as to be unmeasureable, but that the only way to convince the Mildura growers that chemicals were not the cause of their trouble was to keep all chemicals out of the river until the matter had been cleared up.

The amount of 2,4-D at Mildura, under the worst possible conditions, is estimated at 1 in 500,000,000 but the actual quantity would be considerably less…

Attached herewith is a statement produced by *** giving information on the estimated amount of pollution by 2,4-D. *** estimates the dilution of 1 in 200,000,000 assuming all the 2,4-D used appeared in the River Murray.

The quantities are so small and the dilution so great, that there is no risk of any damage being caused to citrus vines, or any other sort of production irrigated from the River Murray.

*** states that crops would not be harmed by an irrigation using water containing 20 p.p.m.

1962 December: Malmsbury Reservoir Spillway. Pesticides: Amitrole, Diquat, Paraquat

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

6th of December 1962

Weed control – Malmsbury Reservoir.

My memorandum to *** of 16th November gave recommendations for the control of weeds on the embankment, spillway and paths at Malmsbury Reservoir. After further consideration, I have some doubts about the wisdom of using Weedazol Total or any other Weedicide in the spillway.

I had assumed the first flow over the spillway after treatment would be in midwinter when there was no use of the Malmsbury pool for watering gardens. In actual fact however, a heavy rain soon after spraying could result in water moving over the spillway, even though there was no discharge through the gates, at a time when there was a considerable demand for water from the pool. In other words there is a possibility that the use of Weedazol Total in the spillway could cause damage to private gardens in Malmsbury. Its use should therefore be limited to the embankment.

As regards spray treatments using Diquat and Paraquat, you have already been advised of the withdrawal from use of these two chemicals in all areas. This will affect the recommendation concerning treatment of the paths and the follow-up spraying of the embankment.

Your requirements then as regards weedicides for Malmsbury are thus 60 lbs of Weedazol Total and 1/2 gallon of Plus 50 to be used on the embankment, preferably during December.

1965? Boggy Creek/Thompson River (Vic). Pesticides: Amitrole, Diuron

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Increased use of Weedazol – Macalister Irrigation District

Present Position

At the present time, Weedazol is used in relatively small quantities in the Macalister Irrigation District to treat regrowth of water couch in drains, following the application of Karmex (diuron) during winter.

It is not used however in drains flowing into the Macalister or Thompson Rivers. The Macalister River supplies water to Maffra while the Thompson River supplies water to Sale. The Interdepartmental Committee on Pesticides did not favour the use of Weedazol in Gippsland where domestic Water supplies could be contaminated, because Gippsland is regarded as a goitre area.

The limit set by the Committee for water supplies elsewhere was 0.3 ppm of aminotriazole. The State Rivers and Water Supply Commission established a limit of 0.002 ppm to apply to its own operations wherever water was used for irrigation.

Proposal

The Committee’s approval is sought for a proposal which would result in contamination of the Thompson and Macalister Rivers by aminotriazole between December and April each year. Spraying would be restricted so that the pollution level of aminotriazole does not exceed 0.002 ppm.

The area mainly concerned is Area “A” on the attached plan. Drains in this area flow into the Macalister River which has a controlled summer flow of about 200 cusecs. This would permit the use of some 30 gallons weekly of Weedazol TL i.e. 75 lbs of aminitriazole.

Drains in Area “B” flow into the Thompson River. Only a very limited amount of spraying would be possible in this area because of a small summer flow in the Thompson River.

The consumption of aminotriazole by persons in Maffra and Sale would be very small. Only 0.6 mgm would be consumed each year by a person who drank 2 litres of water daily during the spray period.

1965?: Macalister River Weed Control. Pesticides: Amitrole, Diuron

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Increased use of Weedazol – Macalister Irrigation District

Present Position

At the present time, Weedazol is used in relatively small quantities in the Macalister Irrigation District to treat regrowth of water couch in drains, following the application of Karmex (diuron) during winter.

It is not used however in drains flowing into the Macalister or Thompson Rivers. The Macalister River supplies water to Maffra while the Thompson River supplies water to Sale. The Interdepartmental Committee on Pesticides did not favour the use of Weedazol in Gippsland where domestic Water supplies could be contaminated, because Gippsland is regarded as a goitre area.

The limit set by the Committee for water supplies elsewhere was 0.3 ppm of aminotriazole. The State Rivers and Water Supply Commission established a limit of 0.002 ppm to apply to its own operations wherever water was used for irrigation.

Proposal

The Committee’s approval is sought for a proposal which would result in contamination of the Thompson and Macalister Rivers by aminotriazole between December and April each year. Spraying would be restricted so that the pollution level of aminotriazole does not exceed 0.002 ppm.

The area mainly concerned is Area “A” on the attached plan. Drains in this area flow into the Macalister River which has a controlled summer flow of about 200 cusecs. This would permit the use of some 30 gallons weekly of Weedazol TL i.e. 75 lbs of aminitriazole.

Drains in Area “B” flow into the Thompson River. Only a very limited amount of spraying would be possible in this area because of a small summer flow in the Thompson River.

The consumption of aminotriazole by persons in Maffra and Sale would be very small. Only 0.6 mgm would be consumed each year by a person who drank 2 litres of water daily during the spray period.

1981 November: Numurkah. Pesticide: Acrolein

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10 November 1981

State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Regulations Applying to the use of Acrolein

It was bought to my attention Friday evening (6th November), By Works Inspector *** (Nathalia) that a drum of acrolein in the Numurkah store was considered to be in an unsafe condition. I later learnt that the drum had been opened some eight days previously and part of the contents used in a channel injection.

… The drum exhibited signs of swelling, indicative of a build up of pressure with creases occurring on the top of the drum. It was considered that the contents of the drum be disposed of immediately.

Regulations applying to the use of Acrolein.

Section V4 of the Weed Control Operating Instructions…, clearly states that an opened drum, provided it is blanketed by nitrogen, may only be kept for a maximum of 3 days. This is not only the Commission’s policy but also that of the manufacturers of acrolein…

1983 December: Greensborough possible miscarriages. Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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The Age 14 December 1983

Ban moves towards and end to 2,4,5-T

State Government departments have been banned from using the herbicide 2,4,5-T in built-up areas or on open land near residential areas throughout Victoria…

The Government’s limited ban follows recent claims by three Greensborough women that the use of 2,4,5-T close to their homes may have caused their miscarriages.

1984 February: Boort area (Vic) Fish Kill. Pesticide: Fenvalerate

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission February 5 1984

I inspected the No.2 and the 2/2 with *** and *** on Monday 9th January, 1984.

Dead Fish were found in Allotment 9 and on the No.2 channel down to the Lake Neran outfall. At every bridge over the channel dead fish could be observed floating at the margin of the channel.

While inspecting the channels, we spoke to two of the tomato growers. Both *** and *** were extremely candid about what pesticides had been used on their tomatoes and I subsequently contacted the aerial spray contractor, *** of Elmore. He gave me the following information I had been given by the tomato growers.

Sumicidin (Fenvalerate), Kocide (Copper Oxychloride), Dithane, Endosulfan.

Detection of Dead Fish

The supervision water bailiffs on the No. 2 Channel first noticed distressed fish at noon on Wednesday 4th January, 1984. By the following day, Thursday, many dead fish were floating in the water and no distressed fish were observed.

On Friday 6th January, 1984, a number of dead fish were removed by Commission workers after a local landholder had expressed concern about the dead fish and the possible detrimental affect on water for domestic supply.

Initially I suspected endosulfan as the cause of the fish kill but according to the growers and the spraying contractor, endosulfan was only used adjacent to the 2/2 channel. It is worth noting that the 2/2 channel was treated with acrolein some two weeks prior to the aerial spraying so very few live fish would have been present.

However, it has been reported to me by one of the markers to the spraying contractors noticed one small fish in the 2/2 was distressed after Allotment 53 was sprayed with endosupfan, fenvalerate and kocide on the 4th January 1984.

The most toxic material used near the No.2 channel was fenvalerate. Therefore at this stage, without any residue data to support any conclusions it appears that the fish in the No.2 channel were killed by inadvertent drift of fenvalerate from the aerial spraying of tomatoes in Allotments 45, 10, 9 and 8 C.

It is inevitable that some chemical will drift from any type of spraying operations but the disturbing feature of this fish kill is that fish appeared to have died some 6 kilometres downstream from the point of spraying…

Conclusion

1. The fish kill in the No.2 channel was caused by accidental drift from aerial spraying of tomatoes adjacent to the channel.

2. Fenvalerate appears to have been the pesticide responsible.

3. It was an isolated incident in an area where tomatoes have been grown for at least 10 years and where aerial spraying has been the predominant method of applying pesticides in the past 6 years.

Recommendation

Aerial spraying of crops adjacent to channels be closely observed to identify if this incident was as isolated as we believe.

1973/4: Bright Pine Plantations (Vic). Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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Forests Commission Victoria

1973/74 Aerial Spraying of 2,4,5-T

In Bright district, a combination of steep, secluded gullies and severe down-draught in the lee of ridges created an extremely difficult flying situation. One one occasion the pilot was forced to dump 50 gallons of the spray load to clear trees on a spur. The area of the dump with immediately located on, and adjacent to, a steep track. Run off gutters were cut across the track to ensure that rainfall flushed the pesticide into the forest. A polystyrene dam was floated across the nearby creek draining the area. However no rain fell on the area for at least three days. The area of the dump with clearly marked to permit observation of its effect on the patch of pines drenched by the pesticide.

1962 June – 1962 September: Tongala drains (Vic). Pesticide: Monuron

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

29th March 1963

Pollution of Water Supplies by CMU

Control of water couch in drains can be obtained by application of Telvar (CMU) at a rate of 50 lbs per acre, provided the drains are relatively dry and there is little foliage present.

The experiment described below was conducted in order to determine the extent of pollution of water supplies resulting from the use of CMU is this way and the time at which it occurs. The information obtained enabled an assessment to be made of the risk of injury to crops being irrigated directly from drains treated with CMU and from streams into which the treated drains flow.

Experimental Procedure.

From the 11th to 22nd June, 1962, 560 lbs of Telvar was applied to the batters of a drain in the Tongala district with the standard Furphy spray unit, the application rate being approximately 50 lbs per acre. Before spraying, batters had been cleaned with the Briscoe sloper in the usual way.

During application, and until the 26th September, 88 water samples were taken at the point furthest downstream of treatment…

Results and Discussion

Analysis of the water samples for CMU content produced two important facts. Firstly the contamination of drain water during the three months after application was fairly constant – 1.3% per month of the quantity applied. Secondly, contamination during the first days high flow after the commencement of irrigation was 9% of the quantity applied.

The considerable loss of CMU during the first high flow in drains is most significant. Unless CMU was used on a small scale only, a loss to drain water of the order of 9% of the applied material in such a short period as one day, could cause a dangerously high pollution level in irrigation supplies…

As the quantity of CMU that can be safely used is so small, it is suggested for practical purposes, that it’s use be confined to one district. Tongala is preferred as it has the worst weed problems…

CMU content ranged from 0.18ppm to 6.6ppm in June 1962.

To between 0.3 to 1.31 ppm in July 1962

To between 0.03ppm – 0.5 ppm in September 1962

1971 July: Buffalo River (Vic). Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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14 November 1971

Department of Agriculture Victoria

Analyses of Water for 2,4,5-T Residues

11 water samples from near forest areas sprayed with 2,4,5-T for wattle control by aerial spraying in July 1971.

Pesticide used – 2,4,5-T Butyl Ester in No 2 Fuel Oil at the rate of 1 lb a.i./5 gallons oil/acre

Results of analysis – parts per thousand million

Fiery Creek:
before spraying                      0.7ug/L
24 hours after spraying         6.3ug/L
after 15/7/71                           0.5ug/L

Blue Range (Mansfield):
before spraying 7/7/71 9am                     2.2ug/L
during spraying 8/7/71 9am                     1.9ug/L
during spraying 9/7/71 8am                     6.5ug/L
17 hours after spraying 10/7/71 10am    1.5ug/L
42 hours after spraying 10/7/71 11am    0.7ug/L
After rain                                                   0.5ug/L

Buffalo River:
before spraying                                         0.8ug/L
(Myrtleford) within 24 hours.                    0.5ug/L
After Spraying                                            5.0ug/L

Comments:

A calculation based on 1 lb/acre application of 2,4,5-T shows that water a foot deep directly sprayed could have an initial concentration of about 400 parts per thousand million….

1971 July: Blue Range (Vic). Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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14 November 1971

Department of Agriculture Victoria

Analyses of Water for 2,4,5-T Residues

11 water samples from near forest areas sprayed with 2,4,5-T for wattle control by aerial spraying in July 1971.

Pesticide used – 2,4,5-T Butyl Ester in No 2 Fuel Oil at the rate of 1 lb a.i./5 gallons oil/acre

Results of analysis – parts per thousand million

Fiery Creek:
before spraying                      0.7ug/L
24 hours after spraying         6.3ug/L
after 15/7/71                           0.5ug/L

Blue Range (Mansfield):
before spraying 7/7/71 9am                     2.2ug/L
during spraying 8/7/71 9am                     1.9ug/L
during spraying 9/7/71 8am                     6.5ug/L
17 hours after spraying 10/7/71 10am    1.5ug/L
42 hours after spraying 10/7/71 11am    0.7ug/L
After rain                                                   0.5ug/L

Buffalo River:
before spraying                                         0.8ug/L
(Myrtleford) within 24 hours.                    0.5ug/L
After Spraying                                            5.0ug/L

Comments:

A calculation based on 1 lb/acre application of 2,4,5-T shows that water a foot deep directly sprayed could have an initial concentration of about 400 parts per thousand million….

1971 July: Fiery Creek (Vic). Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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14 November 1971

Department of Agriculture Victoria

Analyses of Water for 2,4,5-T Residues

11 water samples from near forest areas sprayed with 2,4,5-T for wattle control by aerial spraying in July 1971.

Pesticide used – 2,4,5-T Butyl Ester in No 2 Fuel Oil at the rate of 1 lb a.i./5 gallons oil/acre

Results of analysis – parts per thousand million

Fiery Creek:
before spraying                      0.7ug/L
24 hours after spraying         6.3ug/L
after 15/7/71                           0.5ug/L

Blue Range (Mansfield):
before spraying 7/7/71 9am                     2.2ug/L
during spraying 8/7/71 9am                     1.9ug/L
during spraying 9/7/71 8am                     6.5ug/L
17 hours after spraying 10/7/71 10am    1.5ug/L
42 hours after spraying 10/7/71 11am    0.7ug/L
After rain                                                   0.5ug/L

Buffalo River:
before spraying                                         0.8ug/L
(Myrtleford) within 24 hours.                    0.5ug/L
After Spraying                                            5.0ug/L

Comments:

A calculation based on 1 lb/acre application of 2,4,5-T shows that water a foot deep directly sprayed could have an initial concentration of about 400 parts per thousand million….

1973-74: Rochester (Vic) Drains. Pesticide: Amitrole

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

18 November 1979

Large quantities of the weedicide amitrole are used by the Commission, mainly to control the growth of water couchgrass in drains. The commercial product generally used, of which amitrole is the active ingredient, is Weedazol TL.

Amitrole is not used for this purpose or for the control of other aquatic species in the U.S.A. because of its alleged cancer producing properties. The evidence for this claim was considered by the Health Department (through the Interdepartmental Committee on Pesticides – the forerunner of the Pesticides Review Committee), but was rejected. As a result the proposal by the Commission to use amitrole for aquatic weed control was accepted.

In spite of the approval given to use amitrole, a common belief amogst workers in the aquatic weed field is that a move away from its use would ultimately be desirable, simply because of its controversial history. It is now considered that more positive steps should be taken with this objective in mind.

The reason for this proposal is that legal action at present being taken by the Environment Protection Authority in the U.S.A. could result in the weedicide 2,4,5-T being banned in that country. Pressure for a similar ban in Victoria is certain to follow, although it would have little immediate effect on the Commission’s weed control program as only a relatively small quantity of 2,4,5-T is used. On the other hand, the Lands Department and farmers throughout the State would be obliged to use amitrole instead of 2,4,5-T for control of some noxious weeds such as blackberry. It is only a matter of time before amitrole, when used on such a scale, would come under scrutiny and perhaps be banned.

1973/4? Testing
Drains, Rochester and Murray Valley
No.
51    0.22ppm 220 ug/L
52    0.17ppm 170 ug/L
57    0.78ppm 780 ug/L
58    2.40ppm 2,400 ug/L
59    2.10ppm 2,100 ug/L
62    2.00ppm 2,000 ug/L

1988 December: Fitzroy Island (Qld): Pesticide Aldrin

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http://www.seagrasswatch.org/Info_centre/Publications/pdf/meg/Coles_et_al_1990.pdf

1988 February: Cairns Salt Water Creek. Pesticide: Aldrin

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http://www.seagrasswatch.org/Info_centre/Publications/pdf/meg/Coles_et_al_1990.pdf

1988 February: Cairns Esplanade Mudflats. Pesticides: Dieldrin, Aldrin

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http://www.seagrasswatch.org/Info_centre/Publications/pdf/meg/Coles_et_al_1990.pdf

1972 August: Kerang Drain 3. Pesticide: Amitrole detected at 72,000ug/L.

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Kerang Drain 3

State Rivers and Water Supply Commission 1972 August (document).

Contamination limits

At a meeting of the Victorian Interdepartmental Committee on Pesticides on 24th September, 1962, approval was given for the Commission to use amitrole provided the level in domestic drinking water did not exceed 0.3ppm. The only exception was in Gippsland where contamination of drinking water was not permitted as it is a goitre area.

After completion of experiments on the toxicity of amitrole to crops and pastures, the Commission in June, 1963, adopted a maximum contamination level of amitrole in streams of 0.002 ppm. This level was 1/500 th of the concentration which in one irrigation, damaged the most sensitive crop tested.

