Author Archives: Anthony

2008 November: Lebrina (Tas) hardwood plantation insecticide drift

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Fears over chemical spraying

A couple in Tasmania’s north-east fear they will lose customers from their accommodation business after their property was sprayed with insecticide this morning.

Howard and Michelle Carpenter claim insecticide drifted onto their property near Lebrina from spraying to stop an insect infestation in neighbouring plantations.

A spokesman for Gunns says the timber company tried to address the concerns of neighbours and used an organic chemical when spraying close to adjoining properties.

Michelle Carpenter says she is concerned that the insecticide could drift across from the plantations and onto her land.

“It’s not so much the movement of the chemical on the ground to get into rainwater, it’s more the drift that you have to be aware of with this one,” Ms Carpenter said.

“The fact that we rely on rainwater now in the catchment area off the roof, but yes, its the drift that is the big worry.”

Editor’s note: This story has been amended as the Gunn’s spokesman said spraying with an organic insecticide had occurred close to the poperty not over it.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2008-11-18/fears-over-chemical-spraying/211028

2009 November: Pampas (Qld). Spray Drift

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Firm fined for spray damage

FORMER AgForce grains president Lyndon Pfeffer’s company Crake Proprietary Limited has been fined $7500 for damaging a neighbouring property’s cotton crop.
The damaged was caused by chemical spray drift.
Crake Propriety Limited pleaded guilty in the Pittsworth Magistrates Court last month for using a chemical and not complying with the instructions on the label.
The incident occurred in November, 2009 at a property in Pampas.
Mr Pfeffer is a Millmerran grain grower and director of Crake Propriety Limited.
He declined to comment.

http://www.thechronicle.com.au/news/toowoomba-lyndon-pfeffer-agforce/758172/

2004 March: Yamba (South Australia). Spray drift concerns.

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Farmers consider spray drift problem

Posted

South Australia’s Riverland grape growers and farmers are working together to prevent more vines being damaged from some sprays used on broadacre farms.

About 50 growers and farmers attended an information session about the problem known as spray drift at an affected vineyard in Yamba yesterday.

More than 19 cases of spray drift have been discovered in the Riverland, costing those growers hundreds of thousands of dollars in damaged vines.

PIRSA agronomist Graham Fromme says most farmers do the right thing, but the spray drift continues to be a problem.

“It’s disappointing that the majority of farmers, as I said, are aware and there’s just the few odd ones who either take the chance, or don’t spray under the right conditions, or use the wrong products that possibly cause the problems and, you know, the majority of farmers who live adjacent to horticultural areas are quite aware of what happens,” he said.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2004-03-10/farmers-consider-spray-drift-problem/149026

2005 March: Liverpool Plains (NSW) Spray Drift. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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Herbicide spray drift hits crops

Posted

Farmers on the Liverpool Plains have reported significant damage to their crops because of herbicide spray drift.

Cotton Australia’s Ross Brown says summer crop growers are expecting considerable yield loss because of the drift from phenoxy-based products and those containing 24-D.

Mr Brown says growers and applicators are either ignoring or unaware of the risk factors involved in spraying with the herbicides, particularly in the summer.

He says the hot weather creates improved conditions for spray drift.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2005-03-02/herbicide-spray-drift-hits-crops/1527936

2012 March: Porongurup Vineyard Spray Drift. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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Porongurup wine grapes damaged by herbicide spray drift

Some Porongurup wine producers in WA’s Great Southern are concerned about grapevine damage, seemingly from spray drift of herbicides being used in summer weed control.

Some growers have reported damage to the Department of Agriculture and Food and it appears that it’s consistent with the effects of phenoxy herbicides such as 2,4-D drifting on to vines.

Angelo Diletti, from Castle Rock winery, is one grower affected.

“It’s widespread within our vineyard. The growing tips of the vines have a typically mis-shapen leaves, almost certain hormone damage,” he said.

“At this stage it’s growing tips, so it probably hasn’t affected this year. What it will do in the future I don’t know.”

The Department of Agriculture agrees that it is phenoxy damage and urges growers spraying summer weeds to be very careful in monitoring spraying conditions to avoid sprays drifting into susceptible crops such as grapes.

http://www.abc.net.au/site-archive/rural/news/content/201203/s3460355.htm

1990’s: Harcourt (Vic). Health concerns related to pesticides.

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CHEMICAL COWBOYS -a story of Guillain Barre Syndrome
By William Simmons, Manangatang, Victoria, Australia

“…These cases now will spend many months and years being fought out by lawyers in courts but the chemicals will still be used. In a small community outside Westwood at Harcourt, an apple growing area of country Victoria, it was revealed that birth defects and pregnancy problems were worse here than any parts of Australia. We have the statistics, we
suspect the orchard sprays but we continue to spray for the sake of productivity. What is productivity and at what cost to some are we prepared to accept to achieve these results?…”

1999 October: Wakool (NSW). Vineyard Exposure.

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CHEMICAL COWBOYS -a story of Guillain Barre Syndrome
By William Simmons, Manangatang, Victoria, Australia

“…I was working in a vineyard at Wakool in October 1999 when I got sprayed. My life will never be the same. I was working in the vineyard for approximately five months before I got sprayed. The day it happened I was working with the leading hand de-budding vines. The vines we were working in run from row 1 to row 123. At 10.00am we were close to the top of row 68/69 and stopped for morning tea. We had only sat down for some 2-3 minutes when the owner of the property arrived in an octopus double lane sprayer down row 70/71 and sprayed us. The thick vapour was impossible to escape and the smell was repugnant. The owner quickly took off down the next available row and left the property….”

1988 December: Kensington (Vic) United Transport Services Fire.

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1988 – 1989: Croydon South Dorset Road. ICI Merrindale Research Station

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1997 December – 1998 November: Imbil (Qld). Pesticides: Atrazine and metabolites.

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Source: APVMA

http://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/atrazine-phase-6-second-draft-final-review-report.pdf

The reconsideration of approvals of the active constituent atrazine,registrations of products containing atrazine, and their associated labels.

SECOND DRAFT FINAL REVIEW REPORT Including additional assessments
Timber Plantation Trials

p55 Surface Water Monitoring for Atrazine in Queensland Timber Plantations

Surface water monitoring in Queensland was conducted in a hoop pine plantation at
Imbil in the south-east corner of the State. The 8 ha study site was situated on silty clay
soils, at an elevation of 100-300 m with slopes of 5 to 30o. Atrazine was manually
applied along the tree row, by knapsack at 5 kg/ha (overall rate 2.25 kg/ha) on six
occasions over a 2 year period. The subtropical climate demanded more frequent
treatments in order to achievesatisfactory weed control, but also leads to a shorter half-
life for atrazine in soil. Summer rainfall is dominant at this subtropical location, and
was near average at 1130 mm in year 1 and well above at 1703 mm in year 2, with a
correspondingly high number of flood events (19 at the upstream station and 21
downstream). One large storm in February of the second year delivered 540 mm over a
3 day period and caused a major flood event.
Atrazine was applied four times in the first year, in December 1997 and April, August
and November 1998. Flood events occurred 2, 34 and 53 days after the first treatment,
1 and 9 days after the second, 27 and 91 days after the third, and 2, 29 and 43 days after
the fourth in the high CAR (94%). Atrazine concentrations at the upstream station
remained in the low ppb range for the first and last treatments, but reached 109μg/L for the second treatment (in the second event) and 127.7μg/L for the third (first event). Atrazine was accompanied by significant amounts (in the order of 10%) of the dealkylated metabolites DEA and DIA, the former being predominant. Peak concentrations at the low CAR (4.4%) downstream station, after each application were 7.6, 18.2, 105.5 and 25.6μg/L (note not always in the first flood event, and that the duration of the peaks was brief).
Previous experience with hoop pine plantation establishment had indicated that surface
runoff is much more likely to be generated from point sources than from the general
plantation area, the high infiltration capacity of which is enhanced by slash retention and contoured windrows which pond runoff water. Direct contamination of watercourses was discounted as these were protected and chemical was applied manually.
Road areas (including access tracks and snig tracks within the plantation) were suspected as the main source of contamination because of their high rainfall runoff coefficient. Drainage outlets compounded the problem as they flowed directly to watercourses via roadside drains, rather than being directed back into the general plantation area via water
spreading structures.
A number of procedural changes were introduced in late 1998 to minimise the risk of
contamination. Roadside transfer of herbicide mix from tanker to knapsacks was