On the basis of experience the Commission has had with amitrole over the the past ten years, it is considered that the maximum concentration of amitrole in streams could be safely determined at 0.01ppm or higher if necessary. This concentration is slightly higher than the sensitivity of the amitrole analytical method but considerably below the level of 0.3 ppm originally approved.

Although water containing amitrole residues may be pumped from drains for irrigation, this is closely controlled under license to the Commission. Also drainage water is always diluted in streams before use for domestic purposes. Establishment of a separate limit for drainage effluent is therefore unnecessary.

Drain 3 Kerang

Lot C

41 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 52 parts per million (52,000 ug/L)

42 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 72 parts per billion (72,000 ug/L)

41A Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 0.19 parts per billion (190 ug/L)

42A Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 61 parts per billion (61,000 ug/L)

43A Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 28 parts per billion (28,000 ug/L)

44 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 0.31 parts per billion (310 ug/L)

45 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 44 parts per billion (44,000 ug/L)

46 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 35 parts per billion (35,000 ug/L)

47 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 0.06 parts per billion (60 ug/L)

48 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 55 parts per billion (55,000 ug/L)

49 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 23 parts per billion (23,000 ug/L)

State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Memo 31 August 1983

On 29 July I drew your attention to the expected withdrawal from sale of the herbicide amitrole by a major supplier. It was understood that the basis for the withdrawal was the alleged carcinogenic (cancer producing) nature of amitrole. A confirmatory letter from ICI Australia was tabled at a meeting of the Agricultural and Domestic Chemicals Review Committee (ADCRC) on 26 August.

You will be aware that amitrole has been used extensively by the Commission for about twenty years, mainly to control the growth of water couchgrass in drains. The withdrawal of amitrole from sale would necessitate the use of an alternative herbicide, At present, glyphosate is the only satisfactory alternative, the additional cost being about $40,000 annually.

The main decision arising from discussion at the meeting was that the Premier be notified of the cation taken by ICI, and that ADCRC considers that State Departments and instrumentalities should cease using amitrole.

However, at a meeting of several members of ADCRC on 30 August, convened when further information had been obtained, it was agreed that no recommendation should be made at present to terminate the use of amitrole. Instead, the Premier would be advised that ADCRC was taking immediate steps to consult ICI on the company’s action, and to obtain a review by the National Health and Medical research Council in toxicological data on amitrole.

It is evident that, for the time being at least, the Commission should plan to continue using amitrole for control of water couchgrass in drains in the usual way. Nevertheless contingency plans should be made so that a change from amitrole to glyphosate can be made as smoothly as possible if such as change becomes necessary.

1972 August: Murrabit Drain 3. Pesticide detected: Amitrole at 72,000 ug/L

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Murrabit Drain 3

State Rivers and Water Supply Commission 1972 August (document).

Contamination limits

At a meeting of the Victorian Interdepartmental Committee on Pesticides on 24th September, 1962, approval was given for the Commission to use amitrole provided the level in domestic drinking water did not exceed 0.3ppm. The only exception was in Gippsland where contamination of drinking water was not permitted as it is a goitre area.

After completion of experiments on the toxicity of amitrole to crops and pastures, the Commission in June, 1963, adopted a maximum contamination level of amitrole in streams of 0.002 ppm. This level was 1/500 th of the concentration which in one irrigation, damaged the most sensitive crop tested.

On the basis of experience the Commission has had with amitrole over the the past ten years, it is considered that the maximum concentration of amitrole in streams could be safely determined at 0.01ppm or higher if necessary. This concentration is slightly higher than the sensitivity of the amitrole analytical method but considerably below the level of 0.3 ppm originally approved.

Although water containing amitrole residues may be pumped from drains for irrigation, this is closely controlled under license to the Commission. Also drainage water is always diluted in streams before use for domestic purposes. Establishment of a separate limit for drainage effluent is therefore unnecessary.

Drain 3 Murrabit

Lot D X Drain 3, Murrabit Amitrole 0.5 parts per million (500 ug/L)
Lot D Y Drain 3, Murrabit Amitrole 72 parts per million (72,000 ug/L)
Lot D Z Drain 3, Murrabit Amitrole 7.2 parts per billion (7,200 ug/L)

State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Memo 31 August 1983

On 29 July I drew your attention to the expected withdrawal from sale of the herbicide amitrole by a major supplier. It was understood that the basis for the withdrawal was the alleged carcinogenic (cancer producing) nature of amitrole. A confirmatory letter from ICI Australia was tabled at a meeting of the Agricultural and Domestic Chemicals Review Committee (ADCRC) on 26 August.

You will be aware that amitrole has been used extensively by the Commission for about twenty years, mainly to control the growth of water couchgrass in drains. The withdrawal of amitrole from sale would necessitate the use of an alternative herbicide, At present, glyphosate is the only satisfactory alternative, the additional cost being about $40,000 annually.

The main decision arising from discussion at the meeting was that the Premier be notified of the cation taken by ICI, and that ADCRC considers that State Departments and instrumentalities should cease using amitrole.

However, at a meeting of several members of ADCRC on 30 August, convened when further information had been obtained, it was agreed that no recommendation should be made at present to terminate the use of amitrole. Instead, the Premier would be advised that ADCRC was taking immediate steps to consult ICI on the company’s action, and to obtain a review by the National Health and Medical research Council in toxicological data on amitrole.

It is evident that, for the time being at least, the Commission should plan to continue using amitrole for control of water couchgrass in drains in the usual way. Nevertheless contingency plans should be made so that a change from amitrole to glyphosate can be made as smoothly as possible if such as change becomes necessary.

 

2010 April: Regent Street, Mount Waverely (Vic). Pesticides: Dieldrin, Simazine, Desisopropylatrazine, Imidacloprid, p,p’DDE, p,p’DDD

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 322: u/S Regent St Mt Waverley

21/04/2010. Dieldrin 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.093ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.01ug/L, Imidicloprid 0.007ug/L.

Sediment: p,p’DDE 8.6ug/kg, p,p’DDD 3ug/kg

2010 April: Cala Street Ponds, Footscray. Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 321: Cala St Ponds West Footscray

29/04/2010. Dimethoate 0.001ug/L, Dieldrin 0.004ug/L, Atrazine 0.033ug/L, Simazine 0.46ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.065ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L, Triadimenol 0.004ug/L.

Sediment: 29/4/10 p,p-DDE 3ug/kg, Dieldrin 11ug/kg, Simazine 4ug/kg, atrazine-2-hydroxy 2ug/kg

2010 April: Truganina Swamp, Altona (Vic). Pesticides; Atrazine, Hexazinone, Simazine, Terbutryn, Desisopropylatrazine, Metalaxyl

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 320:  Truganina Swamp Altona

20/04/2010. Atrazine 0.026ug/L, Hexazinone 0.015ug/L, Simazine 0.56ug/L, Terbutryn 0.001ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.047ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.003ug/L

2010 April: Sharps Road Keilor (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 319: Sharps Rd Keilor

28/04/2010.  Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Dieldrin 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.029ug/L, Simazine 0.2ug/L, Terbutyrn 0.002ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.028ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L, Triadimenol 0.002ug/L.

Sediment: 29/4/10 Bifenthrin 27ug/kg, Dieldrin 5.4ug/kg, cis-Chlordane 2ug/kg, Chlorothalonil 53ug/kg, Simazine 2ug/kg

2010 April: Cherry Lake, Altona (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 316:  Cherry Lake Altona

20/04/2010. Fenvalerate 0.033ug/L, Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 1.65ug/L, Hexazinone 0.014ug/L, Metribuzin 0.99ug/L, Simazine 1.72ug/L, Terbutryn 0.002ug/L, Desethylatrazine 0.17ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.25ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.001ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.011ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.001ug/L, Triadimenol 0.016ug/L, Propiconazole 0.005ug/L.

Sediment 20/4/10 Atrazine 2ug/kg, Simazine 2ug/kg, atrazine-2hydroxy 2ug/kg

2010 April: Woodland Park Essendon. Pesticides: Atrazine, Simazine, Imidacloprid, Tebuconazole, Propiconazole, p,p’DDE

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 315: Woodland Park Essendon

29/04/2010. Atrazine 0.002ug/L, Simazine 0.023ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.008ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.021, Propiconazole 0.022ug/L.

Sediment 29/4/10 p,p’DDE 2ug/kg

2010 April: Queens Park Moonee Ponds (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 314: Queen’s Park Moonee Ponds

29/04/2010. Atrazine 0.015ug/L Simazine 4.78ug/L, Terbutryn 0.001ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.22ug/L, Imidicloprid 0.065ug/L.

Sediment: 29/4/10 p,p’DDE 5.4ug/kg, Simazine 7.1ug/kg, atrazine-3-hydroxy 7ug/kg

2010 April: Jack Roper Reserve (Vic) Broadmeadows. Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 312: Jack Roper Reserve Broadmeadows

28/04/2010. Dieldrin 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.029ug/L, Simazine 0.05ug/L, Terbutryn 0.022ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.034ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.002ug/L, Propiconazole 0.002ug/L.

Sediment: 29/4/10 Bifenthrin 12ug/kg, Permethrin 28ug/kg, Dieldrin 2ug/kg, trans-Chlordane 1ug/kg

2010 April: Jawbone Conservation Reserve Williamstown. Pesticides: Simazine, Desisopropylatrazine, Imidacloprid, Propiconazole, Bifenthrin, Atrazine-2-Hydroxy

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 311: Jawbone Conserv. Res. Williamstown

20/04/2010. Simazine 0.31ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.036ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.005ug/L, Propiconazole 0.002ug/L.

Sediment: 20/4/10 Bifenthrin 35ug/kg, atrazine-2-hydroxy 3ug/kg

2010 April: Endeavour Hills (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple.

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 310: Frog Hollow Reserve Endeavour Hills

21/04/2010. Simazine 0.027ug/L, Terbutryn 0.002ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.013ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.001ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L, Myclobutanil 0.002ug/L, Triadimenol 0.004ug/L.

Sediment 21/4/10 Bifenthrin 29ug/kg

2010 April: Chirnside Park (Vic). Pesticides: Atrazine, Simazine, Terbutryn, Desisopropylatrazine, Imidacloprid, Pirimicarb, Metalaxyl, Fipronil

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 308: Pezzimenti Pl Chirnside Park

27/04/2010. Atrazine 0.022ug/L, Simazine 0.097ug/L, Terbutryn 0.002ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.005ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.006ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.001ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L, Fipronil 0.01ug/L

2010 April: Lennon Street Point Cook. Pesticides: Dimethoate, Atrazine, Simazine, Terbutryn, Imidacloprid, Metalaxyl, Bifenthrin

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 305: Lennon St Pt Cook

Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.013ug/L, Simazine 0.12ug/L, Terbutryn 0.002ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.004ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.004ug/L.

Sediment: 29/4/10 Bifenthrin 30ug/kg

2010 April: Berwick Springs (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 303: Berwick Springs Lake Berwick Springs

21/04/2010 Fenamiphos 0.005ug/L, Atrazine 0.004ug/L, Prometryn 0.16ug/L, Simazine 0.07ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.01ug/L, Methomyl 0.011ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.49ug/L, Oxadixyl 0.012ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.018ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.19ug/L, Dimethomorph 0.002ug/L.

Sediment: 21/4/10 Fenamiphos 2ug/kg, Imidacloprid 8ug/kg, Metalaxyl 1ug/kg, Azoxystrobin 7ug/kg, Linuron 1ug/kg

2010 April: Greswell Reserve Bundoora. Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 301: Greswell Reserve Bundoora

22/04/2010. Atrazine 0.006ug/L, Simazine 0.039ug/L, Terbutryn 0.001ug/L, Propiconazole 0.006ug/L.

Sediment: 22/4/10 Bifenthrin 59ug/kg, Permethrin 34ug/kg, p,p’DDE 4.7ug/kg, Trifloxystrobin 1ug/kg

2009 September – 2010 January: Meadow Heights (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 41: Shankland Wetland Meadow Heights

9/9/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 1.6ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.07ug/L

12/10/09: Hexazinone 0.009ug/L, Simazine 1.4ug/L

7/12/09: Prometryn 0.03ug/L, Simazine: 0.1ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.02ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.004ug/L

19/1/10: Atrazine 0.004ug/L, Simazine 2.21ug/L, Terbutryn 0.01ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.31ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.001ug/L

Site 41 Sediment: 7/9/09 Simazine 11ug/kg. 7/12/09 Bifenthrin 8ug/kg. 19/1/10 Simazine 8.4ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – January 2010: Brodies Lake Greenvale (Vic). Pesticides: Simazine, Desisipropylatrazine, Metalaxyl, Prometryn, Imidacloprid

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Site 40: Brodies Lakes Greenvale

9/9/09: Simazine 0.66ug/L, Desisipropylatrazine 0.07ug/L

12/10/09: Simazine 0.39ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.12ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.004ug/L

7/12/09: Prometyrn 0.02ug/L, Simazine: 0.085ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.03ug/L

19/1/10: Simazine 0.049ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.072ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.005ug/L

Site 40 Sediment: 7/9/09 Simazine 27ug/kg. 12/10/09 Simazine 2ug/kg. 7/12/09 Bifenthrin 14ug/kg, Simazine 3ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Mill Park. Pesticides detected: Simazine, Prometryn, Metalaxyl, Atrazine, Terbutryn

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Site 39: Red Leap Reserve Mill Park

9/9/09: Simazine 0.05ug/L

9/10/09: Simazine 0.03ug/L

7/12/09: Prometryn 0.19ug/L, Simazine: 0.03ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.008ug/L

20/1/10: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.03ug/L, Terbutryn 0.01ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.012ug/L

Site 39 Sediment: 7/9/09 Simazine 3.1ug/kg. 20/1/10 7ug/kg. 20/1/10 Terbutryn 2ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Craigieburn. Pesticides: Atrazine, Simazine, Prometryn, Bifenthrin, Pendimethalin

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Site 38: Highlands Estate Wetland Cragieburn

9/9/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.04ug/L

12/10/09: Simazine 0.02ug/L

7/12/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Prometryn 0.12ug/L, Simazine: 0.05ug/L

20/1/10: Atrzazine 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.02ug/L

Site 38 Sediment: 7/12/09 Bifenthrin 11ug/kg, Pendimethalin 1ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Wetland Mernda. Pesticides: Atrazine, Simazine, Propiconazole, Tebuconazole, Prometryn, Imidacloprid

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Site 37: Stockland Development Wetland Mernda

9/9/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.01ug/L, Propiconazole 0.01ug/L

9/10/09: Simazine 0.03ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.006ug/L, Propiconazole 0.008ug/L

8/12/09: Prometryn 0.12ug/L, Simazine: 0.01ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.011ug/L, Propiconazole 0.003ug/L

20/1/10: Simazine 0.01ug/L, Propiconazole 0.01ug/L

Site 37: Sediment: 9/10/09: Propiconazole 2ug/kg. 20/1/10 Permethrin 55ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Maribyrnong River Avondale Heights. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 36: Maribyrnong @ Canning St Ford Avondale Heights

8/9/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.14ug/L

7/10/09: Simazine 0.06ug/L

8/12/09: Atrazine 0.004ug/L, Prometryn 0.13ug/L, Simazine: 0.53ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.05ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.034ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.011ug/L

20/1/10: Simazine 0.05ug/L, Pyraclostrobin 0.003ug/L

Site 36 Sediment: 7/9/09 Simazine 2.6ug/kg. 8/12/09 Bifenthrin 6ug/kg, p,p’DDE 4ug/kg, Dieldrin 4ug/kg, Simazine 3ug/kg, Boscalid 1.3ug/kg, Pendimethalin 2ug/kg. 20/1/10 p,p’DDE 4ug/kg, Dieldrin 1ug/kg, BHC-alpha 9ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Maribyrnong River Keilor. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 35: Maribyrnong @ Calder Hwy Keilor

8/9/09: Simazine 0.45ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.05ug/L

13/10/09: Simazine: 0.1ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.021ug/L

9/12/09: Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Dieldrin 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Prometryn 0.08ug/L, Simazine: 0.51ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.059ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.024ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.007ug/L

19/1/10: Fenamiphos 0.001ug/L, Atrazine 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.45ug/L, Desisoproylatrazine 0.05ug/L, Methomyl 0.002ug/L, Carbaryl 0.003ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.001ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.004ug/L, Tebufenozide 0.002ug/L

Site 35 Sediment: 7/9/09 p,p’DDE 11ug/kg, Simazine 8.2ugkg, Pirimicarb 1ug/kg. 13/10/09 p,p’DDE 13ug/kg. 9/12/09 p,p’DDE 10ug/kg, Simazine 2ug/kg, Boscalid 2ug/kg. 19/1/10 p,p’DDE 6ug/kg, Dieldrin 2ug/kg, BHC-alpha 2ug/kg. 19/1/10 Simazine 6.3ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Arundel Creek (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 34: Arundel Creek @ Annadale Rd Arundel

8/9/09: Dieldrin 0.019ug/L, Atrazine 0.03ug/L Simazine 0.82ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.09ug/L,

13/10/09: Dieldrin 0.026ug/L, Atrazine 0.02ug/L, Simazine: 0.19ug/L

9/12/09: Dieldrin 0.006ug/L, Atrazine 0.02ug/L, Prometryn 0.17ug/L, Simazine: 0.092ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.062ug/L

19/1/10: Dieldrin 0.014ug/L, Atrazine 0.02ug/L, Simazine 0.62ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.088ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.031ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.002ug/L

Site 34 Sediment: 7/9/09 Permethrin 49ug/kg, Dieldrin 96ug/kg, Simazine 15ug/kg. 13/10/09 Dieldrin 34ug/kg. 9/12/09 Cypermethrin 13ug/kg, Permethrin 39ug/kg, Dieldrin 25ug/kg. 19/1/10 Malathion 5ug/kg, Dieldrin 18ug/kg. 19/1/10 Simazine 2ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Maribyrnong River Keilor. Pesticides: Simazine, Imadacloprid, Atrazine, Prometryn, Desisipropylatrazine, Metalaxyl

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Site 33: Maribyrnong @ McNabs Weir Keilor

8/9/09: Simazine 0.45ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.057ug/L

8/10/09: Simazine 0.12ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.02ug/L