restricted to areas where drainage was directed back into the plantation, with staff
instructed to minimise the possibility of spillage during transfer and test the spray units
only within the plantation area. Application to potential point sources in the general
plantation area, such as access tracks and snig tracks, was to be avoided.
Treatments in 1999 occurred in February and October, with flood events at the high CAR station 11, 77, 126, 189 and 234 days after the first treatment and 1 and 13 days after the second. Atrazine concentrations, at the upstream stations, were elevated after the first treatment, reaching 41.8μg/L in the first of two events 11 days after treatment, and 50.4μg/L in the second. Concentrations remained in the low ppb range after the second treatment. At the downstream station, concentrations did not exceed 2.3μ g/L…”

1996 October – 1997 August: Mt Canobolas (NSW) Atrazine experiments.

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Source: APVMA

http://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/atrazine-phase-6-second-draft-final-review-report.pdf

The reconsideration of approvals of the active constituent atrazine,registrations of products containing atrazine, and their associated labels.

SECOND DRAFT FINAL REVIEW REPORT Including additional assessments
Timber Plantation Trials

p53 Surface Water Monitoring for Atrazine in NSW Timber Plantations

Surface water monitoring in NSW was conducted at Canobolas in the central-west of the state near the town of Orange.

Two moderately sloping catchments on the eastern and western sides of Mt Canobolas were chosen. Ground spraying used on the first site, aerial spraying on the second site. Liquid formulations used during the first year and core-coated granules in the second year.

Atrazine concentrations were monitored at two locations. “Concentrations remained below 1 ug/L at both upstream locations in the second year… They were above the threshold in the first year for about 2 months at one station (maximum 2.9 ug/L 25 days after treatment) and about a month at the other station (maximum 20 ug/L on the morning of the fourth day after treatment, declining to 5 ug/L by the evening of the second day)… desethylatrazine (DEA) was found at the former station at concentrations up to 0.9ug/L, but only after the second day of the trial…The second rotation site was served by two monitoring stations, one at the exit of the plantation and the second 7 km downstream. Atrazine concentrations in stream water leaving the site did not exceed 1 ug/L in the first year, except for the day of treatment when 13ug/L was recorded. In the second year, a marked spike of atrazine (61ug/L) was detected in water at the first weir on the first day after treatment (20 August 1997). Concentrations remained elevated at this location for the next three months (26.5ug/L on 5 September, 4.7ug/L on 8 October, 1.2ug/L on 7 November). Residues were diluted below 0.2ug/L at the downstream monitoring station, except for a single sample in September 1997 containing 0.6ug/L. Metabolites remained undetectable in the first season, but desethylatrazine reached 1ug/L in September 1997 at the upstream station….Two flood events were sampled, 131 days after the first treatment and 15 days after the second. Peak concentrations at the high CAR station were 1.0 and 26.5 ug/L respectively…”

 

1974 August: Pine Creek (SA). Pesticides in Trench: HCB, Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor Epoxide, DDE

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1974 July: Coffin Bay (SA). Pesticides in Spotted Whiting. Lindane, Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor Epoxide, DDE

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

 

1975 February: Renmark (SA). Pesticides in Murray Cod, Redfin, Callop.

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1975 February: Loxton (SA). Pesticides in Murray Cod: HCB, Lindane, Dieldrin, DDE, DDD, DDT

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1975 January: Cowell (SA). Pesticides in Snapper. HCB, Lindane, Dieldrin, DDE, DDT

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1974 August – October: Whyalla (SA). Pesticides in Snapper, Garfish, Spotted Whiting

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1974 October: Bluff Beach (SA). Pesticides in Snook: Lindane, Dieldrin, DDE

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1974 April – 1975 February: Gurra Lakes (SA). Pesticides in Bream, Callop, Redfin, Catfish

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

1974 March: Tickera (SA) Pesticides in Whiting: HCB, Lindane, Dieldrin, DDT

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Appendix 5

Table 1.

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a Fat Basis

mg/kg

Tickera – Yel lowfin whiting 29/3/74, HCB 0.25, Lindane 0.63, Dieldrin 3.0, DDT 3.75

Gurra Lakes – Bony Bream 29/4/74 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.01, Dieldin 0.08, DDE 0.11, DDD 0.1

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.02 Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.22

Bluff Beach – SG Snook 4/10/74 Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.39, DDE 0.39

Whyalla – Snapper 9/10/74 HCB 0.05, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.24, DDT 0.11

Cowell – Snapper 14/1/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.46, DDE 0.38, DDT 0.5

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.06, Lindane 0.02, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.23, DDD 0.24, DDT 0.15

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 26/2/75 Dieldrin 0.75, DDE 0.5, DDT 1.06

Loxton – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.04, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.27, DDD 0.43, DDT 0.16

Gurra Lakes – Catfish 26/2/75 HCB 0.03, Lindane 0.15, Dieldrin 0.42, DDE 0.39, DDD 0.28, DDT 0.25

Gurra Lakes – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.13, DDE 0.15, DDD 0.11, DDT 0.21

Renmark – Murray Cod 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.03, Dieldrin 0.21, DDE 0.41, DDD 0.26, DDT 0.28

Renmark – Callop 26/2/75 HCB 0.01, Lindane 0.01, Dieldrin 0.11, DDE 0.09, DDD 0.07, DDT 0.11

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.19, Dieldrin 0.92, DDE 0.46, DDT 0.42

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 Lindane 0.38, Dieldrin 1.25, DDE 0.63, DDT 0.88

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.25, Dieldrin 0.6, DDE 0.2, DDT 0,2

Renmark – Redfin 26/2/75 HCB 0.04, Lindane 0.21, Dieldrin 0.63, DDE 0.25, DDT 0.19

Table 2

Results of Fish Analysed for Pesticides

All Results Calculated on a flesh basis

Coffin Bay – Spotted Whiting 31/7/74 Lindane 0.0001, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0004, DDE 0.0003

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.001, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0005, DDE 0.0007

Whyalla – Garfish 6/8/74 HCB 0.002, Dieldrin 0.0005, Heptachlor 0.0008, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0006

Gurra Lakes – Redfin 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, DDE 0.0006

Pine Creek – Trench 7/8/74 HCB 0.0002, Dieldrin 0.0004, Heptachlor 0.0011, Heptachlor Epoxide 0.0008, DDE 0.0005

 

 

2013 January: Newhaven (Vic) Spray Drift Complaint. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos.

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The mysterious case of the Newhaven poisoning

Sentinel-Times, February 5

February 16, 2013

NEWHAVEN residents say they are mystified by claims that a man was poisoned by insecticide spray drifting from the Newhaven recreation reserve last month. 

On February 5, the South Gippsland Sentinel-Times reported that a Newhaven man, Phillip Bagley, was seeking compensation from Bass Coast Council for an incident in which he alleged spray from an insecticide reached his house in Wencliff Court on January 18.

The Sentinel-Times reported: “A HazMat team was despatched to the property along with an ambulance. After being transported to Wonthaggi Hospital, Phillip underwent an ECG but was soon sent home.’’

Mr Bagley told the Sentinel-Times he was still suffering from the after-effects of the poisoning, including shortness of breath and his lungs filling with a thick mucus, and his doctor had told him to pull out his vegetable garden in case it was contaminated. He said he was more concerned for others, with a primary school and other houses even closer to the oval.