9/12/09: Atrazine 0.004ug/L, Prometryn 0.4ug/L, Simazine: 0.52ug/L, Desisipropylatrazine 0.04ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.036ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.007ug/L

19/1/10: Atrazine 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.052ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L

Site 33 Sediment: 7/9/09 Simazine 4.7ug/kg. 9/12/09 p,p’DDE 3ug/kg. 19/1/10 p,p’DDE 3ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Maribyrnong River Sydenham (Vic). Pesticides: Simazine, Imidacloprid, Propiconazole, Pyraclostrobin, Atrazine

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Site 32: Maribyrnong d/s Jacksons Ck Sydenham

8/9/09: Simazine 0.6ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.073ug/L, Propiconazole 0.01ug/L

8/10/09: Simazine 0.2ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.025ug/L, Pyraclostrobin 0.002ug/L

19/1/10: Atrazine 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.054ug/L

Site 32 Sediment: 7/9/09 Simazine 6ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Deep Creek, Bulla (Vic). Pesticides: Propinconazole, Simazine, Atrazine, Prometryn, Desisopropyl Atrazine, Imidacloprid, Metalaxyl

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Site 31: Deep Ck @ Bulla Rd Bulla

8/9/09: Propiconazole 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.02ug/L

7/10/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.01ug/L

9/12/09: Atrzazine 0.005ug/L, Prometryn 0.66ug/L, Simazine: 0.22ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.02ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.029ug/L

19/1/10: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.03ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L

Site 31 Sediment: 7/9/09 p,p’DDE 8.7ug/kg, Dieldrin 6.3ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

 

 

2009 October – 2010 January: Jacksons Creek Sunbury (Vic). Pesticides: Simazine, Imidacloprid, Metalaxyl, Atrazine, Prometryn, Azoxystrobin

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30 Jacksons Ck @ Homestead Way Sunbury

7/10/09: Simazine: 0.03ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.015ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.004ug/L

9/12/09: Atrazine 0.003ug/L, Prometryn 0.49ug/L, Simazine: 0.03ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.005ug/L

19/1/10: Simazine 0.02ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.004ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.001ug/L

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Darebin Creek Fairfield. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site17: Darebin Creek Abbott Rd, Fairfield

9/9/09: Dieldrin 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.01ug/L Simazine 1.5ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.04ug/L

5/10/09: Hexazinone 0.004ug/L, Simazine 0.13ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.02ug/L

10/12/09: Fenamiphos 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Prometryn 0.66ug/L, Simazine 0.14ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.006ug/L, Carbaryl 0.004ug/L

20/1/10: Fenamiphos 0.009ug/L, Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.11ug/L, Terbutryn 0.003ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.001ug/L

Site 17 Sediment: 7/9/09 Permethrin 84ug/kg, Dieldrin 25ug/kg, Endosulfan beta 3ug/kg, Simazine 79ug/kg. 5/10/09: Dieldrin 25ug/kg. 10/12/09 Dieldrin 7ug/kg, Simazine 1.6ug/kg. 20/1/10 Aldrin 5ug/kg, Dieldrin 12ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Merri Creek Clifton Hill. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 16: Merri Creek Roseneath St Clifton Hill

9/9/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L Simazine 1.5ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.08ug/L

13/10/09: Simazine 0.33ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.05ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.019ug/L

10/12/09: Atrazine 0.026ug/L, Prometryn 0.9ug/L, Simazine 0.36ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.05ug/L, Carbaryl 0.004ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.002ug/L, Triadimefon 0.002ug/L, Propiconazole 0.01ug/L

20/1/10: Dichlorvos 0.009ug/L, Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.2ug/L, Hexazinone 0.042ug/L, Simazine 0.29ug/L, Terbutryn 0.004ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.04ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.002ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.003ug/L

Site 16 Sediment: 7/9/09 p,p’DDE 50ug/kg, Dieldrin 23ug/kg, Simazine 50ug/kg. 3/10/09 Dieldrin 20ug/kg, Simazine 3ug/kg. 10/12/09 p,p’DDE 6ug/kg, Dieldrin 8ug/kg, Simazine 1.5ug/kg. 20/1/10 Bifenthrin 25ug/kg, Aldrin 5ug/kg, Dieldrin 10ug/kg. 20/1/10 Simazine 2ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Lynbrook Estate Wetlands. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 29: Lynbrook Estate Wetlands Lynbrook Bvd, Lynbrook

8/9/09: Simazine 0.02ug/L

6/10/09: Bifenthrin 0.14ug/L, Atrazine 0.005ug/L, Simazine 0.02ug/L

16/12/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Prometryn 0.67ug/L, Simazine 0.65ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.062ug/L

22/1/10: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Prometryn 0.001ug/L, Simazine 0.29ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.005ug/L

Site 29: Sediment: 7/9/09  p,p’DDE 7.4ug/kg, p,pDDD 39ug/kg, p,p’DDT 157ug/kg, Dieldrin 11ug/kg, Endosulfan alpha 10ug/kg. 6/10/09: Bifenthrin 23ug/kg

 

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Koonung Creek (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 28: Koonung Creek Bulleen Rd

9/9/09: p,p-DDE 0.004ug/L, Dieldrin 0.007ug/L, Simazine 0.08ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.049ug/L

14/10/09: Dimethoate 0.005ug/L, Dieldrin 0.004ug/L, Simazine 1.9ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.021ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.01ug/L

22/1/10: Dimethoate 0.004ug/L, Simazine 0.29ug/L, Terbutryn 0.003ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.004ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.001ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.03ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.042ug/L

Site 28 Sediment: 7/9/09 p.p’DDE 16ug/kg, Dieldrin 38ug/kg, Simazine 23 ug/kg. 14/10/09 Bifenthrin 34ug/kg, p,p’DDE 16ug/kg, Dieldrin 27ug/kg, Simazine 3.8ug/kg. 22/1/10 Bifenthrin 25ug/kg, Aldrin 3ug/kg, p,p’DDE 4ug/kg, Dieldrin 7ug/kg, trans-chlordane 3ug/kg. 22/1/10 Propiconazole 2ug/kg

 

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Dandenong Creek Wantirna. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 27: Dandenong Creek Wantirna Rd

9/9/09: Dieldrin 0.007ug/L, Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.08ug/L, Methomyl 0.014ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.007ug/L, Propiconazole 0.07ug/L

6/10/09: Dimethoate 0.003ug/L, Dieldrin 0.004ug/L, Simazine 0.94ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.03ug/L, Propiconazole 0.02ug/L

16/12/09: Prometryn 0.35ug/L, Simazine 0.4ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.051ug/L, Oxadixyl 0.008ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.042ug/L, Propiconazole 0.034ug/L

22/1/10: Simazine 0.38ug/L, Terbutryn 0.003ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.015ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.002ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.002ug/L

Site 27 Sediment: 6/10/09: Bifenthrin 50ug/kg, Dieldrin 25ug/kg, Simazine 3.5ug/kg, Tebuconazole 4ug/kg, Propiconazole 3ug/kg. 16/12/09 Bifenthrin 12ug/kg, p,p’DDE 3ug/kg, Dieldrin 12ug/kg, Fenarimol 160ug/kg, Simazine 1.1ug/kg, Propiconazole 2ug/kg. 22/1/10 Bifenthrin 54ug/kg. 22/1/10 Tebuconazole 2ug/kg, Propiconazole 2ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – January 2010: Gardiners Creek (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 26: Gardiners Creek upstream-High St Glen Iris

8/9/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L Simazine 0.55ug/L, Terbutryn 0.01ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.092ug/L

20/10/09: Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Dieldrin 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.08ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.025ug/L

22/1/10: Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Simazine 0.49ug/L, Terbutryn 0.002ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.002ug/L

Site 26 Sediment: 7/9/09 Bifenthrin 110ug/kg, p,p’DDE 20ug/kg, Dieldrin 28ug/kg, Simazine 12ug/kg. 20/10/09: Bifenthrin 25ug/kg, Dieldrin 18ug/kg, Simazine 2ug/kg. 22/1/10 Bifenthrin 43ug/kg, Chlorpyrifos 4ug/kg, Aldrin 4ug/kg, p,p’DDE 4ug/kg, Dieldrin 9ug/kg, trans-chlordane 3ug/kg. 22/1/10 Trifloxystrobin 1ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Platypus Wetlands Lilydale. Pesticides Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

Site 25: Platypus wetlands (Hull Rd wetlands) Hull Rd, Lilydale

7/9/09: Dimethoate 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.04ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.012ug/L, Indoxacarb 0.005ug/L

21/10/09: Simazine 0.02ug/L, Tebufenazole 0.006ug/L

10/12/09: Dimethoate 0.059ug/L, Atrazine 0.02ug/L, Prometryn 1.64ug/L, Simazine 0.37ug/L, Methomyl 0.051ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.014ug/L, Oxadixyl 0.002ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.003ug/L, Myclobutanil 0.004ug/L, Fenoxycarb 0.002ug/L

21/1/10: Simazine 0.03ug/L, Methomyl 0.019ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.002ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.003ug/L

Site 25 Sediment: 10/12/09 Simazine 1.7ug/kg, Myclobutanil 1.1ug/kg, Penconazole 1ug/kg. 21/1/10 Oxychlordane 8ug/kg, trans-chlordane 1ug/kg

 

2012 October – 2013 February: Troups Creek Narre Warren. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site #210. Troups Creek retarding basin (RB) wetland (suburban storm water retention system from which water reuse to domestic customers by SE Water). Narre Warren

Oct 12: Simazine 0.047ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.01ug/L, Diuron 0.03ug/L, Metolachlor 0.001ug/L, Dicamba 0.063ug/L, 2,4-D 0.018ug/L, MCPA 0.1ug/L, Triclopyr 0.027ug/L, Metsulfuron Methyl 0.005ug/L

Feb 13: Simazine 0.1ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.013ug/L, Diuron 0.051ug/L, Terbutyrn 0.002ug/L, Picloram 0.079ug/L, 2,4-D 0.004ug/L, MCPA 0.133ug/L, Triclopyr 0.009ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2012 October – 2013 February: Ti-Tree Creek Berwick. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site #209. Ti-Tree Creek drainage scheme (DS) (suburban storm water retention system). Clyde road/greaves rd Berwick

Oct 12: Simazine 0.14ug/L. DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.01ug/L, Atrazine 0.005ug/L, Diuron 0.02ug/L, Metolachlor 0.42ug/L, Prometryn 0.17ug/L, Linuron 0.04ug/L, Clopyralid 0.056ug/L, Dicamba 0.05ug/L, 2,4-D 0.075ug/L, MCPA 0.51ug/L, Triclopyr 0.024ug/L, Metsulfuron Methyl 0.016ug/L

Feb 13: Simazine 0.117ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.017ug/L, Diuron 0.025ug/L, Metolachlor 0.029ug/L, Prometryn 0.028ug/L, Clopyralid 0.011ug/L, 2,4-D 0.033ug/L, MCPA 0.277ug/L, Triclopyr 0.004ug/L, Metsulfuron Methyl 0.018ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2012 October – 2013 February: Wallan Wetlands. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site #208. Wallan Wetlands (a regional urban (town) catchment).

Oct 12: Simazine 0.022ug/L, Atrazine 0.009ug/L, Diuron 0.03ug/L, Clopyralid 0.03ug/L, Dicamba 0.12ug/L, 2,4-D 0.018ug/L, MCPA 0.28ug/L, Triclopyr 0.085ug/L, Metsulfuron Methyl 0.057ug/L.

Feb 13: Simazine 0.018ug/L, Atrazine 0.008ug/L, Diuron 0.044ug/L, Clopyralid 0.016ug/L, 2,4-D 0.013ug/L, MCPA 0.005ug/L, Triclopyr 0.007ug/L, Metsulfuron Methyl 0.008ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2012 October – 2013 February: Afton Street Wetlands, Aberfeldie (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Site #207. Afton St Wetlands (a wetland system for storm water harvesting and irrigation). (Aberfeldie)

Oct 12: Simazine 0.35ug/L. DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.031ug/L, Atrazine 0.008ug/L, Diuron 0.09ug/L, Metolachlor 0.002ug/L, Dicamba 0.036ug/L, 2,4-D 0.019ug/L, MCPA 0.09ug/L, Triclopyr 0.009ug/L

Feb 13: Simazine 0.194ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.034ug/L, Atrazine 0.005ug/L, Diuron 0.047ug/L, Terbutryn 0.004ug/L, 2,4-D 0.006ug/L, MCPA 0.027ug/L, Triclopyr 0.123ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2012 October: Edinburgh Gardens Fitzroy. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site #206. Edinburgh Gardens (a bioretention system for storm water harvesting and irrigation).

Oct 12: Simazine 0.22ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.04ug/L, DEA ( desethyl atrazine) 0.005ug/L, Atrazine 0.012ug/L, Diuron 0.04ug/L, Metolachlor 0.002ug/L, Clopyralid 0.059ug/L, 2,4-D 0.01ug/L, MCPA 0.2ug/L, Triclopyr 0.006ug/L, Metsulfuron Methyl 0.003ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2012 October – 2013 February: Sanctuary Lakes Leopold. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site #205. Sanctuary Lakes, Leopold (suburban storm water retention system).

Oct 12: Simazine 2ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.14ug/L, Atrazine 0.013ug/L, Diuron 0.05ug/L, Metolachlor 0.002ug/L, 2,4-D 0.051ug/L, MCPA 0.4ug/L, Triclopyr 0.006ug/L .

Feb 13: 0.513ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.142ug/L, Atrazine 0.007ug/L, Diuron 0.27ug/L, Terbutryn 0.008ug/L, Picloram 0.14ug/L, 2,4-D 0.006ug/L, MCPA 0.016ug/L, Triclopyr 0.002ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2012 October – February 2013: Darling Street East Melbourne. Pesticides Multiple.

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Darling Street Storm Water Collection System

Site #203. Darling St storm water collection system, East Melbourne (inner urban, newly established system; CAPIM investigations at this site began in 2011-12, as part of a study funded by the City of Melbourne in this system (providing additional in-kind support to this study)).

Oct 12: Simazine 0.097ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.33ug/L, Diuron 0.31ug/L, Metolachlor 0.002ug/L, Clopyralid 0.01ug/L, Dicamba 0.12ug/L, 2,4-D 0.067ug/L, MCPA 0.051ug/L, Triclopyr 0.014ug/L.

Feb 13: Simazine 0.013ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.714ug/L, Diuron 0.185ug/L, Metolachlor 0.002ug/L, Fluroxpyr 0.021ug/L, 2,4-D 0.002ug/L, Triclopyr 0.054ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2011 April: Nambour (Qld). Road workers hospitalised.

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Seven Treated after Chemical Spill

Sunshine Coast Daily 14 April 2011

A CREW of seven road maintenance workers had to be treated in hospital for exposure to a dangerous pesticide which spilled out of a dumped drum.

The men were working an overnight shift on the Bruce Highway near the turn-off to Keel Mountain Road at Nambour yesterday.

It is not known how the chemicals spilled on the roadside but it is understood the men where doing excavation-type duties.

A Department of Emergency Services spokeswoman said six of the workers presented to Nambour General Hospital from about 4am.

Firefighters were called in to erect decontamination showers outside emergency and helped doctors to inspect the severity of the men’s injuries.

They were suffering from minor irritations such as pain and swelling of the eye.

The spokeswoman said another man presented himself to Royal Brisbane Hospital about 6am after completing his shift.

Fire crews removed the pesticide drum from Keel Mountain Road and made sure the site was safe.

http://www.sunshinecoastdaily.com.au/news/seven-treated-after-chemical-spill/824241/

2007 July: Lockwood (Vic). Truck Crash herbicides.

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Driver alert as Roads Freeze

The Age July 18 2007

Icy conditions are causing havoc on Victorian roads as the big chill settles across central Victoria.

After more near-zero temperatures this morning, rain and sleet have turned into black ice on many roads, making them treacherous hazards.

In the worst reported incident, ice is being blamed for a huge herbicide spill after a truck rolled on black ice on the Calder Alternative Road at Lockwood about 3.45am.

The truck was carrying 64 20-litre drums of weed killer, many of which have now spilled causing emergency services to close the road in both directions.

A CFA spokeswoman said specialists from the Environment Protection Agency and 20 firefighters wearing splash suits were attempting a “recovery proceedure”.

“They are using over-sized drums to take away the broken drums,” said the spokeswoman.

The male truck driver has been taken to hospital.

http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/driver-alert-as-roads-freeze/2007/07/18/1184559820055.html

2014 September: Wagga (NSW). Truck accident

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Truck involved in Wagga Chemical Spill Unregistered

September 30 2014 – The Daily Advertiser

POLICE say the truck involved in an accident that shut down a major Wagga intersection for about nine hours on Monday was unregistered.

The truck, laden with farm equipment and chemicals, was being driven north on the Olympic Highway by a 31-year-old West Albury man when the accident occurred.

Investigators say as the truck approached the intersection of the Sturt and Olympic highways, shortly after 10am, the driver lost control and the vehicle rolled down an embankment.

The driver managed to free himself and was assisted by passing motorists.

He was treated at the scene by paramedics for minor injuries and grazing.

Due to the hazardous nature of the truck’s cargo, a 100-metre exclusion zone was put in place and the intersection closed for most of the day.

Fire and Rescue NSW HAZMAT crews worked to contain the spill, understood to have been about 1000 litres of herbicide.

Containment lines were set up to prevent any spread into a nearby creek.

The road closure caused extensive detours, with Sturt Highway motorists diverted through Uranquinty.
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Pearson Street, Glenfield Road and Red Hill Road were used as an alternate route by motorists travelling in all directions.

Westbound lanes at the intersection were re-opened about 5.50pm, with the scene cleared by 7.15pm.

In a statement, released on Tuesday, Wagga police said “preliminary investigations revealed that the truck was unregistered”.

The truck has been seized by Roads and Maritime Services pending a mechanical examination.

Inquiries into the accident are continuing.

http://www.dailyadvertiser.com.au/story/2593595/truck-involved-in-wagga-chemical-spill-crash-unregistered-police/

2011 March: Bayswater (WA). Truck Pesticide Spill

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Truck Jack-Knife Spills 100 Litres of Strong Smelling Herbicide

Perth Now March 17 2011

A TRUCK has jack-knifed in Bayswater, spilling about 100 litres of liquid herbicide onto the road and causing major disruption to traffic.

The accident occurred near the intersection of Collier Road and Tonkin Highway.

The truck roll-over spilled 100 litres of herbicide on the road and embankment. Approximately 40 to 50 drums of herbicide are on the ground.

There is no threat to the community however there is a strong smell being carried downwind towards the Morley area.

People are also asked to stay away from the intersection of Collier Road and Tonkin Highway.

People with medical concerns should contact their local doctor or call Health Direct on 1800 022 222.

ChemCentre and the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) Pollution Response Unit have conducted air monitoring and analysis. The chemical is not harmful.

DEC officers are conducting further tests to determine if there is any environmental impact.

Twenty five career Fire and Rescue Service firefighters from six stations are on the scene.

WA Police are also in attendance.

Tonkin Highway is closed at Morley Drive heading south. There is a traffic diversion on Collier Road near Tonkin Highway. Mainroads says the closures are expected to remain in place until 4pm today and advises motorists to  avoid the area.

http://www.perthnow.com.au/news/western-australia/drivers-advised-to-avoid-crash-site/story-e6frg13u-1226023230553

2014 June: Millerman (Qld) Truck Crash. Pesticides: 2,4-D, Glyphosate

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The Chronicle June 5 2014

Chemical Spill from Truck Crash Contained

UPDATE: The prime-mover and first trailer have been removed from the scene of a chemical spill about 35km south of Millmerran on the Gore Hwy.

Millmerran police officer Senior Constable Hans van Kempen said herbicide had spilled on the road and into a table drain after the second trailer of the B Double combination rolled onto its side about 1.30pm yesterday.

He said a nearby resident had this morning voiced contamination concerns over the spill.

Emergency crews as well as Department of Environmental Heritage Protection staff and Toowoomba Regional

Council workers have spent the day managing a clean up.

The truck was carrying chemicals 2, 4-D and glysophate from Melbourne to Toowoomba when the incident occurred.

Queensland Fire and Emergency Service Dalby officer Acting Inspector Peter Bradow said the table drain was dammed last night to stop the chemicals from spreading into the watercourse or neighbouring dams.

“This has been successful and contained the product,” Act. Insp. Bradow said.

“We will now have the operators of this trailer clean up the waste and have it removed.”

He said an accurate measurement of how much chemical had been spilled was today being ascertained.

“Estimates are around 9000 to 10,000 litres.”

Tests are being done to establish how much contaminated soil will need to be taken from the site.

“At this stage, estimates are about 300mm of earth to be remove

The highway is expected to be reduced to one lane at the site for the rest of today.

The 59-year-old driver of the truck, from Highfields, was uninjured.

EARLIER: Emergency services have returned to the Gore Hwy south of Toowoomba this morning where a truck crash has caused a major chemical spill.

A truck carrying a dangerous herbicide crashed near Captains Mountain about 4pm.

About 9000 litres of the poisonous chemical spilled on to the highway.

A sand bund has been put in place to contain the chemical.

The highway is currently open to one lane, but will close completely later this morning to allow authorities to continue the clean-up.

The driver of the truck was not injured.

http://www.thechronicle.com.au/news/deadly-chemical-spill-closes-highway-south-toowoom/2280320/

2009 March: Scotts Creek (Vic) Crop Duster Accident

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Pilot escapes Timboon Plane Crash

March 11 2009. Warrnambool Standard

A DERRINALLUM man has been airlifted to a Melbourne hospital with neck injuries and burns to his arm after crashing his plane near Timboon. The man escaped the burning wreckage and was driven by a farmer to a nearby farmhouse where he rinsed his burns under a cold shower.The crash occurred shortly after 10:30am. The Standard understands the pilot was spreading cricket baits from his crop-duster on farmland at the time of the accident near Tognellas Road, Scotts Creek. An air ambulance landed at the Camperdown Showgrounds about 12:15pm to convey the man to Melbourne.Another pilot in the area of the crash reported seeing a ball of flame.

http://www.standard.net.au/story/733540/pilot-escapes-timboon-plane-crash/

2012 December: Mudgee (NSW) Crop Duster Accident

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Overloaded helicopter results in tragic fatality

The accident occurred on 9 December 2012, on a property near Mudgee, New South Wales. The Robinson R44 Raven I helicopter was being used to conduct aerial spraying activities. Following a number of spray runs, the helicopter failed to return to the refilling station. The helicopter was later found about 450m up a hill from the refilling station, having collided steeply with terrain. The pilot died in the accident.

The ATSB investigation found that, immediately before the accident, the helicopter was climbing up a hill at reducing speed. It was also about 33 kg above the maximum allowable weight of 1,089 kg and, crucially, too heavy for a high hover at full engine power. As the helicopter’s speed reduced below about 10 kt (20 km/h) it began to descend. The pilot did not have enough time, and possibly height, to recover and the helicopter hit a tree, before crashing steeply into the ground.

The accident tragically demonstrates the dangers of loading helicopters beyond their recommended limits, especially when undertaking operations where performance is critical, such as low flying or aerial spraying operations.

The accident tragically demonstrates the dangers of loading helicopters beyond their recommended limits, especially when undertaking operations where performance is critical, such as low flying or aerial spraying operations. Pilots should always follow manufacturers’ performance data to avoid the dangers associated with this accident.

http://www.atsb.gov.au/newsroom/news-items/2013/overloaded-helicopter-results-in-tragic-fatality.aspx

2006 March: Morundah (NSW) Crop Duster Accident

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Pilot Killed in Crop Duster Crash

March 27 2006

A pilot has died in a crop-duster crash in southern NSW.

Police said the light plane went down in an open paddock in Morundah, 55km south-west of the Riverina town of Narrandera, about 9am (AEDT) today.

It is believed the male pilot, who is yet to be formally identified, was the only person on board the plane.

The Australian Transport Safety Bureau is travelling from Canberra to investigate the crash.

NSW Fire Brigades spokesman Gordon Boath said it was initially feared the pesticide from the crashed crop-duster could pose a safety risk.

But hazardous material crews had declared the area safe, he said.

A fire brigade rescue unit helped remove the pilot’s body from the plane.

http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/pilot-killed-in-cropduster-crash/2006/03/27/1143330973374.html

2014 February: Legerwood (Tas) Crop Spraying Accident

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At 620am on Sunday 23rd February 2014  Tasmania Police were advised that a helicopter had crashed around first light while engaged in crop dusting activities.  The crash occurred at Legerwood (North Eastern Tasmania). 

The pilot (male aged 65 years) did not sustain any injuries.

The helicopter was a Hughes 269 model, and is extensively damaged.  The value of the aircraft is $200,000.00

Investigations are continuing regarding the cause of the accident.
Workplace Standards and the Australian Transport Safety Bureau have been advised of this incident and will assist Tasmania Police with investigations.

http://www.police.tas.gov.au/news-events/media-releases/helicopter-crash-legerwood-23-feb/

2006 December: Ringarooma (Tas) Crop Dusting Accident

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Man survives fiery chopper crash in Tas

December 27, 2006 – Sydney Morning Herald

A cropduster pilot has survived a fiery helicopter crash in north-east Tasmania.

The Bell helicopter plunged to the ground and burst into flames after clipping powerlines at Trenah, south-west of Ringarooma, about 7.30pm (AEDT) on Wednesday.

The 45-year-old local pilot freed himself from the burning wreckage, despite serious burns to his upper body.

Sergeant Tony Grincais said witnesses saw the helicopter hit powerlines off Maurice Road before it crashed into a potato paddock.

The aircraft was destroyed.

“The pilot managed to get himself out of the aircraft, he suffered burns to the arms, hands, face and neck, he was taken to the Scottsdale Hospital and is now enroute to Launceston General,” Sgt Grincais said.

“He’s in a serious but stable condition, his injuries aren’t life threatening.”

Sgt Grincais said the pilot was in shock and had yet to be questioned by police.

He said the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) had been notified but a non-fatal crash of this kind was unlikely to be further investigated.

“At this stage, it’s not going to be investigated any further by the bureau of air safety,” Sgt Grincais said.

“Their words are that cropdusters hitting power lines are a dime a dozen, they happen all the time.

“There’s no safety issues arising from that that would affect the general travelling public.”

Sgt Grincais said the low altitude manoeuvres of cropdusters made them vulnerable to crashes.

“They fly very low so that the chemicals that they’re spraying are dispersed evenly over the crop and aren’t blown away by the wind.

“How they don’t do it (crash) more (often) is probably the applicable question.”

ATSB spokesman Ian Sangston confirmed the accident will not be investigated.

He said flying at low altitude is hazardous and aircraft, including crop-dusting helicopters, weed sprayers and private light planes, have been known to hit power lines and crash.

“In this instance, the aircraft was crop dusting and was confirmed to have hit a power line,” he said.

“In terms of investigating or not, there’s a value judgment made … what’s the return of investigating given it’s (crop dusting) a known hazard.”

An ATSB report, released in June, found there were 119 wire-strike accidents reported between 1994 and 2004.

 

2008 September: Jamestown (SA) Crop Duster Accident

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A PILOT suffered suspected spinal injuries when his crop duster crash landed today in South Australia’s mid-north.

The 38-year-old man was the sole occupant of the single engine light aircraft which crash landed at the Jamestown airport just before 11am (CST) today, police say.

The man suffered suspected spinal injuries and leg lacerations and was taken to the Jamestown Hospital for treatment, a police spokesman said.

http://www.recreationalflying.com/threads/pilot-hurt-in-crash-landing.5226/

1997 February: Gawler (Tas) Crop Dusting Accident

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Helicopter pilot dies in crash

Jan. 16, 1998, 11:50 p.m The Examiner

A crop duster pilot was killed yesterday when his helicopter crashed into a potato paddock after hitting power lines at Gawler, near Ulverstone.

It was the second crop-duster fatality in just under a year in the Gawler area and the third in Tasmania in the past 10 years.

The pilot, Ian Ashley Highwood, 41, of Western Australia, was contracted to Latrobe aerial spray company P & P Young and had been in Tasmania for only a week.

Insp. Steve Bonde of Ulverstone police said it appeared the pilot had made several passes over the paddock on the property of Alan Anderson on Top Gawler Rd about 9.20am before the helicopter struck 20,000-volt power lines and crashed. One of the three power lines was brought down.

The pilot was killed on impact. The Hughes 300-269 helicopter was totally destroyed, the crumpled debris concentrated in a 4m area with the undercarriage uppermost. Ambulance, the Ulverstone Fire Brigade and policeattended the scene. It is understood Mr Anderson received medical treatment for shock.

Police sealed off the area pending an investigation by the Bureau of Air Safety Investigation. The body was removed late in the afternoon.

Farmer RonMott heard the crash and was first on the scene. “I heard three loud bangs and saw theHydro fuses go,” Mr Mott said. “He had only been here for about five minutes and did about three runs around the house.”

A 43-year-old American crop duster helicopter pilot, Dale Heimer, was killed less than 3km away on February 7 last year.His Bell crop duster hit power lines, crashing into a potato paddock on the property of Aubrey Johnson of Picketts Rd.

The Bureau of Air Safety Investigation is continuing probes into yesterday’s crash following reports that the pilot was operating over the wrong paddock.

An inquest was opened by senior Northern Coroner Peter Wilson and adjourned to Monday January 19 for formal identification.

http://www.examiner.com.au/story/639844/helicopter-pilot-dies-in-crash/

1998 January: Gawler (Tas) Crop Spraying Accident

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Helicopter pilot dies in crash

Jan. 16, 1998, 11:50 p.m The Examiner

A crop duster pilot was killed yesterday when his helicopter crashed into a potato paddock after hitting power lines at Gawler, near Ulverstone.

It was the second crop-duster fatality in just under a year in the Gawler area and the third in Tasmania in the past 10 years.

The pilot, Ian Ashley Highwood, 41, of Western Australia, was contracted to Latrobe aerial spray company P & P Young and had been in Tasmania for only a week.

Insp. Steve Bonde of Ulverstone police said it appeared the pilot had made several passes over the paddock on the property of Alan Anderson on Top Gawler Rd about 9.20am before the helicopter struck 20,000-volt power lines and crashed. One of the three power lines was brought down.

The pilot was killed on impact. The Hughes 300-269 helicopter was totally destroyed, the crumpled debris concentrated in a 4m area with the undercarriage uppermost. Ambulance, the Ulverstone Fire Brigade and policeattended the scene. It is understood Mr Anderson received medical treatment for shock.

Police sealed off the area pending an investigation by the Bureau of Air Safety Investigation. The body was removed late in the afternoon.

Farmer RonMott heard the crash and was first on the scene. “I heard three loud bangs and saw theHydro fuses go,” Mr Mott said. “He had only been here for about five minutes and did about three runs around the house.”

A 43-year-old American crop duster helicopter pilot, Dale Heimer, was killed less than 3km away on February 7 last year.His Bell crop duster hit power lines, crashing into a potato paddock on the property of Aubrey Johnson of Picketts Rd.

The Bureau of Air Safety Investigation is continuing probes into yesterday’s crash following reports that the pilot was operating over the wrong paddock.

An inquest was opened by senior Northern Coroner Peter Wilson and adjourned to Monday January 19 for formal identification.

http://www.examiner.com.au/story/639844/helicopter-pilot-dies-in-crash/

2010 September: Chapman Valley (WA) Crop Duster Accident

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Family, friends farewell pilot

September 23, 2010 11:13:00

Friends and family of Timothy Greenaway, who was killed in a plane crash in the Chapman Valley last week, will today farewell the 39 year old at a funeral service in Geraldton.

Mr Greenaway died last Tuesday when the crop duster plane he was flying crashed near Northern Gully Road.

A service at the Mid-West Aviation hanger will begin at 10:00am (AWST), with a private service at the Utakarra Crematorium to follow.

Friend and former colleague Ros Wikens says today is a chance to celebrate Mr Greenaway’s life.

“If there was a celebration Tim would have been there, that’s what he would have liked,” he said.

“It definitely will be a celebration of his life and there’s many … stories and there’s going to be a beer drunk for sure and I actually don’t think we’ll have enough time in the day to finish all the stories, so yes that was just the size of what type of bloke Tim was.”

http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2010/09/23/3019796.htm?site=wheatbelt

2004 August: Stawell (Vic) Crop Duster Accident

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Pilot survives crop-duster crash

A crop-dusting pilot has escaped with a broken arm after his plane hit a tree in Victoria’s west and broke up into three pieces

The man took off from Stawell about 9am and had flown five kilometres south when he struck trouble, a police spokesman said.

“It is believed there was a bit of a down draught; the pilot tried to dump the cargo (and) he struck a tree,” he said.

The crop-duster had broken up into three pieces, he said.

The pilot received non-life-threatening facial injuries and a broken arm.

Air safety investigators are to be notified and an investigation carried out into the cause of the crash.

http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/08/10/1092022446252.html?from=storylhs

2012 April: Moree (NSW) Crop Dusting Accident

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A MAN has died in a light plane crash in northwestern NSW.

Police have confirmed the male pilot died when his crop duster crashed near Gingham Road, at Moree, shortly after 9am (AEST) today.

He was the only person on board the aircraft.

It’s the second plane crash in just over 12 months to shock the NSW town.

In March last year, an experienced pilot and three members of a well-known farming family were killed when a single engine plane nosedived into a paddock while trying to land at Moree airport.

Digby Boland and his wife Robyn, both aged 77, their daughter Michelle, 47, and the pilot, Phillip Jones, 63, were killed.

Two other people were injured in the crash.

http://www.news.com.au/breaking-news/man-dies-in-nsw-light-plane-crash-after-crop-duster-goes-down/story-e6frfku0-1226323697224

2014 August: Horseshoe Lagoon (Qld). Helicopter Spraying Crash

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Crop dusting chopper crashes into cane field

Air safety investigators will probe the cause of a helicopter crash near Townsville in north Queensland.

A Robinson R66 went down in a cane field near Horseshoe Lagoon late yesterday.

Firefighter Greg Vincett says the chopper was written-off but the young pilot escaped virtually unharmed.

“We just looked after the pilot until QAS [the Queensland Ambulance Service] arrived and we handed it over to them,” he said.

“He was a bit bruised and had a bit of chemical on him but like I said, the QAS got that under control and stabilised him and he got the helicopter, the emergency helicopter, down to take him to Townsville.

“The helicopter was spraying chemicals on a crop and he was doing his last run and he clipped powerlines which brought the powerlines down and the helicopter which crashed into a cane field.

“It [the crash] did a substantial amount of damage, it pulled the spray rakes off the helicopter and the helicopter ended up on its side – it is a definite write-off yes.”

The Australian Transport Safety Bureau says it is investigating the incident.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-08-21/crop-dusting-chopper-crashes-into-cane-field/5685798

2007 December: Lake Liddell (NSW) Crop Dusting Accident

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Crop-duster, 75, Dies In Lake Crash

Sydney Morning Herald

Saturday December 8, 2007

Arjun Ramachandran and Dylan Welch

A PILOT whose age – 75 – and “squillion years” in the sky made him a crop-dusting legend died when his plane crashed into a lake near Muswellbrook yesterday morning.

Yesterday police divers were searching the lake for the body of Col Pay, of Scone.

The Scone Aero Club president, Neville Partridge, said Mr Pay – whose company operates a fire-bombing service – was “an absolute icon in the crop-dusting industry”.

“He’s got a squillion hours up – he’s been doing it for so long,” Mr Partridge said.

“We’re all pretty shattered.”

The yellow plane was scooping water from Lake Liddell near the New England Highway about 9.30am when it crashed into the lake, according to Harley McKillop, of Pay’s Air Service.

“What can I tell you? We’ve crashed into Lake Liddell … the pilot’s in the wreckage and they haven’t retrieved the pilot or the wreckage,” he said.

“This is a huge loss for us – it’s our livelihood.” Mr McKillop is also a pilot.

Despite early reports that there had been up to three people in the plane, Mr McKillop said only the pilot had been on board.