The Bass Coast Post spoke to several residents in the same street. None wished to be identified but all said they had been unaware of spray drift and did not suffer any health effects. 

To reach Mr Bagley’s place, which is at least 50 metres from the oval, the spray would have had to go over another property or through a windbreak and over a high fence.

Ambulance Victoria told the Bass Coast Post an ambulance team was called to attend a 64-year-old Newhaven man with headaches but did not take him to hospital. 

Newhaven Primary School principal Andrew Strickland said the spraying had not affected the school. “Our school garden has been fully cleared of any impact. The Department of Primary Industries did a full investigation and found the council conduct was appropriate. We have had contact with the council and they have been very open.’’

In a letter to the Environment Protection Authority, which Mr Bagley copied to the Bass Coast Post, he stated that while trying to contact the council’s environment officer he was put through to another staff member “who spoke in a caustic manner and claimed that I complained all the time”.

“I explained that if they obeyed the law I would have nothing for the authorities to take them to task.”

In his letter, Mr Bagley asks if the EPA has the power to prosecute the council. “If not then could you point me to the agency that can as I will not rest until responsibility and appropriate penalties are decided.”

The Bass Coast Post asked the council how many other complaints Mr Bagley had made but the council declined to answer.

Mr Bagley has, however, made complaints against other institutions. The Education Department paid for a high fence between his property and Newhaven Primary School in response to his concerns about noise from the playground.

Mr Bagley also complained to Newhaven College about car parking problems in his street during big events.

Bass Coast infrastructure maintenance manager Jamie Sutherland confirmed that on January 18 the council was spraying an insecticide called Chlorpyrifos to prevent insect damage to the oval grass.

He said Chlorpyrifos had a strong odour, which some people found unpleasant, and the council was investigating odourless alternatives to minimise public concerns.

But he said the council had investigated the complaint and was confident proper procedures were followed.

“Before using any chemical sprays, we always conduct a risk assessment and do pre-start checks to ensure conditions are suitable. In addition, we included an anti-drift agent, which helps to prevent the spray from drifting. We are very confident that the spray did not drift onto nearby properties.

“Our investigation concluded that all of the correct procedures were followed and we have appropriate approvals and licences to use these products.”

2005: Balmoral (NSW). Dioxins in Bream

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

2005: Clifton Gardens (NSW). Dioxins in Bream

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

2005: Fort Denison (NSW). Dioxins in Bream

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

2005: Drummoyne (NSW). Dioxins in Bream

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

2005: Breakfast Point (NSW). Dioxins in Bream

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

2005: Silverwater (NSW). Dioxins in Bream

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

1990’s: Sales Rivulet (Tas). Pesticide: Cypermethrin

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Abstract

Cypermethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, was aerially sprayed on a Eucalyptus nitens plantation in northern Tasmania, Australia. Several tributary streams of the Meander River draining the plantation received direct spray drift contamination of the order of 0.05 mg/m2. Increases in invertebrate drift of over 200-times were observed on the day of spraying in Sales Rivulet. Drift was significantly elevated for 8 days after spraying, recovering both in density and relative abundance after early winter floods. Plecoptera and ephemeroptera comprised 89–92% of the drift immediately after spraying, compared with 6–21% pre-spraying and at an uncontaminated site. Benthic abundances of plecoptera and ephemeroptera decreased after spraying in all small streams draining the plantation. Early winter floods were observed to facilitate recolonisation at affected sites. Resident Salmo trutta were collected from the streams before and during 6 months after spraying. Plasma chloride, glucose and protein concentrations were not affected by the spraying event. Significant transient changes in muscle RNA/DNA levels as well as brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase levels and hepatic mixed function oxygenase activity were related to the spraying event. These changes commenced around day 7 and persisted until day 26. Changes in fish diet were also observed, related to the sequence of abundant and depauperate invertebrate drift after spraying. Pathological symptoms in fish were apparently related to dietary intake of cypermethrin from dead and dying invertebrate drift.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0166445X93900556

1989 – 1991: Takone (Tas) approximate. Pesticide: Atrazine

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Buffer strips and streamwater contamination by atrazine and pyrethroids aerially applied to Eucalyptus nitens plantations. Jan L Barton and Peter E Davies. Inland Fisheries Commission, Hobart, Tasmania.

Summary

Concentrations of pesticides in streams draining 20 plantations of Eucalyptus nitens in Tasmania were examined in relation to buffer strip width. Atrazine concentrations on the day of spray in streams draining 15 plantations were significantly negatively correlated with riparian buffer strip width but not buffer quality. Concentrations following the first rain event in one month after spraying were highly positively correlated with day of spray concentrations and were only weakly correlated with other site characteristics. Streams with 30 m buffer strips had median atrazine concentrations less than 20 ug/L at all times and these buffer widths are recommended for minimising short term ecological impact on streams.

In streams draining five plantations that were aerially sprayed with the pyrethroids alpha – or cypermethrin, pyrethroid concentration and short term changes in drift (downstream movement) of stream invertebrates were highly negatively correlated with buffer strip width but with no other variable. Drift of stream invertebrates is recommended as a biomonitor for the contamination of streams with pyrethroids on the day of spray, sensitive down to 0.1ug/L. Buffer strips of at least 50 m are recommended to minimise mortality of stream invertebrates from pyrethroid spraying.

Methods

Atrazine

Stream water at 29 sites from 18 streams draining 15 Eucalyptus nitens plantations (owned by either the Forestry Commission or Australian Pulp and Paper Mills) was sampled during 1989 -1991 for the determination of atrazine concentrations…

Pyrethroids

Stream water from 7 sites in 7 streams draining 4 E.nitens plantations was sampled following operations spraying of alphamethrin in early (November – December) and 2 sites draining 1 plantation sprayed with cypermethrin were also sampled…

Results

Atrazine … Atrazine concentrations on the day of spray for all sites were significantly negatively correlated with buffer strip width, plantation catchment area, stream catchment area and length of stream within the catchment area ratio. They were not correlated with application rate and had only a marginal correlation with buffer strip quality… Median atrazine concentrations for streams <=10m, 20m and 30m buffer strip widths were 700, 58.1 and 5.4ug/L respectively…

Discussion

Only one of the plantations studied was sprayed from a light plane and this, combined with a complete lack of buffer strips and a high application rate (10kg/ha), resulted in the highest day of spray concentration found in the study (58 mg/L)…Contamination of streams draining plantations cannot be completely avoided if triazine herbicides are used. From the present study, it would appear that contamination can be minimised by the use of appropriate buffer strips. The maximum buffer strip examined in this study was 30 m. Median concentrations for all 30 m buffered streams were below 20 ug/L on all occasions following spraying, a concentration below which short term ecological effects are unilkely…

Pyrethroids

Peak (day of spray) pyrethroid concentrations were obtained on six occasions, ranging from <0.01 to 0.50 ug/L. These concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with buffer strip width, but not with any other site variable.

Discussion

Davies and Cook (1993) described the impact of a single spraying of cypermethrin on Sales Rivulet. They suggested that mayflies and stoneflies (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera) were the most sensitive taxa, showing the greatest response in both the drift and benthos. The present study further supports their observations with drift values being the highest for these groups at pyrethroid concentrations >0.1 ug/L and having the highest correlation with concentration. It appears that contamination of streams with low concentrations of pyrethroids from spray drift results in significant responses in invertebrate drift which are generally related to the mortality of mayflies and stoneflies (Davies and Cook 1993)

1989 – 1991: Guildford (Tas) approx. Pesticide Cypermethrin, Alpha-Cypermethrin

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Buffer strips and streamwater contamination by atrazine and pyrethroids aerially applied to Eucalyptus nitens plantations. Jan L Barton and Peter E Davies. Inland Fisheries Commission, Hobart, Tasmania.

Summary

Concentrations of pesticides in streams draining 20 plantations of Eucalyptus nitens in Tasmania were examined in relation to buffer strip width. Atrazine concentrations on the day of spray in streams draining 15 plantations were significantly negatively correlated with riparian buffer strip width but not buffer quality. Concentrations following the first rain event in one month after spraying were highly positively correlated with day of spray concentrations and were only weakly correlated with other site characteristics. Streams with 30 m buffer strips had median atrazine concentrations less than 20 ug/L at all times and these buffer widths are recommended for minimising short term ecological impact on streams.

In streams draining five plantations that were aerially sprayed with the pyrethroids alpha – or cypermethrin, pyrethroid concentration and short term changes in drift (downstream movement) of stream invertebrates were highly negatively correlated with buffer strip width but with no other variable. Drift of stream invertebrates is recommended as a biomonitor for the contamination of streams with pyrethroids on the day of spray, sensitive down to 0.1ug/L. Buffer strips of at least 50 m are recommended to minimise mortality of stream invertebrates from pyrethroid spraying.

Methods

Atrazine

Stream water at 29 sites from 18 streams draining 15 Eucalyptus nitens plantations (owned by either the Forestry Commission or Australian Pulp and Paper Mills) was sampled during 1989 -1991 for the determination of atrazine concentrations…

Pyrethroids

Stream water from 7 sites in 7 streams draining 4 E.nitens plantations was sampled following operations spraying of alphamethrin in early (November – December) and 2 sites draining 1 plantation sprayed with cypermethrin were also sampled…

Results

Atrazine … Atrazine concentrations on the day of spray for all sites were significantly negatively correlated with buffer strip width, plantation catchment area, stream catchment area and length of stream within the catchment area ratio. They were not correlated with application rate and had only a marginal correlation with buffer strip quality… Median atrazine concentrations for streams <=10m, 20m and 30m buffer strip widths were 700, 58.1 and 5.4ug/L respectively…

Discussion

Only one of the plantations studied was sprayed from a light plane and this, combined with a complete lack of buffer strips and a high application rate (10kg/ha), resulted in the highest day of spray concentration found in the study (58 mg/L)…Contamination of streams draining plantations cannot be completely avoided if triazine herbicides are used. From the present study, it would appear that contamination can be minimised by the use of appropriate buffer strips. The maximum buffer strip examined in this study was 30 m. Median concentrations for all 30 m buffered streams were below 20 ug/L on all occasions following spraying, a concentration below which short term ecological effects are unilkely…

Pyrethroids

Peak (day of spray) pyrethroid concentrations were obtained on six occasions, ranging from <0.01 to 0.50 ug/L. These concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with buffer strip width, but not with any other site variable.

Discussion

Davies and Cook (1993) described the impact of a single spraying of cypermethrin on Sales Rivulet. They suggested that mayflies and stoneflies (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera) were the most sensitive taxa, showing the greatest response in both the drift and benthos. The present study further supports their observations with drift values being the highest for these groups at pyrethroid concentrations >0.1 ug/L and having the highest correlation with concentration. It appears that contamination of streams with low concentrations of pyrethroids from spray drift results in significant responses in invertebrate drift which are generally related to the mortality of mayflies and stoneflies (Davies and Cook 1993)

1998-1999: Toolara (Qld). Pesticide: Simazine

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Simazine concentrations in soil groundwater and stream water following application to Pinus plantations in the coastal lowland forests of south-east Queensland. K.A.Bubb Queensland Forestry Research Institute. October 2000

“…The study had two components, the first being a large-scale catchment study site (903 ha) which assessed the level of simazine residues being transported from the point of application to the shallow unconfined aquifer and the major drainage stream over a 13-month period. The second component consisted of a seperate study on a small-scale study site (0.1 ha) to assess simazine persistence and its potential to leach in the course textured and relatively infertile soils of the area.

… Simazine was regularly detected in streamwater after surface runoff events but was below the current Australian drinking water health value. The detection of simazine in the unconfined aquifers at both sites indicated that it has the potential to leach to groundwater. However,  under routine applications it would seem that the groundwater concentrations were low and short lived (persistence < 6 weeks). The results indicated that simazine has a relatively short half-life (mean 13 days) in the course textured soils of the coastal lowlands of south-east Queensland…”

Mean simazine residues in perched aquifer at the small-scale study site following application 3 (25th March 1999)

<2 to 0.7ug/L. 0.6 to 0.7ug/L 14-21 days after treatment at groundwater depths between 0.43 and 0.7m

Mean Simazine residues (kg ha in soil following application) up to 96 days at one site.

1989 July: Collie River (WA). Pesticides: Atrazine, Hexazinone.

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The Results of Monitoring the Department of Conservation and Land Management Program of Applying Granulated Herbicides by Helicopter. A Report to the Environment Protection Authority. EPA Bulletin 435 June 1990.

In 1989 an investigation of the environmental impacts of two herbicides proposed for helicopter application by the Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), was carried out by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA)…

The environmental impacts of these chemicals on the aquatic environment was also monitored at five sites. The chemicals were leached into adjacent streams and intermittently detected at relatively low concentrations generally, but ranging from 0.8 to 38.0ug/L atrazine and 1.5 to 18ug/L hexazinone.

There was no observed effect on aquatic growth in the Blackwood River, however in the streams at two application sites there did appear to be some impact on aquatic invertebrate drift…

Water samples were also collected from the southern branch of the Collie River and from a stream site called Darrell. The samples were analysed for both atrazine and hexazinone… The treatment site area drained directly into the Collie River…
The concentrations of atrazine observed in the river on 24 July were very high and exceeded what would normally be considered as a safe limit for the maintenance and preservation of aquatic ecosystems…, but were unlikely to be sufficiently high to kill aquatic fauna.
The samples were taken in a wet period during a suddent heavy fall of rain (18mm) from the side of the river and directly downstream of the application area…

Grimwade Site: Hexazinone 4.4ug/L highest level 28/7/89, Atrazine 0.8ug/L highest level 28/7/89.

http://epa.wa.gov.au/EPADocLib/398_B435.pdf

1989 July: Balingup Brook (WA). Pesticides: Hexazinone, Atrazine

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The Results of Monitoring the Department of Conservation and Land Management Program of Applying Granulated Herbicides by Helicopter. A Report to the Environment Protection Authority. EPA Bulletin 435 June 1990.

In 1989 an investigation of the environmental impacts of two herbicides proposed for helicopter application by the Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), was carried out by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA)…

The environmental impacts of these chemicals on the aquatic environment was also monitored at five sites. The chemicals were leached into adjacent streams and intermittently detected at relatively low concentrations generally, but ranging from 0.8 to 38.0ug/L atrazine and 1.5 to 18ug/L hexazinone.

There was no observed effect on aquatic growth in the Blackwood River, however in the streams at two application sites there did appear to be some impact on aquatic invertebrate drift…

At Grimwade there was no control sampling site because the entire catchment of the small tributary was to have herbicide applied. The observed herbicide concentrations were relatively low during and after application and therefore an adverse impact on stream fauna was not expected.
Detection of atrazine at low concentrations was unexpected since it was not applied as part of the programme. Its presence indicates that there may be a residual component to this herbicide remaining in the soil from previous applications in the catchment two years ago or it may be a result of spraying firebreaks on 5 July 1989. The herbicides used on the firebreaks were 2kg/ha atrazine and 1.5kg/ha hexazinone…

Grimwade Site: Hexazinone 4.4ug/L highest level 28/7/89, Atrazine 0.8ug/L highest level 28/7/89.

http://epa.wa.gov.au/EPADocLib/398_B435.pdf

1989 July – 1989 August: Maidments site (Blackwood River) WA. Pesticides: Atrazine, Hexazinone.

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The Results of Monitoring the Department of Conservation and Land Management Program of Applying Granulated Herbicides by Helicopter. A Report to the Environment Protection Authority. EPA Bulletin 435 June 1990.