The plane, an Airtractor AT-802, could fit only one person, he said.

Mr Pay had been testing new equipment when he crashed, Mr McKillop said. It was not yet clear whether the equipment being tested had contributed to the crash.

He said staff from the company had been at the lake when the plane crashed, and had called emergency services.

Mr McKillop said Mr Pay was one of the country’s best-known collectors of warbirds, or vintage military aircraft. He had once owned the only flying Spitfire in Australia, as well as a Mustang, Tiger Moth and a Kittyhawk.

Mr Pay was well known for flying the warbirds at air shows, including the Scone air show.

A Westpac rescue helicopter flew to the lake from Newcastle, joining police and ambulance crews.

http://www.cropduster.com.au/crop-duster-articles/2007/12/8/cropduster-75-dies-in-lake-crash/

2011 September: Pittsworth (QLD) Crop Duster Accident

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Plane Down near Pittsworth, 16th September 2011

BREAKING: A crop-duster has crashed on Pittsworth-Felton Rd, 15km south of Pittsworth.

Emergency services are currently responding to the crash, which was reported about 12.20pm today.

Early reports suggest the aircraft has hit powerlines.

http://www.sunshinecoastdaily.com.au/news/plane-down-near-pittsworth-toowoomba/1105968/

2005 January: Dirranbandi (Qld) Crop Duster Accident

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Qld: Cropduster’s inexperience may have caused crash, says ATSB

 AAP General News (Australia)
04-26-2007
Qld: Cropduster’s inexperience may have caused crash, says ATSB

BRISBANE, April 26 AAP – A lack of experience in night flying contributed to the death
of a crop duster pilot in western Queensland, the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB)
says.

A 44-year-old pilot, from Bourke in NSW, was found dead in the cockpit of an Air Tractor
AT-802A aircraft after it went down at 8.35pm (AEST) on January 6, 2005, on Wynella Station,
a remote cotton property south of Dirranbandi near the NSW border.

It burst into flames on impact and the pilot was found still strapped in his seat in
the burning aircraft.

In a report released today, the ATSB said the pilot, who had not sprayed the property
before, told support staff on the ground shortly before his fatal flight that he was anxious
about the lack of horizon due to the dark conditions on a cloudy and moonless night.

The investigation into the crash showed the aircraft was capable of normal operation
at the time but even though the pilot had substantial flying and agricultural flying experience,
he had only recently completed night agricultural flight training.

A post-mortem examination also revealed he had suffered from severe coronary heart disease.

The ATSB report said the aircraft had hit level ground in a wings-level position.

But the bureau came to no definitive conclusions, citing the lack of recorded and witness
information and the destruction of the cockpit in the fire.

“However, the combination of pilot inexperience in night agricultural operations and
the dark night conditions increased the risk of an accident,” the ATSB said.

http://netstory38.blogspot.com.au/2012/02/qld-cropdusters-inexperience-may-have.html

2005 January: St George (Qld) Crop Duster Accident

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Man dies in crop duster crash

A man died when the crop duster he was flying crashed on a remote property in western Queensland.

A police spokesman said the man was found dead by police in the cockpit of the aircraft after it went down at 9pm yesterday on a property south of St George, near the NSW border.

The spokesman said Australian Transport Safety Bureau officials were due to arrive on the scene to start investigations today.

No further details were available about the deceased man, the spokesman said.

http://www.theage.com.au/news/National/Man-dies-in-crop-duster-crash/2005/01/07/1104832268887.html

2009 October: Wickepin (WA) Crop Dusting Accident

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Ultralight pilot, crop-duster killed in separate crashes

The Sunday Times October 03, 2009

THE pilot of an ultralight plane has been killed in York, just hours after a crop-dusting pilot died near Wickepin.

The ultralight pilot died about 4.30pm when his craft plummeted to the ground. The crash happened 6km east of York.

The 50-year-old pilot is believed to have been a member of an ultralight club based just north of where the crash happened.

The incident will be investigated by Recreational Aircraft Australia.

Earlier, the pilot of a crop-dusting plane died after his aircraft crashed into a farm paddock at Wickepin, 200km south-east of Perth just before 1pm on Saturday.

Police said the chemical being sprayed, organophosphate, was highly toxic and emergency workers faced contamination hazards trying to free the pilot.

The chemical had to be neutralised and removed before they could reach the plane that crashed just before 1pm Saturday.

The pilot has not been named but it is understood he is from Perth and was flying an aircraft from Westside Aerial Services based in Hyden.

A company spokeswoman said she could not comment on the incident until the investigation was complete.

The single-engine aircraft crashed into a field of canola near Fleahy Rd, 10km east of Wickepin.

Investigators from the Australian Transport Safety Bureau will investigate the crash

http://www.perthnow.com.au/news/western-australia/ultralight-pilot-crop-duster-killed-in-separate-crashes/story-e6frg14u-1225782442489

2009 November: Kojonup (WA) Pilot Killed in Crop Duster Crash

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2010 December: Dirranbandi (Qld) Crop Dusting Accident

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Mourners Farewell Neville. 31 December 2010 – The Northern Star

RENOWNED local aviator Neville Bienke was farewelled by hundreds of mourners in a moving ceremony at a packed St Andrews Anglican Church in Lismore yesterday.

Mr Bienke, 66, was tragically killed in a crop-dusting accident on a property south of Dirranbandi in Queensland last week.

In a fitting tribute, fellow pilots performed a spectacular ‘missing man’ flyover in his honour as his casket was carried from the church.

His daughter, Nicole Alison, spoke eloquently of her father as a larger than life figure who lived his dreams.

She remembered growing up around ‘Avgas, oily rags and burning hot tarmacs’ with a dad who had ‘flying in his blood’ and took them on great adventures to fly-ins and air shows.

“He should have been born with wings,” she said.

“One of his favourite (stories) was at the age of six he had to have wooden blocks tied to his feet so he could reach the pedals of a Tigermoth.”

Remembered by all as a man with enormous experience, general knowledge and wisdom, Ms Allison said most of the many phone calls to her father began with, ‘Hey Neville, what do you think about this…’.

Former Lismore mayor John Crowther remembered the Tigermoth tales well, having first met Mr Bienke at seven years of age as he was being ‘strapped into the front cockpit’.

“That was Neville’s start off, he lived for flying and, to cut a long story short, he was the complete aviator,” he said.

“He could have been today a senior captain in any of the airlines if he wanted to go that way, because he was so good.

“But he loved the flexibility of general aviation; he was an excellent aerobatic pilot and instructor and on top of that he was a bloody good bloke.” Mr Bienke was buried in a private family ceremony.

http://www.northernstar.com.au/news/nevilles-flying-with-the-angels-aviator-anglican-/733523/

2011 January: Hawkins Creek (Qld) Crop Duster Accident

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Plane crash kills one in Queensland

A small plane has crashed in north Queensland killing one person and possibly another.

It happened on a sugar-cane farm in Hawkins Creek west of Ingham this morning.

It’s believed the plane had been crop dusting at the time of the accident.

Police have confirmed that a 30-year-old man’s died and believe a second person may have been onboard.

http://www.3aw.com.au/radio/plane-crash-kills-one-in-queensland-20110110-19kjs.html

2011 April: Bambaroo (Qld) Crop Duster Accident

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2006 December: Oakey (Qld) Crop Duster Accident

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Cropduster crashes at Oakey

AAP December 31, 2006 11:00PM

A PILOT has walked away with minor injuries after his cropduster clipped powerlines and crashed on Queensland’s Darling Downs.

A spokesman for Queensland Ambulance Service said the accident happened at 6.05pm (AEST) yesterday about 10km northwest of Oakey.

He said the pilot suffered only minor injuries and did not require hospital treatment.

http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/queensland/cropduster-crashes-at-oakey/story-e6freoof-1111112764176

2014 February: Mission Beach (Qld) Crop Dusting Accident

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Helicopter crashes at Mission Beach banana farm

Wongaling Beach man Josh Bryant was conducting aerial spraying of bananas in a paddock off Campbell St, near Mission Beach’s main tourist area, about 6.15am when his Bell 206 JetRanger hit a tree and plunged to earth.

His workmate, who did not want to be named, was waiting beside a refuelling truck when he saw the chopper hit the tree and disintegrate as it fell to the ground.

Not knowing what he would be confronted with, the workmate rushed to the scene, calling triple zero as he went, and helped the dazed pilot stumble to safety as flames shot from the wreckage.

“The pilot’s very lucky to have escaped with minor injuries so far. He hasn’t got anything that’s life threatening,” said Sen-Constable Tony Cliffe, from Mission Beach Police.

Arriving at the banana farm soon afterwards, Coral Coast Helicopters owner Steve Shadforth was clearly shocked by the scene.

Visible from a distance, the severed limbs near the peak of the tree provided a tell-tale sign of what had just occurred while, beneath it, one of the helicopter’s skids sat beside a tank used for aerial spraying.

Twenty metres away the barely recognisable frame of the helicopter had come to rest in a paddock, partially covered by severed banana tree limbs.

The tail of the helicopter was snapped in two and the transparent nose bubble appeared to have been severed.

The cockpit control panel was nowhere to be seen.

“You don’t survive this (sort of crash) very often,” Mr Shadforth said.

“The fact that he’s breathing is very good.

“The aircraft obviously started disintegrating as soon as it hit that tree, so he was the proverbial rock once he hit that tree.”

Mr Shadforth, who lost a leg in a horrifying helicopter crash in similar circumstances in 2005 before making a triumphant return to the skies a year later, was amazed that Mr Bryant’s injuries weren’t more serious.

He suggested the banana trees may have played a role in cushioning the impact as the helicopter fell to the ground. “Helicopter accidents are amazing things sometimes,” he said.

“You look at an accident and some guy’s died and you go, ‘How the hell did he die?’

“Sometimes you look at (an accident scene) and go, ‘How didn’t he die?’

“There’s a blade going across his seat, a rotor blade’s going across his seat.

“As far as we know, he hasn’t got a broken bone.”

Sen-Constable Cliffe said police would be conducting further investigations into the crash, as would the Civil Aviation Safety Authority and the Australian Transport Safety Bureau.

http://www.cairnspost.com.au/helicopter-crashes-at-mission-beach-banana-farm/story-fnjput6h-1226832360362

2008 December: Nyngan Crop Dusting Accident

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Community mourning as father of two dies in crop-dusting accident

Dec. 30, 2008, Daily Liberal

A loving husband and father of two, a gentleman held in the highest regard by those who knew him, and a dedicated employee who never said a bad word about anyone, were words used to describe the pilot killed tragically after his plane crashed-landed near Nyngan on Monday.

Paul Corcoran, 40, had an infectious smile that lit up a room and was a kind and genuine bloke who did anything for anyone, friends of Mr Corcoran told the Daily Liberal yesterday.

A close family friend said Mr Corcoran was a man to whom family was central, and the spin-off from this was that the community benefited from his continuous efforts and contributions.

Whether it be a paving job or work to be done at the preschool ‘Corco’ did it, no fuss, no call for recognition – ever.

Mr Corcoran died when the crop duster he was flying crashed on a property on Pangee Road near

Nyngan about midday on Monday.

Police believe he lost control of the light plane as it banked right for a second dusting over a paddock.

Property workers found his body in the wreckage and contacted police…

Mr Corcoran worked for aerial spraying and flight training company Rebel Ag…

http://www.dailyliberal.com.au/story/843667/community-mourning-as-father-of-two-dies-in-crop-dusting-accident/

 

 

2010 April: Crop Duster Accident Ayr (Qld)

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Knockabout bloke’ dies in plane crash
THE TOWNSVILLE BULLETIN April 12, 2010,

A CROP-DUSTER, who played rugby league for Albury and was a well-regarded boxer, has died in a plane crash in Far North Queensland.

Owen Bourke was killed when his plane crashed into powerlines and then burst into flames in a sugarcane field at Ayr, south of Townsville, on Saturday.

News of his death stunned mates on the Border who had remained in touch since he moved north in the 1970s and settled at Ayr where he continued his cropdusting business.

Albury friend Trevor Bohr said he had recently visited Mr Bourke who took him on a flight.

“He took me 80km up and down the coast, we went out over the crops and we went under lines and up,” Mr Bohr said.

Wodonga friend Max Watson said Mr Bourke, 67, played league for the Albury Roos in Group 13 and had fought for a Riverina light heavyweight boxing title.

“He was a very good knock-about bloke; he was a happy-go-lucky bloke, everyone liked him,” Mr Watson said.

Mr Bourke, who married fellow Albury resident Jan, also become involved in rugby league at Ayr.

The crash happened on dusk at 5.45pm on Saturday, with local resident James Guild describing the aftermath.

“We knew he (Mr Bourke) was doing four runs and we thought he’d finished the final run,” he said.
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“When we got home we looked down the headland and saw the fire in the cane paddock.”

Mr Guild said that by the time they got back to the field where the plane had gone down the crop-duster had been well alight.

“We called emergency and went in but there was nothing to be done,” he said.

Henry Peterson who worked for Mr Bourke, said crop-dusting was a high-risk business.

“He’s had a few crashes over the years but crop-dusting planes are like that; they carry a lot of weight and they need to clear powerlines,’’ he said.

“It’s the same as a racing car driver; it’s a dangerous industry and if you do it enough times you will eventually have a spill.”

Mr and Mrs Bourke’s daughter Simone died in 2002 at age 29 while living in Tokyo.

She was in intensive care for two weeks after falling down stairs in a subway station.

http://www.bordermail.com.au/story/50137/knockabout-bloke-dies-in-plane-crash/

2008 February. Wee Waa (NSW) Crop Duster Crash

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Dead crop duster pilot ‘one of the best’
February 27, 2008 Sydney Morning Herald

A pilot killed when two crop dusters collided in northern NSW was one of Australia’s most experienced agricultural aviators, his employer says.

The aircraft collided in midair above a farm near Trindalls Lane, 10km north of Wee Waa, about 9.45am (AEDT) on Tuesday.

Sixty-year-old James Maria, a Wee Waa father of five and grandfather, died when his aircraft burst into flames on hitting the ground, police said.

The other pilot, another local man, dragged himself to safety despite broken limbs and minor burns.

The 45-year-old was in a serious but stable condition at Tamworth Base Hospital, police said.

Mr Maria had been flying for Cropjet Aviation, while the other aircraft had been operated by Cropair.

The owner of Cropjet Aviation, Conrad Bolton, said Mr Maria had been turning his plane after spraying a paddock when he collided with the other machine, which had just taken off and was on its way to another job.

Mr Maria had chalked up at least 10,000 hours flying crop dusters in 36 years as a pilot and was “probably Australia’s most senior agricultural pilot”, Mr Bolton told AAP.

He said he had known Mr Maria “for decades” since working as ground crew for him as a schoolboy.

“It’s a big blow,” he said.

Mr Bolton said the accident had devastated Mr Maria’s five children.

“They are extremely upset, they were very close to their father and he lived for his kids, I can tell you that,” he said.

“He was just working for his kids, to make sure they got the very best start out of life.

“He was very proud of them – they’re just devastated.”

Mr Bolton said it was a “very, very rare event” for two crop dusters to collide.

“Air agriculture is very visual, you haven’t got time to be looking down at your instruments,” Mr Bolton said.

“It’s heads up, observing everything that’s going on around the aircraft.

“(A collision is) something that’s almost an impossibility but it’s happened.”

Air Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) investigators have been sifting through the wreckage of the planes.

The ATSB will prepare a preliminary report in a month’s time and a full report within a year.

It is the second fatal crash in 18 months involving a Cropjet Aviation aircraft.

A pilot died when one of the company’s crop dusters went down in the Collarenebri district in December 2006.

Mr Bolton said the ATSB had yet to determine what caused that crash, but said he was confident the bureau would find his company was doing all it could to meet safety and maintenance requirements.

http://www.smh.com.au/national/dead-crop-duster-pilot-one-of-the-best-20080227-1v9x.html

2013 October: Crop Duster Crash Hyden Western Australia

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Pilot Dies in Crop Duster Crash in Hyden, Australia

The pilot was the sole occupant of a crop-dusting plane that crashed just outside the town of Hyden in Western Australia on Friday, October 18, 2013. He unfortunately did not survive the crash.

The crop-duster went down just before 3PM in the afternoon about 4.5 miles outside of Hyden. It crashed into a paddock near Chalk Hill and Hyden-Lake King Roads. Emergency response took just ten minutes to arrive, but the pilot was dead when they arrived and likely died at impact, although no official reports have been released.

Hyden is about 180 miles southeast of Perth in Western Australia with a population of just 281 people per the most recent census. Situated in a largely agricultural area of Australia, the wheat crop continues to be a major source of revenue. Although no aircraft details have been released, the most common crop-duster planes in use in Australia are the PAC Cresco, the Lockheed Lodestar, and the WSK-Mielec M-15 Belphegor.

No official word on the cause of the crash has been reported. Weather in Hyden at the time was very fair, with clear, sunny skies and a moderate temperature of 81 degrees, so meteorological causes would appear unlikely. The Australian Transport Safety Bureau is investigating and will issue its findings when the examination of the craft and the remains is completed.

http://www.planecrashes.org/pilot-dies-in-crop-duster-crash-in-hyden-australia.html

2012 May: Hallston (Vic) Crop Dusting Crash

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Pilot killed in crop duster crash

 

A pilot has been killed in a plane crash in Gippsland in Victoria’s east.

The crop dusting plane crashed at Hallston, north east of Leongatha, just before 9:00am (AEST).

The aircraft burst into flames on impact.

Police say the pilot has not been identified. They say the make and model of the plane have not been identified either because of the fire damage.

A team from the Australian Transport Safety Board will go to the scene to investigate the case of the crash.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-05-01/pilot-killed-in-plane-crash/3982408

2008 September: Toowoomba Crop Duster Crash

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Crop duster pilot dies in crash near Toowoomba

 
TOOWOOMBA pilot Greg Cochran has died after a freak gust of wind flipped his crop duster causing it to crash to the ground where it burst into flames, 54 kilometres south-east of Toowoomba yesterday.