In 1989 an investigation of the environmental impacts of two herbicides proposed for helicopter application by the Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), was carried out by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA)…

The environmental impacts of these chemicals on the aquatic environment was also monitored at five sites. The chemicals were leached into adjacent streams and intermittently detected at relatively low concentrations generally, but ranging from 0.8 to 38.0ug/L atrazine and 1.5 to 18ug/L hexazinone.

There was no observed effect on aquatic growth in the Blackwood River, however in the streams at two application sites there did appear to be some impact on aquatic invertebrate drift…

At the Maidments site both hexazinone and atrazine were detected downstream of the target area. Again concentrations were not very high, however, there is some evidence suggesting that the small intermittent runnels at the head of the catchment may have contained significantly higher levels of herbicides for short periods during heavy rainfall.
These runnels only contain runoff during rainfall events. An independent sample from one of these intermittent runnels on 26 July contained 22mg/L atrazine and 5.8mg/L hexazinone. Some dilution can be expected downstream, particularly since only part of the stream catchment was sprayed.
A sample taken downstream during the same event but the day before measured 1.3 and 2.3 mg/L atrazine and hexazinone respectively. Likewise a downstream sample two days after measured 1.4 and 3.5mg/L atrazine and hexazinone respectively.

Maidments Site: Hexazinone 4.2ug/L highest level 20/8/89, Atrazine 2.1ug/L highest level 7/7/89.

http://epa.wa.gov.au/EPADocLib/398_B435.pdf

1989 August: Blackwood River (WA). South of Nannup. Pesticide: Hexazinone

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The Results of Monitoring the Department of Conservation and Land Management Program of Applying Granulated Herbicides by Helicopter. A Report to the Environment Protection Authority. EPA Bulletin 435 June 1990.

In 1989 an investigation of the environmental impacts of two herbicides proposed for helicopter application by the Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM), was carried out by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA)…

The environmental impacts of these chemicals on the aquatic environment was also monitored at five sites. The chemicals were leached into adjacent streams and intermittently detected at relatively low concentrations generally, but ranging from 0.8 to 38.0ug/L atrazine and 1.5 to 18ug/L hexazinone.

There was no observed effect on aquatic growth in the Blackwood River, however in the streams at two application sites there did appear to be some impact on aquatic invertebrate drift…

Folly Site: Hexazinone 2.3ug/L highest level 14/8/89

http://epa.wa.gov.au/EPADocLib/398_B435.pdf

 

1991 – 1992: Darling River (NSW). Darling River sprayed with Algaecide to kill Blue Green-Algae.

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…Terry Pearce received the results of the tests. Immediately Mitchell broadcast an emergency message on Bourke’s local radio station warning of the “extreme danger” to humans and stock: “we don’t want to alarm people… [but] the toxin from blue-green algae is, in fact, in pure form more dangerous than cyanide.” Mitchell then hatched a plan to spray vast tracts of the Darling with an agricultural algaecide. When the NSW Pollution Control Commission refused to grant permission for the aerial spraying, Mitchell said he would go ahead anyway, and the Commission warned they would sue him personally if he did. That wasn’t going to stop “the Mouth from Louth.”

Mitchell procured 600 litres of a copper-based algaecide. A large cotton irrigation firm offered to donate the use of one of their crop dusters and a pilot. When residents in Bourke heard of the shire’s plans for aerial spraying of the chemical over their water supply a group formed to try to halt the action. The chemical had never been used for this purpose and wasn’t approved for use on open water. Concerned residents called the Pollution Control Commission, which assured them the spraying would not go ahead. On 9 November Mitchell had the crop duster pilot track the ailing Darling over forty kilometres, releasing the deep blue liquid algaecide onto the water and black soil plains below. The pilot commented that “zigzagging along the ever-twisting Darling was an interesting change after the repetitious runs spraying cotton.”

The National Parks and Wildlife Service opposed the use of the chemical. Ian Smalls, the principal scientist of the Department of Water Resources, said if he’d known he would have strongly advised against its use. Copper-based algaecides work by attracting algae with its nutrient content. The algae absorb it through their cell wall and a digestive enzyme breaks down the algaecide and releases copper into the cell, killing the algae.

Thirsty weather: drought-stricken western New South Wales in 2007. Mark Merton

When used as directed, the algaecide is not toxic to humans. The reason so many authorities objected to its use – apart from its being untested in such circumstances – was that the algaecide causes the dead algae to release their neurotoxins into the water immediately. Smalls said the effect was “like putting pins in a balloon, releasing other materials.” According to the manufacturer’s website these toxins could persist for twenty-eight days. Authorities feared mass fish kills could result, as well as the potential for poisoning of stock and humans.

One Bourke resident wrote a letter to the Sydney Morning Herald asking if the Darling River was being “used as a guinea pig for experimenting with chemicals” and accusing Mitchell of using ten times the recommended concentration. Mitchell didn’t see his actions as a massive gamble. He claimed he had verbal permission from the Department of Agriculture in Orange and that the spraying had been a success. The department refuted this, telling the Herald, “We were waiting for Wally to get back to us to obtain official permission. He never did.”

For Wally Mitchell, a grazier himself, responsible for the safety of the shire’s people and its economically valuable stock, and getting nowhere with urban authorities, the dangers posed by a rapidly growing toxic algal bloom must have outweighed the risks of using the relatively benign algaecide. To some of the residents, however, it seemed as if some of the primary producers of the region had taken on the cavalier and reckless culture that they said the foreign-owned cotton firms had introduced.

http://insidestory.org.au/no-triple-bypass-no-miracle-cure-just-a-long-haul-back

1985 – 1987: Mt Lofty Golf Course (SA). Pesticides: Multiple.

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Mount Lofty Golf Course

1985/6

Chlorpyrifos: 10.71% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 14.29% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 25% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 82.14% (frequency of detection), 2.4ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 60.71% (frequency of detection), 1.35ug/L (highest detection)

Vinclozolin: 40% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

1986/7

Chlorpyrifos: 35.71% (frequency of detection), 0.05ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 14.29% (frequency of detection), 0.23ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 28.57% (frequency of detection), 0.09ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 21.43% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 100% (frequency of detection), 6.6ug/L (highest detection)

Propzamil: 42.86% (frequency of detection), 0.58ug/L (highest detection)

Vinclozolin: 42.8% (frequency of detection), 0.05ug/L (highest detection)

Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia. K Thoma

Department of Agriculture South Australia

Technical Paper No. 131

June 1988

1984 – 1986: Gore Creek (site 2 SA). Pesticides: Dieldrin, Lindane, Dachtal, Propyzanil

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Gore Creek site 2

1984/5

DIeldrin: 47.06% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 17.65% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 29.41% (frequency of detection), 0.12ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 5.88% (frequency of detection), 0.05ug/L (highest detection)

1985/6

Lindane: 13.33% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia. K Thoma

Department of Agriculture South Australia

Technical Paper No. 131

June 1988

1984 – 1987: Gore Creek/Cox Creek (SA). Pesticides: Multiple

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Gore Creek/Cox Creek

1984/5

DDT and Metabolites: 33.33% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 75% (frequency of detection), 9ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 8.33% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

1985/6

DDT and Metabolites: 33.33% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 16.67% (frequency of detection), 0.04ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 83.33% (frequency of detection), 11ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 33.33% (frequency of detection), 0.93ug/L (highest detection)

Chlorothalonil: 5.55% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Vinclozolin: 75% (frequency of detection), 0.01ug/L (highest detection)

1986/7

Chlorpyrifos: 28.57% (frequency of detection), 0.59ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 35.71% (frequency of detection), 0.19ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 42.86% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 64.29% (frequency of detection), 31ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 50% (frequency of detection), 0.9ug/L (highest detection)

Vinclozolin: 22.42% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia. K Thoma

Department of Agriculture South Australia

Technical Paper No. 131

June 1988

1984 – 1986: Sutton Creek (SA). Pesticides: DDT, Lindane, Dachtal, Propyzamil

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Sutton Creek

1984/5

DDT and Metabolites: 21.05% (frequency of detection), 0.07ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 89,47% (frequency of detection), 0.74ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 31.58% (frequency of detection), 0.18ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 36.84% (frequency of detection), 0.12ug/L (highest detection)

1985/6

DDT and Metabolites: 33.33% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 13.33% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia. K Thoma

Department of Agriculture South Australia

Technical Paper No. 131

June 1988

1984 – 1987: Vince Creek (Boynthon Rd) (SA). Pesticides: Multiple

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Vince Creek/Boynthon Road

1984/5

Chlorpyrifos: 26.32% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 47,37% (frequency of detection), 0.2ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 84.21% (frequency of detection), 0.35ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 10.53% (frequency of detection), 0.01ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 68.42% (frequency of detection), 8.6ug/L (highest detection)

Propzamil: 38.84% (frequency of detection), 3.72ug/L (highest detection)

Chlorothalonil: 5% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

1985/6

Chlorpyrifos: 4.35% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 39.13% (frequency of detection), 0.07ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 13.04% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 4.35% (frequency of detection), 0.01ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 65.22% (frequency of detection), 2.4ug/L (highest detection)

Propzamil: 65.22% (frequency of detection), 1.1ug/L (highest detection)

1986/7

Chlorpyrifos: 23.08% (frequency of detection), 0.22ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 30.77% (frequency of detection), 0.09ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 38.46% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 84.62% (frequency of detection), 7.5ug/L (highest detection)

Propzamil: 53.85% (frequency of detection), 0.89ug/L (highest detection)

Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia. K Thoma

Department of Agriculture South Australia

Technical Paper No. 131

June 1988

1984 – 1985: Vince Creek (SA). Pesticides: Chlorpyrifos, DDT, Lindane, Endosulfan, Dachtal, Propyzamil, Chlorothalonil

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Vince Creek

1984/5

Chlorpyrifos: 18.75% (frequency of detection), 4.3ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 87.5% (frequency of detection), 1.18ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 81.25% (frequency of detection), 0.07ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 81.25% (frequency of detection), 0.25ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 43.75% (frequency of detection), 2.3ug/L (highest detection)

Propzamil: 6.25% (frequency of detection), 0.02ug/L (highest detection)

Chlorothalonil: 25% (frequency of detection), 0.53ug/L (highest detection)

1985

DDT and Metabolites: 40% (frequency of detection), 0.16ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 20% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 20% (frequency of detection), 0.03ug/L (highest detection)

Propzamil: 13.33% (frequency of detection), 0.14ug/L (highest detection)

Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia. K Thoma

Department of Agriculture South Australia

Technical Paper No. 131

June 1988

2005 December: Port Jackson Bream Dioxin Results (NSW)

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Made in Australia

Between 1961 and 1971 the US and its allies sprayed and dumped around 80 million litres of Agent Orange and related chemicals on Vietnam. Demand for this poison was high, and Australian chemical manufacturers helped meet the demand and got their share of the profits.

Union Carbide (now owned by Dow Chemical) produced Agent Orange at Homebush in Sydney, leaving a terrible legacy. The factory is gone now, but in June 1997 Greenpeace investigations revealed an orphaned stockpile of thirty-six 200-litre drums and fifteen 50-litre drums of waste highly contaminated with dioxin next to Homebush Bay and the site of the 2000 Olympic Games. Greenpeace sampling of fish from Homebush Bay found high levels of dioxin in the food chain. Two sea mullet were found to have levels of the most toxic form of dioxin, 2378 TCDD, 10-15 times higher than US and Canadian standards for concentrations in edible fish.

The Sydney Morning Herald reported on October 30, 2010, that carcinogenic chemicals from the former Union Carbide factory are spreading throughout Sydney Harbour. According to government authorities, the contamination covers an area too large to be remediated, and the only answer is to wait until sediments cover the contaminated layer, so the poison cannot be absorbed by fish and small invertebrates. The high levels of dioxins in areas where fish feed mean that the official warnings not to eat fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge, and to eat only 150 grams a month of fish caught east of the bridge, will likely remain for decades.

Agent Orange was also produced in the outer Perth suburb of  Kwinana by  Chemical Industries Kwinana. The National Toxics Network noted in 2009 that quality control at the Perth factory was often poor, and “bad batches” were disposed of in pits on site and from time to time were burned. The open burning of these chemicals would have added to dioxin contamination. State government agencies have identified a plume of dioxin contamination beneath the site that has migrated to other nearby industrial sites.

The Nine MSN website reported on December 12, 2008, that Queensland’s Environmental Protection Agency had revealed the presence of dioxin in soil at an industrial site at Pinkenba, on the banks of a drain leading into the Brisbane River. Again the site was once a chemical factory that made Agent Orange in the 1960s and ‘70s. Dow Chemical, a global producer of Agent Orange, is currently cleaning up dioxin contamination on some of its sites in Victoria.

http://directaction.org.au/issue34/australias_role_in_agent_orange_crime

1984 July – 1987 January: Cox Creek (SA). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pilot Survey of Pesticide Residues in Streams Draining a Horticultural Catchment, Piccadilly Valley, South Australia.

K Thoma. Department of Agriculture South Australia Technical Paper No. 131 June 1988

Summary

Residue concentrations from selected pesticides in waters draining the Piccadilly Valley, a horticultural catchment, were monitored from July 1984 until January 1987.

Water samples were collected fortnightly from several locations within the study catchment to assess the effects of specific land uses on water quality. Two run-off events were intensively  sampled for their full duration. Samples were also taken further downstream to assess the effects of dilution and degradation upon stream water quality. Sediment samples were collected irregularly in the study catchment and further downstream.

Pesticide residues were detected in 83.5% of all water samples and in 100% of the sediment samples. Highest concentrations were detected during the growing season and particularly during run-off events occurring shortly after  pesticide applications.

Residue concentrations of DDT and Chlorpyrifos exceeded Maximum Residue Level Recommendations from the National Health and Medical Research Council on two occasions in streams in the Piccadilly Valley…

Conclusions

The highest residue concentrations were detected from the herbicides Dachtal and Propyzamide, followed by the organochlorines Endosulfan, DDT and Lindane. These findings are in agreement with studies conducted in the United States where powder formulations of herbicides and the persistent organochlorine insecticides were found to contribute the highest pesticide residue concentrations in run-off from intensive agricultural watersheds.

Increasing residue concentrations and detection frequencies of Dachtal and Endosulfan, particularly in the 1986/87 growing season, point to an increased use in the study catchment. Erratic fluctuations of residue concentrations and detection frequencies of Chlorpyrifos, Propyzamide and Chlorothalonil made the identification of a trend in pesticide use impossible…

DDT and Chlorpyrifos residues exceeded NH&MRC Maximum Residue Level recommendations during a run-off event and once during the routine monitoring program…Higher residue concentrations, particularly for the persistent organochlorines, could accumulate in bottom sediment of Mt Bold reservoir, which acts as a sink for sediment and sediment-bound pesticides.

The organochlorine insecticides DDT, Lindane, Endosulfan and to a lesser extent the organophosphorus insecticide Chlorpyrifos were detected in sufficiently high concentrations to adversely affect aquatic environments for extended periods of time according to water quality criteria recommended by the Victorian Environment Protection Authority. Bottom feeding organisms would be exposed to high concentrations of DDT in finely textured sediment. High concentrations of a multitude of pesticides during run-off events would affect a wide range of organisms.