The former Wagners Aviation chief pilot and part-time CareFlight aviator was killed while spraying the final of three scheduled grain properties with rat and mice bait at Upper Pilton, on the Pilton Valley Road at 2.30pm.

Property owner Phillip Moore and passing motorists, who stopped to help, were unable to get to Mr Cochran after the light aircraft was engulfed in flames seconds after it crashed into the ground, just metres away from the roadway.

The stand-in  firefighters instead, focused their attentions on extinguishing the two-hectare grass fire that leapt across the Pilton Valley Road and threatened to burn out of control.

Police said Mr Cochran’s plane was preparing for another run to spray the poison on the scheduled property when cross winds caused the aircraft’s wings to rise and fall on both sides before flipping it into a 180 degree turn and into a nose-dive.

Late last night friends comforting Mr Cochran’s wife Toni and children, described Mr Cochran as “one of the nicest people the world will ever see.”

“It has been devastating news for his wife Toni and their three young children,” a friend said.

“He was one of Australia’s most qualified and experienced pilots and has been flying since he left high school,” he said.

“He was an exceptionally talented pilot who was one of the nicest people the world will ever see.”

Mr Cochran had been a commercial pilot for Ansett and lived in Dubai when flying Boeing 777 for Emirates Airlines.

In July, The Chronicle featured an in-depth story with a passionate Mr Cochran, the recently new owner of Rural Aviation of Toowoomba, as a mice-plague threatened to descend on the Darling Downs.

Clifton Police officer-in-charge Guy Smidt said the Department of Civil Aviation was contacted and were expected to arrive last night.

http://www.thechronicle.com.au/news/cropduster-pilot-dies-crash-near-toowoomba/47905/

2015 March: Crop Duster Crash Mortlake.

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Pilot killed in light plane crash while crop dusting near Warrnambool in western Victoria

A pilot has been killed in a light plane crash near Warrnambool, in Victoria’s south-west.

The Piper Pawnee PA-25 crop duster came down on a property on the Hamilton Highway at Mortlake about 9:30am (AEDT).

Local residents saw the plane in the area but there were no witnesses to the crash.

Residents called police when they saw a plume of smoke.

The pilot, believed to be a 24-year-old Cavendish man, died at the scene, but has not yet been formally identified.

Police said the emergency services attended the scene but it appears the pilot died either on or shortly after impact.

The Australian Transport Safety Bureau will investigate the cause of the crash.

Any witnesses are urged to contact Crime Stoppers.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-03-20/pilot-killed-in-crop-duster-crash-in-western-victoria/6335190

2003 December: Helicopter Crash Spraying Plantations. Pesticide detected: Alpha-Cypermethrin

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2014 November: Timber Fumigation Sandford (NSW). Pesticide: Methyl Bromide

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Timber exporter Crawfords Freightlines fuming after EPA ban on methyl bromide

A Sandgate company has had its timber exporting operation shut down by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) over its use of a fumigant. Source: The Herald.

The company, Crawfords Freightlines, has hit back at the EPA, saying the state government’s forestry department supplied the plantation-grown timber and was fully aware of the operation.

Managing director Peter Crawford said the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service signed off on every load.

The EPA swung into action over a leaflet printed by a ‘‘concerned resident’’ that called for ‘‘urgent action’’ over the use of methyl bromide, an ‘‘ozone depleting’’ fumigant that is being phased out of use in Australia.

It is toxic to humans and is regarded as dangerous, even at low levels of exposure.

Crawford said the company had been treating state forests timber for export to China for the past four years, with the fumigant pumped into sealed shipping containers.

He said the fumigators were suited and masked with a 50-metre exclusion zone around the job, which was done at night when possible.

He conceded, though, that the leftover methyl bromide was released to the atmosphere afterwards.

Ironically, Crawfords Freightlines began fumigating at Sandgate after the Newcastle Herald revealed concerns in 2010 about the way the timber was being fumigated en route to China by another company ‘‘under tarpaulins’’ on Dyke Point at Carrington.

Crawford said the EPA had inspected the business on Friday and left after issuing a ‘‘notice of prevention’’, ordering the company to immediately cease all fumigation activities at the premises.

The company had complied with the notice, but the way the EPA had handled the matter meant that at least 100 jobs were threatened.

He said Crawfords Freightlines processed about 60 to 80 containers of timber a week and everyone from timber cutters through to truck drivers, yard hands, fumigators and train crews would have no work in the short term.

He said there would be ‘‘wider ramifications if this issue is not resolved quickly’’.

‘‘Given the other government agencies were well aware of what was being done, it would be good if the EPA would arrive at some interim measure to allow us to carry on while the broader issues were settled,’’ Crawford said.

If any regulations were being breached the company had not done so knowingly, he said, but the EPA had said ‘‘ignorance is no excuse’’.

EPA director Gary Davey said the amount of methyl bromide being used at Crawfords Freightlines appeared to be ‘‘above the scheduled threshold’’, meaning it needed an Environmental Protection Licence for the activity.

‘‘The EPA is working with Crawfords Freightlines and Forest Corp NSW in an effort to minimise impacts on the industry arising from this matter,’’ Davey said.

2010 August: Altona (Vic) Log Fumigation. Pesticide: Methyl Bromide.

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Residents angry at lethal poison in suburb

August 5, 2010 The Age

Residents are alarmed that a lethal gas is being used to fumigate logs from the Black Saturday bushfires about 200 metres from Altona homes.

The site is less than a kilometre from Prime Minister Julia Gillard’s house and Altona College.

Viking Express Transport has sub-contracted Footscray-based Container Fumigation Services (CFS) to treat logs destined for China with methyl bromide. The toxic gas has been banned in other countries and parts of Australia. New Zealand’s maritime union became part of a coalition against the use of methyl bromide after six port workers died from motor neurone disease.

Viking has applied for a permit from Hobsons Bay Council to establish a permanent freight terminal for the storage and loading of logs at 441-459 Kororoit Creek Road.
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Viking general manager Michael Duckworth said the fumigation had nothing to do with him and directed us to talk to CFS.

A CFS representative said yesterday he had been instructed not to talk to Fairfax.

Concerned resident and business owner Jarrod Crowley said he had strong reservations about the use of methyl bromide. “The research I’ve done [indicates] it’s a carcinogen,” he said. “It causes cancer, birth defects. I’m worried that they’re importing and exporting containers using methyl bromide without a permit.

“The concern is that methyl bromide, as a liquid, shouldn’t be used 150 metres or so from homes, but when it’s a fumigant it’s an aerosol, so it’s air-based and travels a lot further.

“A lot of countries around the world and, in particular, in parts of Australia have now banned it because it’s not allowed to be used within two kilometres of homes.”

Another resident, Raymond Ross, said his daughter and her friends had reported seeing what they thought was green mould on the ground.

They play on the vast tract of land near the logs being fumigated.

“I class it as our backyard,” Mr Ross said. “It’s been our backyard for four years and the kids come over here and play. My daughter . . . thought it was mould, but it’s actually green stuff from over there. “

Resident Jenny Dybalo said she was upset that Viking did not mention the fumigation in its planning permit. “They’ve suggested they’re going to be a transport industry and in fact they’re not.”

Hobsons Bay deputy mayor Tony Briffa said he strongly opposed Viking’s permit application.

“Methyl bromide has been banned across the European Union. It’s not only bad for people’s health, but also it’s bad for the ozone, bad for the environment.

“If this is one of the Chinese government’s requirements to fumigate these logs with methyl bromide, they can ship these logs as they are to Chinese waters and fumigate them there. New Zealand also exports logs to China, but in their case they fumigate the logs in containers at sea. I believe we should insist on the same process.”

Last Friday, the council applied to the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal for an enforcement order to immediately stop Viking from continuing to fumigate logs at Altona.

Cr Briffa is planning to write to Victoria’s chief health officer John Carnie, Health Minister Daniel Andrews, Environment and Climate Change Minister Gavin Jennings and Altona MP Jill Hennessy requesting their intervention.

Cr Briffa said he would also seek the council’s backing to write to Ms Gillard and relevant federal ministers seeking a review of the use of methyl bromide and the possibility of banning the chemical.

http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/residents-angry-at-lethal-poison-in-suburb-20100804-11fue.html

2015 March: Toolangi Strawberries. Pesticide: Methyl Bromide

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Pesticide banned worldwide still used to grow 70pc of Australian strawberries

About 70 per cent of Australian strawberries are being grown on runners that have been fumigated with an environmentally damaging pesticide that has been banned around the world.

Methyl bromide is an odourless and colourless gas which was banned under the United Nations Montreal Protocol in 1989 because it depletes the ozone layer.

Australia agreed to phase it out by 2005 but a decade later, nine strawberry runner growers at Toolangi, in Victoria’s Yarra Valley, are still using nearly 30 tonnes a year.

They produce 100 million strawberry runners annually, which in turn generate about 70 per cent of Australian strawberries.

Each year they apply to the UN for a critical use exemption from the ban, claiming the alternatives are financially crippling.

The co-chair of the UN Methyl Bromide Technical Options committee, Dr Ian Porter, said the situation was frustrating.

“Internationally, we’ve gotten rid of 85 per cent of methyl bromide, and it’s a great win for mankind — in fact it’s the best environmental gain that’s been made,” he said.

“[The strawberry runner growers] want to get rid of it, but there’s a responsibility to provide high-health runners for the industry.

“It’s frustrating … but we don’t want industries to fall over economically or technically. We don’t want more disease or pests in Australia.”

Environmental Justice Australia said it was concerned the growers were using a loophole to continue their use of methyl bromide.

“I think if people did know more about this issue, they’d be very concerned that the strawberries they’re consuming are contributing to this significant environmental issue,” chief executive Brendan Sydes said.

“There was a commitment to phase out this chemical by 2005 and yet, despite that, we’re continuing to use it in this industry. It’s a real concern.

“I think it’s a real failure of the industry to come up with some alternative methods of producing strawberry runners, but also of the government to insist on compliance with this important regulatory regime.”

Prices would increase to $10 a punnet: industry

The strawberry growers said if they were forced to stop using methyl bromide, the viability of the $400 million strawberry industry would be “compromised” and 15,000 jobs jeopardised.

The industry estimated their costs could soar by 500 per cent if they were to switch to soilless growing systems, similar to those used in parts of Europe.

That cost would be passed on to consumers, and a punnet of strawberries could end up costing more than $10.

“You imagine turning 100 hectares immediately into glass houses, and the impact that would have,” Dr Porter said.

“It’s just not the least bit economical at this stage.

“It’s tough to weigh up economics, it’s one of our challenges. Will consumers pay $10 a punnet? I don’t know.”

But local permaculturist Graeme George said people would pay more.

“I think it’s well demonstrated with the organic industry where prices can be quite a bit higher than with conventional agriculture,” he said.

“I can understand the financial incentives (for using methyl bromide), but it’s symptomatic of the pressures the agricultural industry is under.

“Supermarkets are driving prices down.”

‘Imports would increase, threaten local industry’

The nine farms still using the chemical are part of the Toolangi Certified Strawberry Runner Growers’ Cooperative, which declined to speak to the ABC.

But in a statement they said banning methyl bromide would threaten the Australian industry.

“Consumers would have reduced availability of fresh, delicious, Australian-grown strawberries,” it said.

“Berry imports would increase, which do not always have the same production methods and health standards that Australian strawberries enjoy,” referring to the recent Nanna’s Berries scandal.

The statement said the growers had made a “considerable effort” to reduce their use of methyl bromide and were funding “world-leading research”.

“The runner industry has invested more than $700,000 on research and development to find alternatives to methyl bromide,” the statement said.

“This has included research on new fumigants, biological controls and alternative production systems.

“Research from this program has identified alternatives that proved suitable for other horticultural industries … [but] research has not yet found an effective alternative for runner production at Toolangi.

“The soils at Toolangi are clays with high organic matter, and alternative treatments used in other parts of Australia do not work well in these conditions, especially in cold temperatures.”

The Victorian and federal governments make financial contributions to the industry’s research programs.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-03-29/toxic-pesticide-used-on-australian-strawberries/6354488

2004 March: Toxic Spill Crash Sparks Fears for Health

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Toxic Spill from Truck Crash Sparks Fears for Health

Sydney Morning Herald March 2 2004

The Great Western Highway may be open again but a landholder closest to a toxic spill last week fears his property has been permanently contaminated.

Peter Gray’s 15-hectare block begins metres from where a truck overturned east of Lithgow last Wednesday night, killing its driver and smashing a load of herbicides, pesticides, acid and chlorine.

He has been warned not to let his dogs near his farm dam and to cease using its water.

The dam is on the same drainage line where the spill occurred and is 100 metres from a pit that was filled with sand and soil to catch any liquid escaping from the crash site.

The sandpit, near the highway, is about 20 metres long and 10 metres wide and crosses over the boundary of Mr Gray’s property. The dumped soil surrounds several large gum trees. The NSW Department of Environment and Conservation said the soil was a precaution against chemicals escaping from the site.

When the Herald visited yesterday there was a foul tar-like leachate sitting on top of parts of the bulldozed dirt, and vegetation had begun to die.

“It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to see that whatever is in that hole will eventually leach into our dam,” Mr Gray said.

He has collected containers filled with pesticides to prove to authorities that the spill site clean-up has been inadequate.

The highway, at the bottom of Mount Victoria Pass, was reopened at the weekend.

But there is still a foul odour near the spill site. Mr Gray’s home a few hundred metres away stinks of chemicals.

Some people involved in the clean-up have told him and his neighbours that there are fears about the long-term environmental health of nearby land.

The department has said Mr Gray’s property is safe.

He said that he and his wife, Vanessa, had suffered headaches, had been unable to sleep properly, and had woken up sick each morning since the spill.

Both said they had been suffering from an inexplicable thirst. They have been drinking from their rainwater tanks because they were told their stored water should be safe.

Mr Gray’s neighbour, Pauline Worthington, said she too had suffered headaches.

She said she was worried about the spill’s possible effect on her land and breeding dogs.

“The lack of communication has been the biggest problem,” she said. “I have had literally no information given to me. They had breathing apparatus and we were sitting down here with nothing.

“No one has even told us what kind of chemicals they were.”

A spokesman for the department, John Dengate, said an investigation was under way.

The department will seek to determine who was responsible for the spill and whether there had been a breach of the Dangerous Goods Act, he said.

Many tens of tonnes of contaminated soil have been removed from the site for disposal.

“There’s some need for further excavation but the vast majority has already been removed,” Mr Dengate said. “The cleaning up will be done and the site will not pose a threat.”

Preliminary test results did not detect poisons in Mr Gray’s dam, he said.

2015 February: Nerrina State Forest (Vic). Health concerns about recent spraying on bush tracks

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Walker believes pets sick after chemical exposure

Feb. 4, 2015, Ballarat Courier.

PEOPLE using the Nerrina forest tracks are concerned for their pets and their own health from sprays they believe were used in the area.

Tristan Burke said he exercised most days and had never felt shortness of breath until he walked the paths with his mother in the past fortnight.

“I had breathing difficulties and had a chemical feeling in my mouth,” Mr Burke said.

He said his mother’s dogs had also had reactions, including diarrhoea, vomiting and skin infections.

Mr Burke said his mother was also getting sick.

“She wouldn’t have gone there and exposed herself or her dogs to the chemicals if she knew it was there.”

He said it was more than a week after they had experienced reactions that they saw a pink spray through the area and realised chemicals were being sprayed again.

His mother had been walking the dogs most days in the area off Glenisla Road, in the Nerrina State Forest, with Mr Burke sometimes going with her.

“We won’t be going there for a while now. She liked the area because there was water for the dogs to swim and have a drink.”
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Mr Burke said it was only in the past couple of days they had seen one sign, which was in the middle of the sprayed area and not at any entrance to the tracks or beginning of the sprayed area.

Different sections of the forest are managed by Ballarat City Council, the Department of Environment, Land, Water & Planning and a catchment authority, with confusion about which authority manages that specific area.

http://www.thecourier.com.au/story/2862779/forest-spray-concern/

1998 -9: Turrabelle Creek. Pesticides: Endosulfan, Fluometuron, Prometryn, Metolachlor

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Water Quality in the Central and North West Regions of NSW, in relation to the cotton industry. Monika Muschal and Bruce Cooper. Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW P.O. Box 3720, Parramatta, NSW 2124

Two sites had relatively high incidences of endosulfan sulphate, alpha and beta endosulfan, fluometuron, prometryn and metolachlor (crosses). These results demonstrate the impacts on surface water quality.

1998-9: Darling River downstream of Bourke. Pesticides: Endosulfan, Fluometuron, Prometryn, Metolachlor

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Water Quality in the Central and North West Regions of NSW, in relation to the cotton industry. Monika Muschal and Bruce Cooper. Department of Land and Water Conservation, NSW P.O. Box 3720, Parramatta, NSW 2124

Two sites had relatively high incidences of endosulfan sulphate, alpha and beta endosulfan, fluometuron, prometryn and metolachlor (crosses). These results demonstrate the impacts on surface water quality.

2003: Big Jack Creek (NSW). Pesticide detected: Atrazine

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From paddocks cropped with sorghum at Big Jacks Creek in the Liverpool Plains, NSW, the highest concentration of atrazine in runoff water was 159μg/L. The second highest peak concentration was recorded from the same site (103μg/L) approximately
three months after application (Sun and Cornish 2003).

2002 – 2008: Atrazine detected in Fitzroy River.

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1986 – 1987: Tweed Tank Water. Pesticides: Chlordane, Dieldrin, Propiconazole

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Pesticide Residues in Drinking Water in the North Coast Region of NSW, Australia 1986-87. Bulletin. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1989) 42:595-602

Ballina Reticulated Water Lindane 6ug/L
Ballina Tank Water Dieldrin 0.1ug/L
Ballina Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L

Byron Springwater Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Byron Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Byron Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Byron Spring Water 2,4,5-T 1ug/L
Byron Spring Water Propiconazole 0.6ug/L

Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.9ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.3ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.15ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.87ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.2ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.2ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Aldrin 0.06ug/L
Coffs Harbour Spring Water Propiconazole 5.5ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Propiconazole 5ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Propiconazole 4.8ug/L

Lismore Canal 2,4-D 9ug/L

Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.8ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.09ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.5ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.13ug/L
Tweed Tank Water OH-Chlordane 0.1ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Propiconazole 2.4ug/L

1986 – 1987: Lismore Canal. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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Pesticide Residues in Drinking Water in the North Coast Region of NSW, Australia 1986-87. Bulletin. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1989) 42:595-602

Ballina Reticulated Water Lindane 6ug/L
Ballina Tank Water Dieldrin 0.1ug/L
Ballina Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L

Byron Springwater Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Byron Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Byron Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Byron Spring Water 2,4,5-T 1ug/L
Byron Spring Water Propiconazole 0.6ug/L

Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.9ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.3ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.15ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.87ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.2ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.2ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Aldrin 0.06ug/L
Coffs Harbour Spring Water Propiconazole 5.5ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Propiconazole 5ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Propiconazole 4.8ug/L

Lismore Canal 2,4-D 9ug/L

Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.8ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.09ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.5ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.13ug/L
Tweed Tank Water OH-Chlordane 0.1ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Propiconazole 2.4ug/L

1986 – 1987: Coffs Harbour Tank Water. Pesticides: Dieldrin, Aldrin, Propiconazole

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Pesticide Residues in Drinking Water in the North Coast Region of NSW, Australia 1986-87. Bulletin. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1989) 42:595-602

Ballina Reticulated Water Lindane 6ug/L
Ballina Tank Water Dieldrin 0.1ug/L
Ballina Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L

Byron Springwater Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Byron Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Byron Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Byron Spring Water 2,4,5-T 1ug/L
Byron Spring Water Propiconazole 0.6ug/L

Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.9ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.3ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.15ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.87ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.2ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.2ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Aldrin 0.06ug/L
Coffs Harbour Spring Water Propiconazole 5.5ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Propiconazole 5ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Propiconazole 4.8ug/L

Lismore Canal 2,4-D 9ug/L

Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.8ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.09ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.5ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.13ug/L
Tweed Tank Water OH-Chlordane 0.1ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Propiconazole 2.4ug/L

1986 – 1987: Byron (NSW) spring and tank water. Pesticides: Propiconazole, Dieldrin, 2,4,5-T

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Pesticide Residues in Drinking Water in the North Coast Region of NSW, Australia 1986-87. Bulletin. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1989) 42:595-602

Ballina Reticulated Water Lindane 6ug/L
Ballina Tank Water Dieldrin 0.1ug/L
Ballina Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L

Byron Springwater Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Byron Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Byron Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Byron Spring Water 2,4,5-T 1ug/L
Byron Spring Water Propiconazole 0.6ug/L

Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.9ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.3ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.15ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.87ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.2ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.2ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Aldrin 0.06ug/L
Coffs Harbour Spring Water Propiconazole 5.5ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Propiconazole 5ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Propiconazole 4.8ug/L

Lismore Canal 2,4-D 9ug/L

Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.8ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.09ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.5ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.13ug/L
Tweed Tank Water OH-Chlordane 0.1ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Propiconazole 2.4ug/L

1986 – 1987: Ballina reticulated and tank water. Pesticides: Lindane, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residues in Drinking Water in the North Coast Region of NSW, Australia 1986-87. Bulletin. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1989) 42:595-602

Ballina Reticulated Water Lindane 6ug/L
Ballina Tank Water Dieldrin 0.1ug/L
Ballina Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L

Byron Springwater Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Byron Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Byron Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Byron Spring Water 2,4,5-T 1ug/L
Byron Spring Water Propiconazole 0.6ug/L

Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.9ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.3ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1.15ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 1ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.87ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.2ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.2ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Aldrin 0.06ug/L
Coffs Harbour Spring Water Propiconazole 5.5ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Propiconazole 5ug/L
Coffs Harbour Tank Water Propiconazole 4.8ug/L

Lismore Canal 2,4-D 9ug/L

Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.8ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.09ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.5ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.07ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Dieldrin 0.06ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Chlordane 0.13ug/L
Tweed Tank Water OH-Chlordane 0.1ug/L
Tweed Tank Water Propiconazole 2.4ug/L

1989 February: Caringbah Inn Hotel Evacuated. Pesticide: Dichlorvos

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Toxic Leak Puts Four In Hospital

Sydney Morning Herald Monday February 6, 1989

Four people were taken to Sutherland Hospital last night after a leak of toxic insecticide at the Caringbah Inn Hotel.

A spokesman for the fire brigade said the insecticide, Dichlorvos, leaked from four 50kilogram cylinders into the Caringbah Inn Hotel shortly after 6pm

The insecticide is used in the control of cockroaches.

The hotel manageress, Ms Kathy Toner, said 200 people had been evacuated from the hotel for 75 minutes.

Ms Toner said the leak had been “nothing serious at all”.

“The four people were just taken to hospital as a precaution,” Ms Toner said.

“Now they’re back at the hotel, drinking beer.”

A spokesman for the hospital refused to comment on the condition of the four people.

http://www.insecticide.com.au/insecticide-articles/1989/2/6/toxic-leak-puts-four-in-hospital/

1988 December – 1989 January: Mungindi Cotton grower fined massive fish kill.

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Nsw Law Crosses The Border

Sydney Morning Herald Tuesday August 28, 1990

A cotton grower has been convicted by a NSW court on charges relating to pollution caused by chemicals he spread on his property in Queensland.

The grower, charged with polluting the Barwon River on the NSW border with insecticide which killed thousands of fish, would not be charged under Queensland law, the Land and Environment Court heard yesterday.

The chief judge, Justice Cripps, convicted Geoffrey Brownlie, 41, of Ridgeview, Mungindi, Queensland, on two charges by the NSW State Pollution Control Commission, under the NSW Clean Waters Act. The offences occurred between December 30, 1988 and January 1, 1989.

Mungindi is built on both sides of the Barwon, the middle line of which is the border between the two States. The pollution occurred when unexpected heavy rain washed the insecticide off Mr Brownlie’s cotton crop in Queensland into the river.

In August this year, after Mr Brownlie pleaded not guilty, Justice Cripps found the offences proved. Mr Brownlie then lodged an appeal with the Court of Appeal, alleging that the Land and Environment Court had no jurisdiction to hear the charges as its authority ended at the border.

Yesterday, in a submission on penalty, Mr Brownlie’s barrister, Mr Angus Talbot, asked the judge to deal with him under Section 556A of the Crimes Act, the first offender’s provision, without recording a conviction.

Mr Talbot said the Queensland Clean Waters Act allowed the discharge of stormwater from agricultural land into Queensland rivers, so the polluted run-off into the Barwon did not contravene Queensland law and Queensland authorities did nothing about it.

It entered their river, too; arguably it killed their fish – indeed, all the fish may have been Queensland fish, he said.

Ms Helen Murrell, for the commission, said Mr Brownlie’s actions resulted in the deaths of many thousands of fish for several kilometres of the river, extending through the town water supply.

Justice Cripps convicted Mr Brownlie and fined him $12,000 on one charge and $1 on the other, and ordered him to pay, subject to assessment, the commission’s costs of about $30,000. Mr Brownlie intends to appeal against his conviction.

http://www.insecticide.com.au/insecticide-articles/1990/8/28/nsw-law-crosses-the-border/

1992 January: Pesticide Sales Halted + Poisoning. Pesticide: Parathion

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Pesticide Sales Halted Until Safety Inquiry’s Findings

The Age Friday January 31, 1992

A working party set up to inquire into the insecticide parathion will report to the Government in six weeks.

The inquiry, announced yesterday by the Minister for Food and Agriculture, Mr Baker, follows complaints from the Australian Workers Union that uncontrolled use of the chemical in Victoria’s fruit-growing areas was endangering the health of fruit-pickers.

Distributors of ethyl parathion have been asked to stop further sales pending the results of the investigation. A code of practice for the use of ethyl parathion will be introduced within days.

The union drew attention to two poisoning cases last month in the Goulburn Valley in which a grower and his wife were treated in hospital. They had been diluting parathion concentrate to spray fruit, but had not worn protective gloves.

Poisoning can lead to impaired mental function and may affect physical coordination. In the United States, there have been 52 recorded deaths from parathion poisoning over 25 years. In Brisbane recently, a handyman working at a nursery died after accidentally drinking a form of parathion in a Coca-Cola bottle.

The Victorian working party will make recommendations on the future use of all forms of parathion. It will also look at alternatives to its use, including non-chemical or organic pest control.

Mr Baker said he had decided to move quickly to protect Victoria’s reputation for chemical-free food products. “There is no doubt that our effort to significantly reduce chemical residues … has provided new market opportunities and the chance for premium pricing in overseas markets, particularly Asia,” he said. “If there is any suggestion of either a health risk or a danger … then it’s important to put it away quickly.” According to the Food and Agriculture Department, test results available since 1987 have only shown safe residue levels in fruit.

The working party, to be headed by a toxicologist, will include a representative of fruitgrowers, a representative of the Department of Food and Agriculture, and two representatives of the Victorian Trades Hall Council. It will plan an intensive education program for Goulburn Valley growers for this season and will review, in consultation with the departments of Health and Labor, the reporting procedure of accidents involving agricultural chemicals.

Mr Baker said the parathion issue was vexatious, but there were no simple solutions. He was hopeful that the working party would produce “some balanced answers”.

He said parathion was used in fruit-growing areas throughout Australia. It was also used on some citrus crops and in the growing of cotton, but not on a routine basis. It is used to kill codling moth and the oriental fruit moth. In the United States, ethyl parathion is used on alfalfa, barley, canola, corn, cotton, sorghum, soya bean, sunflowers and wheat. It is not used on Victorian grain crops.

Mr Baker said that without effective pest control, 75 per cent of the Goulburn Valley fruit crop could be destroyed by codling moth.

http://www.insecticide.com.au/insecticide-articles/1992/1/31/pesticide-sales-halted-until-safety-inquirys-findings/

1990 April: Shepparton man awarded $510,000. Pesticide Exposure: Paraquat/Melprex

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Insecticide Victim Awarded $510,000

The Age Friday February 21, 1992

The first known court case involving parathion poisoning has come to light as the State Government’s inquiry into the controversial insecticide gets under way.

In what is believed to be one of the biggest personal payouts in a worker’s compensation case in Victoria, a 26-year-old Shepparton man, Mr Glen Darlow, was awarded $510,000 in damages and $50,000 in interest.

The case was heard in the Victorian Supreme Court in Shepparton in April 1990, but has only recently come to public attention.

It was successfully argued in court that parathion spraying was a cause of Mr Darlow’s illness. He has Goodpasture’s syndrome (renal failure) and is on the waiting list for a kidney transplant. An earlier transplant about 18 months ago was unsuccessful and in October last year Mr Darlow’s left leg was amputated because of a blood clot. He has to replace bags for peritoneal dialysis, which drain away wastes in a tube through the outside of his stomach instead of the bowel, four times a day.

Mr Darlow was accidentally sprayed with diluted parathion mixed with a fungicide, melprex, when he was working at a Shepparton orchard in 1983. He was 17 at the time. Mr Darlow and six other workers were learning to prune fruit trees in an orchard owned by Orrvalle Holdings Pty Ltd as part of a Commonwealth Employment Scheme job training program when the accident occurred.

The other workers may also have been sprayed or absorbed the chemical afterwards through contact with recently sprayed trees. Their whereabouts are not known.

Mr Darlow called yesterday for orchard workers to be given training in the safe use of toxic chemicals. He said he and his fellow workers had not been given any warning or advice about potentially dangerous chemicals on the farm.

The State Government, at the urging of the Australian Workers Union after a recent poisoning case in the Goulburn Valley, last month set up a working party to inquire into parathion. A code of practice for the safe use of the chemical by growers and orchard workers is being developed.

Mr Darlow’s lawyer, Mr Ian Ritchie, said yesterday that he was not aware of any other chemical case in Victoria of this nature, although there may have been out-of-court settlements.

He said he was not critical of chemical sprays. The whole issue was about safe practices.

Mr Darlow, who is unable to work, said he first became ill about a week after the spraying incident. He began to vomit, was unable to eat and had constant headaches. These days, his health fluctuates from one day to the next and sleep is restless. As well as kidney disease, he has high blood pressure and low calcium levels.“Some days are good, and the next day I have no energy,” he said yesterday. “I just take one day at a time.

http://www.insecticide.com.au/insecticide-articles/1992/2/21/insecticide-victim-awarded-510000/

1968 – 1986: Emerald Region (Qld) Workers Exposed to Carcinogenic Insecticide: Chlordimeform

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Cancer Fear Sparks Survey By Ciba Chemical Company

The Age Friday April 2, 1993

The chemical giant Ciba Australia has launched an intensive monitoring program of 121 present and former employees who may have been exposed to a potentially carcinogenic insecticide.

Private investigators have been hired to find the workers to take part in a $500,000 testing program. The workers may have been exposed to the chemical chlordimeform (CDF), which is being investigated for links to bladder cancer.

The New South Wales WorkCover department is conducting a separate monitoring program of about 90 people involved in field applications of CDF. It is believed up to 400 people, including pilots, itinerant workers and farmers, could have been exposed to aerial spraying of CDF.

CDF was used extensively in aerial spraying in the 1970s and 1980s in the Moree region in northern NSW and the Emerald district in south- west Queensland. CDF was used to control insects in cotton crops, orchards and cattle dips.

A raw material in CDF _ 4-Cot _ has been shown to be carcinogenic in tests on workers in Germany. Other tests show that the human body breaks down some CDF into 4-Cot.

Ciba and the other distributor of CDF in Australia, Schering Pty Ltd, conducted preliminary urine testing of about 90 workers in 1990. Two former Ciba employees were found to have already developed bladder cancer and had been treated.

According to US statistics, the rate of bladder cancer in the general population is one in 3200. The average latency period is about 20 years but it can be as long as 40 years.

CDF was imported to Australia and mixed to form products for marketing between 1968 and 1976, when it was initially withdrawn from the market after a study found that mice, fed high doses of the chemical, developed blood-vessel tumors.

It was reintroduced in 1978 with stricter permit conditions and warnings on its use. In 1986, Australia became the first country to withdraw CDF after a study of workers at a Hoechst plant in West Germany found a higher than usual incidence of bladder cancer among workers exposed to CDF.

A 1992 study by Schering found that seven out of 49 workers in the company’s Wolfenbuttel plant in Germany had developed bladder cancer.

The workers were involved in the synthesis of CDF and had direct exposure to 4-Cot.

Ciba has commissioned the Royal South Sydney Occupational Health and Safety Service and a US firm, Fox Chase, to conduct its tests.

Ciba is also testing in Switzerland and Britain.

The program will initially run for two years but Ciba is prepared to allow it to run indefinitely if needed because of the lengthy latency period.

Ciba has undertaken to pay any medical costs to former employees who have developed bladder cancer. Any compensation claims would be assessed individually. Because bladder cancer is also linked to smoking, alcohol and some medicines, CDF’s contribution could be inconclusive.

The managing director of Ciba, Mr Hermann Mani, said: “The screening program is being conducted because the possibility that formulation workers exposed to CDF alone may face an increased risk of bladder cancer warrants further investigation.

“It is important to understand that workers in Australia, unlike those at plants in Europe, did not handle 4-Cot as no CDF was manufactured here.” Mr Mani said the program was aimed at the “earliest possible detection of bladder cancer and employs the latest medical monitoring techniques”.

Mr Mani said there were about 15 former employees scattered throughout Australia whom Ciba could not locate. He urged any former employee to contact Ciba.

Any current or former employee from Ciba can call 008025 931 from 8am today for advice.

http://www.insecticide.com.au/insecticide-articles/1993/4/2/cancer-fear-sparks-survey-by-ciba-chemical-company/

1968 -1986: Moree (NSW) Workers Exposed to Carcinogenic Pesticide: Chlordimeform

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Cancer Fear Sparks Survey By Ciba Chemical Company

The Age Friday April 2, 1993

The chemical giant Ciba Australia has launched an intensive monitoring program of 121 present and former employees who may have been exposed to a potentially carcinogenic insecticide.

Private investigators have been hired to find the workers to take part in a $500,000 testing program. The workers may have been exposed to the chemical chlordimeform (CDF), which is being investigated for links to bladder cancer.

The New South Wales WorkCover department is conducting a separate monitoring program of about 90 people involved in field applications of CDF. It is believed up to 400 people, including pilots, itinerant workers and farmers, could have been exposed to aerial spraying of CDF.

CDF was used extensively in aerial spraying in the 1970s and 1980s in the Moree region in northern NSW and the Emerald district in south- west Queensland. CDF was used to control insects in cotton crops, orchards and cattle dips.

A raw material in CDF _ 4-Cot _ has been shown to be carcinogenic in tests on workers in Germany. Other tests show that the human body breaks down some CDF into 4-Cot.

Ciba and the other distributor of CDF in Australia, Schering Pty Ltd, conducted preliminary urine testing of about 90 workers in 1990. Two former Ciba employees were found to have already developed bladder cancer and had been treated.

According to US statistics, the rate of bladder cancer in the general population is one in 3200. The average latency period is about 20 years but it can be as long as 40 years.

CDF was imported to Australia and mixed to form products for marketing between 1968 and 1976, when it was initially withdrawn from the market after a study found that mice, fed high doses of the chemical, developed blood-vessel tumors.

It was reintroduced in 1978 with stricter permit conditions and warnings on its use. In 1986, Australia became the first country to withdraw CDF after a study of workers at a Hoechst plant in West Germany found a higher than usual incidence of bladder cancer among workers exposed to CDF.

A 1992 study by Schering found that seven out of 49 workers in the company’s Wolfenbuttel plant in Germany had developed bladder cancer.

The workers were involved in the synthesis of CDF and had direct exposure to 4-Cot.

Ciba has commissioned the Royal South Sydney Occupational Health and Safety Service and a US firm, Fox Chase, to conduct its tests.

Ciba is also testing in Switzerland and Britain.

The program will initially run for two years but Ciba is prepared to allow it to run indefinitely if needed because of the lengthy latency period.