Cox Creek

1984/5

Chlorpyrifos: 60.87% (frequency of detection), 0.52ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 69.57% (frequency of detection), 1.4ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 86.61% (frequency of detection), 0.32ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 8.7% (frequency of detection), 0.08ug/L (highest detection)

Parathion: 12.04% (frequency of detection), 0.48ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 100% (frequency of detection), 12.5ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 52.17% (frequency of detection), 3.6ug/L (highest detection)

Chlorothalonil: 13.04% (frequency of detection), 0.09ug/L (highest detection)

1985/6

Chlorpyrifos: 33.33% (frequency of detection), 0.07ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 40.74% (frequency of detection), 1.35ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 26.63% (frequency of detection), 0.06ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 14.81% (frequency of detection), 0.05ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 92.59% (frequency of detection), 17ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 66.67% (frequency of detection), 28ug/L (highest detection)

Chlorothalonil: 3.7% (frequency of detection), 0.01ug/L (highest detection)

Vinclozolin: 72.72% (frequency of detection), 0.33ug/L (highest detection)

1986/7

Chlorpyrifos: 52.38% (frequency of detection), 0.13ug/L (highest detection)

DDT and Metabolites: 76.19% (frequency of detection), 0.55ug/L (highest detection)

Lindane: 28.57% (frequency of detection), 0.2ug/L (highest detection)

Endosulfan: 38.1% (frequency of detection), 1.01ug/L (highest detection)

Dachtal: 10% (frequency of detection), 39ug/L (highest detection)

Propyzamil: 57.14% (frequency of detection), 6.7ug/L (highest detection)

Chlorothalonil: 4.76% (frequency of detection), 6.07ug/L (highest detection)

Vinclozolin: 47.61% (frequency of detection), 0.3ug/L (highest detection)

Run Off Events

15-17/4/86

Chlorpyrifos 0.13ug/L

DDT and Metabolites: 0.37ug/L

Lindane: 0.05ug/L

Endosulfan 0.12ug/L

Dachtal 9.7ug/L

Propyzamide: 0,1ug/L

Run Off Events

5-7/12/86

Chlorpyrifos 5.2ug/L

DDT and Metabolites: 7.26ug/L

Lindane: 0.16ug/L

Endosulfan 17.4ug/L

Dachtal 88ug/L

Propyzamide: 36ug/L

Sediment

Dachtal 100-300ug/kg (3700ug/kg high)

DDT 300-1400ug/kg (Swingler Bridge 1838 ug/kg 18/3/87)

 

2007 July – 2008 January: Macquarie River Coupe (approx). Pesticides: Simazine, Desisopropyl Atrazine

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Approximate Location – Source Tim Morris MP FoI 28/2/08

11/7/07: Macquarie River Bridge downstream of Coupe – Simazine 0.78ug/L

31/7/07: Macquarie River Coupe Bridge – Simazine 2.07ug/L

10/8/07: Macquarie River Coupe Bridge – Simazine 2.73ug/L

4/9/07: Macquarie River Coupe Bridge – Simazine 1.72ug/L

20/9/07: Macquarie River Coupe DT-0.40 – Desisopropyl Atrazine 0.45ug/L, Simazine 1.77ug/L

23/10/07: Macquarie River Coupe Bridge – Simazine 0.82ug/L

23/11/07: Macquarie River Coupe Bridge – Simazine 0.52ug/L

6/12/07: Macquarie River Coupe Bridge – Simazine 0.46ug/L

16/1/08: Macquarie River Bridge upstream of Coupe – Simazine 0.29ug/L

2005 June: Little Swanport River (Tas). Pesticide: Terbacil

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23/6/05: Little Swanport River Flood Monitoring Terbacil 0.2ug/L

24/6/05: Little Swanport River Flood Monitoring Terbacil 0.2ug/L, 0.32ug/L, 0.29ug/L, 0.23ug/L

25/6/05: Little Swanport River Flood Monitoring Terbacil 0.31ug/L, 0.25ug/L, 0.29ug/L, 0.19ug/L, 0.24ug/L

26/6/05: Little Swanport River Flood Monitoring Terbacil 0.18ug/L

27/6/05: Little Swanport River Flood Monitoring Terbacil 0.23ug/L, 0.1ug/L

Source Agricultural Chemicals in Waterways. Tim Morris MP 28/2/08

1995: Macquarie Marshes (NSW). Ibis nestlings deaths. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

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http://ntn.org.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/polluterpaysmythlegend.pdf

1990: Wallace Lake (NSW). Chlorpyrifos residues in eggs.

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In 1990, opportunistic sampling found Chlorpyrifos in three eggs of the Little Terns (0.06-0.36ppm), in a liver sample from Little Terns (0.02ppm) and in a Pelican egg (0.5ppm) from the Wallace Lake colony on the central coast of NSW

http://ntn.org.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/polluterpaysmythlegend.pdf

1983 – 1984: Boobera Lagoon (NSW). Pesticide: Endosulfan

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In 1984, sampling by the NSW State Pollution Control Commission in response to a major fish kill, identified endosulfan residues in Gil Gil Creek, north west of Moree at levels of (0.9-1.5ug/L) well above the LC50 for trout (0.3ug/L). Follow up sampling of Boobera Lagoon in the MacIntyre Valley during 1983-1984 confirmed the presence of endosulfan and a report on pesticide monitoring from the central and north west regions in 1995, acknowledged that the detection of high levels of endosulfan residues in the environment was a consequence of its use in agriculture. In the 1989-99 sampling in the Murray Darling Basin, endosulfan was detected in 53% if water samples with the median levels ranging from 0.02ug/L to 0.04ug/L.

http://ntn.org.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/polluterpaysmythlegend.pdf

1988: Gwydir River (NSW). Catfish residues. Pesticide: Endosulfan

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Sampling of wild catfish in the Gwydir River NSW demonstrated a significant increase in endosulfan residues and its metabolites, endosulfan sulfate and isomers, in fish livers during summer (147.7 – 307.2 ug/kg) – Residues of Endosulfan in livers of wild catfish from a cotton growing area. Barbara Nowak (unplublished thesis) Uni.of Sydney 1988

http://ntn.org.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/polluterpaysmythlegend.pdf

1999 June: Bassendean (WA) Pesticide spill: Pesticide: Trifluralin

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2004 November: Mackay (Qld) Pesticide spill. Pesticide: Bifenthrim

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Pesticide Spill – Nebo Road (Daily Mercury) November 26 2004

SOUTH-BOUND traffic on Nebo Road slowed to a crawl yesterday morning after a collision between a sedan and a tray-back ute carrying pesticide.

The accident happened about 9.40am, opposite the Lantern Motor Inn and the Shell service station.

A 20-litre drum of Byfentrum [Bifenthrin?] (a pesticide similar to Aerogard) spilt onto the road in the collision and police restricted public access to the area until 11.10am, when it was declared safe.

The chemical was cleared by council workers and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Police and ambulance officers also attended, with ambulance workers treating one person for a minor injury.

No-one was taken to hospital.

Also yesterday, a two-vehicle accident occurred on Sydney Street, outside Coles Supermarket, at 8.15am. No-one was injured.

http://www.dailymercury.com.au/news/apn-pesticide-spill-restricts-nebo-road/77983/

2011 June: Nerada (Qld) Crop Duster Accident

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Pilot conscious after hitting powerlines at Nerada, near Innisfail

Courier Mail June 20 2011

EMERGENCY services are treating a pilot after the helicopter he was flying crashed into powerlines near Innisfail.

It is believed a crop duster crashed at about 8.57am at Nerada, near Innisfail.