Ciba has undertaken to pay any medical costs to former employees who have developed bladder cancer. Any compensation claims would be assessed individually. Because bladder cancer is also linked to smoking, alcohol and some medicines, CDF’s contribution could be inconclusive.

The managing director of Ciba, Mr Hermann Mani, said: “The screening program is being conducted because the possibility that formulation workers exposed to CDF alone may face an increased risk of bladder cancer warrants further investigation.

“It is important to understand that workers in Australia, unlike those at plants in Europe, did not handle 4-Cot as no CDF was manufactured here.” Mr Mani said the program was aimed at the “earliest possible detection of bladder cancer and employs the latest medical monitoring techniques”.

Mr Mani said there were about 15 former employees scattered throughout Australia whom Ciba could not locate. He urged any former employee to contact Ciba.

Any current or former employee from Ciba can call 008025 931 from 8am today for advice.

http://www.insecticide.com.au/insecticide-articles/1993/4/2/cancer-fear-sparks-survey-by-ciba-chemical-company/

1998 April: Chemical Spill Branxton NSW. Pesticide: (Azodrin) Monocrotophos

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Chemical Spill Forces Branxton Home Evacuations

Newcastle Herald Wednesday April 1, 1998

SEVERAL Branxton houses were evacuated last night when a truck carrying pails of chemical insecticide overturned south of the town.

The accident happened on Main Rd at 7.30pm and the road was closed for several hours.

People evacuated were staying with neighbours.

The driver of the truck suffered minor injuries and was treated at the scene.

Seven firefighting units, two ambulance crews and police attended, and ambulance crews were to remain on standby throughout the night.

The truck was carrying 60 20-litre pails of the organophosphate insecticide azodrin.

Representatives from the manufacturers, Cyanomide, were travelling to the scene late last night.

http://www.insecticide.com.au/insecticide-articles/1998/4/1/chemical-spill-forces-branxton-home-evacuations/

1998 October: Singleton Big W insecticide spill.

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Poison Scare Victims Home

Newcastle Herald Saturday October 24, 1998

FOUR female employees of Big W at Singleton were released from hospital yesterday after a chemical spill at the store on Thursday night.

Fifteen people were taken to Singleton Hospital after a bottle of insecticide was dropped on the floor.

A hospital spokesman said the people were complaining of sore eyes and nausea.

After an inspection, 11 people went home but the four women, aged 17, 19, 20 and 37, remained overnight for observation.

The spokesman said it appeared the poison had been absorbed through the skin.

http://www.insecticide.com.au/insecticide-articles/1998/10/24/poison-scare-victims-home/

1998: Dalby (Qld). 50 cases of pesticide poisoning? Cotton crops. Pesticide: Endosulfan

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Farmers Paid After Chemical Spraying

Sydney Morning Herald Saturday December 26, 1998

The cotton industry has announced a compensation scheme for beef farmers in northern NSW and Queensland whose cattle have been found to contain high traces of the insecticide endosulfan.

Cotton Australia’s chief executive, Mr Gary Punch, said the package was estimated to end up around the “quarter of a million dollar mark”.

After paying the compensation, he said, the industry would try to seek out who was responsible for incorrect spraying practices which had led to the contamination and to recoup the money from them. “There’s a lot of anger in the cotton industry,” Mr Punch said.

“Very small cotton farmers have brought all this down on everybody else.”

A joint cotton/cattle claims panel will be set up to determine compensation for farmers whose cattle had been found to be contaminated.

The deal would cover market prices for cattle which could not be sold because of the contamination and transport costs to and from the abattoir for a consignment which was rejected.

Compensation would also be given for live cattle (about 60 so far) which have tested positive to between half and full the maximum residue level (0.2 milligrams per kilo), at the rate of 12c a kilo.

Mr Punch said about 30 cattle had so far been rejected after testing to higher than full levels of the chemical.

The announcement from the cotton industry came as it emerged that levels of the insecticide endosulfan have been found in drinking water in cotton-growing areas of southern Queensland at almost 20 times the recommended safety limit.

Tests by the Condamine-Balonne Water Committee, a government body, found an endosulfan level of 0.9 ug/L (micrograms per litre) in the Loudoun Weir last January, at the peak of the cotton-spraying season.

The National Health and Medical Research Council’s “guideline value” for the chemical’s level in drinking water is 0.05 ug/L.

The weir supplies water to the Darling Downs town of Dalby.

The cotton industry has previously insisted there is “no established link for a causal relationship between agricultural chemicals and health effects”.

A recent review of the chemical by the Federal Government’s National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals said endosulfan concentrations “routinely exceed” criteria recommended to protect aquatic ecosystems.

The review said the chemical had a “high, acute or immediate toxicity to humans”.

The Dalby-based Eco-Watch group says it has documented more than 50 cases this year of pesticide poisoning it attributes to cotton spraying.

Reported symptoms include severe headaches, asthma, muscle pain and fatigue. Ms Tracey McGeorge, a station manager, said she was admitted to hospital in Chinchilla recently after being exposed to spray drift. “I was convulsing and I was unable to speak,” Ms McGeorge said.

Mr Bill Zeller, a retired wheat farmer, is trying to sell his Darling Downs property and leave the area. Mr Zeller said he had medical advice that symptoms he regularly suffered – including lethargy, sleeplessness and body aches – arose from exposure to spray which drifted onto his property from nearby cotton farms.

Mr Adrian York, another grain farmer, said: “Women have to wear gas masks when they put the washing out.”

But he added: “I don’t think these chemicals should be banned. It’s a question of using them properly.”

http://www.insecticide.com.au/insecticide-articles/1998/12/26/farmers-paid-after-chemical-spraying/

1998 December: Loudon Weir (Qld). High levels of Endosulfan (20 times safe limit)

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Farmers Paid After Chemical Spraying

Sydney Morning Herald Saturday December 26, 1998

The cotton industry has announced a compensation scheme for beef farmers in northern NSW and Queensland whose cattle have been found to contain high traces of the insecticide endosulfan.

Cotton Australia’s chief executive, Mr Gary Punch, said the package was estimated to end up around the “quarter of a million dollar mark”.

After paying the compensation, he said, the industry would try to seek out who was responsible for incorrect spraying practices which had led to the contamination and to recoup the money from them. “There’s a lot of anger in the cotton industry,” Mr Punch said.

“Very small cotton farmers have brought all this down on everybody else.”

A joint cotton/cattle claims panel will be set up to determine compensation for farmers whose cattle had been found to be contaminated.

The deal would cover market prices for cattle which could not be sold because of the contamination and transport costs to and from the abattoir for a consignment which was rejected.

Compensation would also be given for live cattle (about 60 so far) which have tested positive to between half and full the maximum residue level (0.2 milligrams per kilo), at the rate of 12c a kilo.

Mr Punch said about 30 cattle had so far been rejected after testing to higher than full levels of the chemical.

The announcement from the cotton industry came as it emerged that levels of the insecticide endosulfan have been found in drinking water in cotton-growing areas of southern Queensland at almost 20 times the recommended safety limit.

Tests by the Condamine-Balonne Water Committee, a government body, found an endosulfan level of 0.9 ug/L (micrograms per litre) in the Loudoun Weir last January, at the peak of the cotton-spraying season.

The National Health and Medical Research Council’s “guideline value” for the chemical’s level in drinking water is 0.05 ug/L.

The weir supplies water to the Darling Downs town of Dalby.

The cotton industry has previously insisted there is “no established link for a causal relationship between agricultural chemicals and health effects”.

A recent review of the chemical by the Federal Government’s National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals said endosulfan concentrations “routinely exceed” criteria recommended to protect aquatic ecosystems.

The review said the chemical had a “high, acute or immediate toxicity to humans”.

The Dalby-based Eco-Watch group says it has documented more than 50 cases this year of pesticide poisoning it attributes to cotton spraying.

Reported symptoms include severe headaches, asthma, muscle pain and fatigue. Ms Tracey McGeorge, a station manager, said she was admitted to hospital in Chinchilla recently after being exposed to spray drift. “I was convulsing and I was unable to speak,” Ms McGeorge said.

Mr Bill Zeller, a retired wheat farmer, is trying to sell his Darling Downs property and leave the area. Mr Zeller said he had medical advice that symptoms he regularly suffered – including lethargy, sleeplessness and body aches – arose from exposure to spray which drifted onto his property from nearby cotton farms.

Mr Adrian York, another grain farmer, said: “Women have to wear gas masks when they put the washing out.”

But he added: “I don’t think these chemicals should be banned. It’s a question of using them properly.”

http://www.insecticide.com.au/insecticide-articles/1998/12/26/farmers-paid-after-chemical-spraying/

2002 March: Newcastle Toxic Insecticide Leak

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Toxic Leak Overcomes Salvo Staff

Newcastle Herald Wednesday March 6, 2002

AT least five Salvation Army staff and volunteer workers were treated for eye and throat conditions after they were overcome by a leaking tub of insecticide yesterday.

A NSW Fire Brigade spokesman said hazardous materials, ambulance and fire crews were called to a warehouse in Hunter St West, Newcastle, about 3.20pm after volunteers reported a strange smell.

The spokesman said the people were overcome by the fumes fromthe tub, which was near the rear ofthe warehouse. `They became sick from the fumes and suffered minor throat and eye irritations as well as feelings of giddiness,’ the spokesman said.

The leaked insecticide was cleaned up by the HAZMAT crew, who contained the contamination and made the area safe.

The tub was taken away in a large, air-tight container for disposal.

It is believed the tub had been donated to the organisation about a week ago.

http://www.insecticide.com.au/insecticide-articles/2002/3/6/toxic-leak-overcomes-salvo-staff/

1960’s – 1980’s: Christmas Creek Station Spray Workers. Pesticides: 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T

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1960’s – 1980’s: Fitzroy River Weed Sprayers Exposed: Pesticides: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D

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David Fickling in Sydney Sunday September 29, 2002 The Observer

Cyril Hunter’s skin was bleached white by the time he died, but his only complaint on the night of his death was that he had eaten too much and felt bloated.

A respected member of the Aboriginal community in Derby, Western Australia, he had been suffering ill-health for three years, but was known in town as a tough, sturdy man. Few expected him to drop dead of a heart attack at the age of 33.

Campaigners say that Hunter’s is just one of up to 24 deaths caused by a controversial weed-spraying programme in northwestern Australia’s Kimberley region between 1975 and 1985.

After more than 20 years of denial, the West Australian government last week finally admitted responsibility for health problems connected to herbicides used in the programme. But compensation for those affected, and for the families of the dead, is still no nearer.

It was an apparently well-intentioned plan. Foreign weeds growing in the unspoilt Kimberley would be eradicated by teams of local workers, bringing employment to one of Australia’s most backward areas.

Teams of workers spent up to two weeks at a time camping in the bush around the Fitzroy and Ord rivers and spraying weeds with the herbicide 2,4,5-T. ‘We were living and breathing and sleeping in that stuff,’ recalls Ron Delvin, who led one of the work-teams. ‘It got everywhere.’

The herbicide is one of the main components of Agent Orange and has been linked to health problems since the early 1970s.

‘It’s pretty horrifying,’ says Western Australia’s Agriculture Minister, Kim Chance. ‘They were getting bathed in this crap all day.’

The most worrying question to emerge is whether the herbicide they were using was normal 2,4,5-T at all. Stored in leaky, unmarked, 200-litre used fuel drums, the batch used from 1975 was darker and stickier than employees were used to.

Use of Agent Orange in Vietnam was rapidly wound down in the late 1960s because of concern about its health impacts, but thousands of tonnes are believed to have entered the international market illegally.

Chance is quite clear about why the scandal has failed to come out until now. ‘It’s been covered up,’ he says.

The weeds grew back in a couple of years. The people involved in the programme have not recovered so easily.

http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,801177,00.html

1960’s – 1980’s: Spray Workers Ord River Exposed: Pesticides 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T

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SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTY-SIXTH PARLIAMENT REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS IN RELATION TO CHEMICAL USE BY THE AGRICULTURE PROTECTION BOARD 1970-1985

In the Kimberley region, 2,4-D was used for Noogoora Burr along the Ord and Fitzroy Rivers. 2,4,5-T was used for broad-leafed weeds along the Ord and Fitzroy Rivers, on Christmas Creek Station and in other locations. 2,4-D was mixed with water and applied using a knapsack mister for foliar application. In some instances it was applied using larger trailer or tractor mounted spray equipment.

In most instances 2,4,5-T was usually applied using the basal bark application technique. The herbicide was mixed with diesel and applied in a band around the trunk of trees being treated. In the 1970s, 20 litre knapsack sprays similar to firefighting knapsacks were used. By the 1980s, these had been replaced by smaller pump-up spray units similar to those used in home gardens.38

http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament%5Ccommit.nsf/%28Report+Lookup+by+Com+ID%29/CD08CE85AE2369D148257831003E960B/$file/ep.apb.041020.rpf.010.xx.a.pdf

1995: Taggerty River (Vic) Trout Eradication. Pesticide: Rotenone

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1994-95: Upper Goulburn River (Vic) Trout Removal. Pesticide: Rotenone

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1992 March: Lees Creek (ACT) Trout Eradication. Pesticide: Rotentone

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2012 July: North West Mallee Parkinsons Disease: Pesticides: Paraquat, Rotenone

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2012 April: Goulburn Valley Needs Parkinsons Disease Nurse

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Goulburn Valley needs Parkinson’s support nurse

Region has higher than average number of neurological disease cases.

Goulburn Valley Health’s Dr Arup Bhattacharya, a geriatrician and physician who specialises in movement and other neurological disorders, said a neuro nurse was critical to service sufferers, families and carers in the community.

He said environmental factors contributed to the high number of sufferers in the Goulburn Valley. He said Mildura — a town prominent in citrus and grape growing — had similar numbers.

‘‘More recently studies done have seen a link between Parkinson’s disease and the usage of herbicides and pesticides, but not fungicides,’’ Dr Bhattacharya said.

He said Parkinson’s disease was the second most common neurological disease after Alzheimer’s, with about one in 350 Australians affected by it.

Dr Bhattacharya said a trained neurological nurse, or a ‘‘movement disorder nurse’’, would provide local, consistent support and patients would no longer need to travel to Melbourne for care.

A nurse would deliver information about Parkinson’s to institutions and aged-care facilities in the region, educating staff about the disease.

‘‘Patients will have a local contact number for the nurse and it’s not always medical concerns they will need help with, the patient could just be having a bad day and want to talk,’’ Dr Bhattacharya said.

‘‘A recent study shows having a movement disorder nurse in the community will keep patients out of institutions for longer and prevent depression, which is a symptom of Parkinson’s.’’

Dr Bhattacharya said the region was not well serviced by neurological specialists and he introduced a Movement Disorder Clinic to GV Health to care for patients with Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders. He accepts referrals from general practitioners and will diagnose and prepare a management plan for new and follow-up clients.

He said although the disease had been identified for two centuries, there was still no cure and the cause was unknown.

‘‘Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder which affects the motor nervous system and alters co-ordination and movement,’’ he said.

 Common symptoms include tremor (shaking, trembling), rigidity or stiffness of the muscles and bradykinesia (slowness of movement) which occurs because the brain is not able to control smooth and delicate movements.

http://www.mmg.com.au/local-news/shepparton/goulburn-valley-needs-parkinson-s-support-nurse-1.15518

2004 – 05: Swan Hill Spray Drift Impacts on Vineyards. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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Cotton Australia has also identified 2,4-D high volatile ester spray drift as a key threat to its industry, and over the last few seasons the industry sustained substantial damage. The dollar figure is unknown, but Cotton Australia claim that damage to crops has been in the

millions of dollars… Mike Stone spoke on behalf of Murray Valley Winegrowers’ and presented a succinct description of the major threat to wine exports resulting from 

[Weekly Times, 25 Nov 2009, Page: 96] Summer thunderstorms can cause difficulties for grain growers who need to spray for summer weeds. But it can also cause difficulties for horticulturalists, apiarists and other grain growers if the herbicide drifts on to other crops. Department of Primary Industries chemical expert Alan Roberts said a vast amount of damage was done in 2004-05 when herbicide drifted from broadacre farms to horticultural farms near the Murray River.
http://weedsnetwork.com/traction/permalink/WeedsNews212

2002 – 2013: Dumbleton Weir Pioneer River (Qld). Pesticides: Diuron, Atrazine, Desethylatrazine, Hexazinone, Ametryn, 2,4-D

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1960’s: Kununurra (WA) Cattle Contaminated with DDT used in Cotton Crops

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Blackhearts: Ecology in Outback Australia by Richard Symanski

P 91/92 Snooping about in the farming lands around Kununurra, I learn that in the 1960s this frontier land of once infinite promise was an insecticide hell (Drewe 1990; Pratchett 1990). Farmers were spraying up to fifty times a season. They were drowning rather than poisoning the Heliothis armigera, a ravenous little creature that loved the cotton they were growing. To rid themselves of Heliothis, which proved easy in theory and virtually impossible in practice, the farmers killed everything – snakes, goannas, birds, insects. In their hell-bent eagerness to find economic success in yet another tropical insect heaven, they were, it would seem, even willing to risk killing themselves and their families.

Because of spray drift, the frequent aerial application of DDT led to contamination of nearby irrigated pastures. The residues then showed up in renal fat of cattle grazing this land. There was so much spraying that cattle were found to contain up to two hundred parts per million of DDT. The permissible level for cattle coming into the United States was then seven parts per million. The DDT was still detectable in the fat of cattle grazed on these pastures fifteen years after spraying ceased. The levels of DDT in cattle around Kununurra didn’t get down to acceptable levels until 1979.

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=SLXUC80Xw-oC&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=DDT+spray+drift+australia&source=bl&ots=etZ90RrmDP&sig=qIBB96l0NEwRoEi1mHDWGXK5mVE&hl=en&sa=X&ei=zAopVZznOsak8AXV-oDwDQ&ved=0CB8Q6AEwATgU#v=onepage&q=DDT%20spray%20drift%20australia&f=false