Initial reports suggested the pilot, who was the only person in the helicopter, was conscious and breathing, an emergency services spokeswoman said.

http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/pilot-conscious-after-hitting-power-lines-at-nerada-near-innisfail/story-e6freon6-1226078307893

2010 May: Helicopter Spraying Crash Strzelecki Ranges, Gippsland.

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HB Rescue Pilot Dies in Crash (May 22 2010) – Hawkes Bay Today

A Hastings pilot killed when his helicopter hit power lines and crashed in Australia on Thursday has been identified as Lowe Corporation Rescue Service relief flyer and Hastings helicopter company owner Chris Mansell.
The 50-year-old father of two died when the helicopter hit power lines and plunged into a pine plantation while spraying at Ryton Junction, near Mirboo in the Gippsland area of Victoria, about 160km east of Melbourne.
The crash was almost identical to another in which Mr Mansell was injured in Hawke’s Bay 20 months ago.
Skyline Aviation managing director Mike Toogood, whose company provides the helicopter service to the Hawke’s Bay Helicopter Rescue Trust, said: “It’s pretty devastating, particularly after the earlier crash, and it’s hard to comprehend that he’s met his fate in such a similar situation.”
The owner of Bay Heliwork and having been in Australia for about two weeks on contract for a company whose helicopter he was flying at the time of the crash, Mr Mansell was a “very, very, competent” pilot, Mr Toogood said.

http://www.nzherald.co.nz/hawkes-bay-today/news/article.cfm?c_id=1503462&objectid=10995957

2014 December: Spray damage revegetation Lake Bolac (Vic)

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Spray damage to foreshore plantation devastates project volunteers at Lake Bolac – 2014 December

RARE and precious native plants have been killed by the illegal application of chemical spray at the Peter O’Rorke Native Grass and Wildflower Reserve on the foreshore at Lake Bolac.

A three metre wide strip at the bottom of the community run plantation has been sprayed from a vehicle travelling along the road. Police and Ararat Rural City Environment Officer, Deidre Andrews, have been informed. A clear breach of the law has occurred as it is an offence to cause wilful damage using chemical spray.

Project co-ordinator, Nolene Fraser, is extremely disappointed that the hard work carried out by volunteers to establish the plantation over the past three years, has been set back by such thoughtless action, while David Franklin, of Grassland Flora, Chatsworth, said it was a blatant example of destruction at a community site of what goes on in a broader context of damage to remnant native grasslands.

Una Allender, secretary of the Eel Festival, is shocked that this damage has occurred especially after the recent efforts of community members to weed and mulch the plantation and to prepare a section of it for a controlled burn.

The controlled burn will encourage the native species and help reduce the weed burden.

“It is hard to believe that anyone could spray this area accidentally, especially with a very prominent sign explaining what is planted on the site and why,” Ms Allender said…

http://www.araratadvertiser.com.au/story/2742448/spray-damage-to-foreshore-plantation-devastates-project-volunteers-at-lake-bolac/

2009 April: Langkoop (Vic) Crop Duster Accident.

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Crop spraying examined after fatal crash

Updated Crash investigators examining the fatal helicopter crash on the Victoria-South Australian border will look at how safety regulations could be improved for crop sprayers.

The crash near Langkoop claimed the life of 29-year-old Rhys Kirwan from Tarpeena in the south east of South Australia.

Mr Kirwin was spraying a forest plantation when he clipped power lines and crashed into trees.

Dave Grambauer from the Australian Transport Safety Bureau says crop spraying pilots are well trained to deal with tough flying conditions.

“What we’ll be doing is just gathering all the information and from there we’ll be determining what was the cause and hopefully some safety benefit will come of it,” he said.

“Within agricultural operations these pilots are trained as are other pilots … trained to do what they do.

“The training is set out and it’s done right through the organisations and the world and they come up to a standard to fly these types of operations.”

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2009-04-22/crop-spraying-examined-after-fatal-crash/1659188

1967 August: Black Rock (Vic). Anecdotes from a Bird Observer. Pesticide: Dieldin

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Bird Observer, the Bird Observers’ Club magazine, August 1967 by W.R. Wheeler and B. Salter

“In 1954 we built a home in Black Rock – a suburb 14 miles from the heart of Melbourne – on land which adjoined several hundred acres of golf courses. We retained as much of the native bush as possible, and planted hundreds more native shrubs, so that the native birds would be encouraged to come to the garden, and in proof of our success, since then I have recorded 121 species in or over the gardens.

Up to 1962 I was not aware of any effect which poisonous pesticides might have on my birds. I had no knowledge of pesticides in those days, but a record of their symptoms made at that time tallies exactly what I now know to be pesticide poisoning. The Yellow-faced honeyeaters were the earliest recognised victims; I found birds staggering about the garden, blundering into obstacles, unable to land or to remain perched, falling to the ground, screaming and in convulsion. I tried bringing them indoors, keeping them warm, feeding them nectar, raw egg, brandy, gin, Disprin, but always they died, in great distress. From the flock of 50 to 60, 20 died in the winter of 1963, just in the garden…it is possible that they pick up the poison in their “other” home, possibly the Mornington Peninsula where there are many orchards which are sprayed at frequent intervals.

Since 1964, the bodies of a considerable number of honey-eaters have been supplied to the Fisheries and Wildlife Department for analysis. The Department has reported that all bodies examined contained very high concentrations of Dieldrin…

1978 March: Melton (Vic). Pesticides of concern: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D

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Yarram Baby (Conservation Council of Victoria – Pumpkins Poisons and People July 1978

The State Government yesterday appointed a 12-man committee to probe child abnormalities and birth defects in the Yarram area in South Gippsland…

In State Parliament, Mr Billing (Lib, Springvale) asked the Assistant Minister for Health, Mr Jona, to include the Melton area in the investigation.

Mr Billing said there had been an increase in abnormalities in the Melton area in the past two years…

1977 August: Garden Sprays Dangerous – Clayton (Vic)

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Garden Sprays Dangerous – worker claims

The Age Wednesday, August 3 1977.

A nurseryman who says he was forced to retire because of “dangerous pesticides” has called for stricter controls on garden chemicals.

Mr Robert Weeks, 32, said he was employed by a Clayton flower farm for four months.

During this time he suffered nausea, burning lips, and, on one occasion, bleeding in the mouth, he says.

Mr Weeks, of Regent Street, Springvale claims he was frequently sick because of daily exposure to flower spraying.

“The day before I was due to leave, I inhaled a poison pesticide which caused a severe cramp in my chest,” he said. “I could hardly breathe, I thought I was going to lose consciousness.”

Mr Weeks said other workers also complained that the sprays caused them illness, including nausea and vomiting.

He said workers had not been provided with breathing apparatus to cope with constant exposure to pesticides.

“The only protective clothing we received was for wet weather, but nothing to stop us breathing in the poisons,” he said.

“On the occasion when I had the severe cramp, we were working on sterilising, or killing the ground, for new plants.

“The man on the tractor had some breathing equipment like a World War 1 gas mask, but we did not have any.

First they sprayed the ground with a spray with a heavy odor which made my eyes sting terribly, and then they put the poison in…

2013 January: Tully River. Pesticides: Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone, Imidacloprid

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix E p75 Table 36 TERRESTRIAL RUN-OFF ASSESSMENT- GRAB Sample RESULTS(ng.L-1)

27/1/13 Tully River (Tully mid between Goold and Bedarra Island): Atrazine 31, Diuron 140, Hexazinone 41, Imidacloprid 20

2013 February: Mary River Mouth. Pesticides: Atrazine, Diuron

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix E p75 Table 36 TERRESTRIAL RUN-OFF ASSESSMENT- GRAB Sample RESULTS(ng.L-1)

8/2/13 Mary River Mouth: Atrazine 11, Diuron 18

2013 March: Palm Island South. Pesticides: Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix E p75 Table 36 TERRESTRIAL RUN-OFF ASSESSMENT- GRAB Sample RESULTS(ng.L-1)

13/3/13 Palm Island South: Atrazine 28, Diuron 82, Hexazinone 19

2013 March: Seymour River (Qld). Pesticide: Diuron

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix E p75 Table 36 TERRESTRIAL RUN-OFF ASSESSMENT- GRAB Sample RESULTS(ng.L-1)

25/3/13 Seymour River – Mouth: Diuron 29

 

2013 January: Herbert River Channel North: Pesticide: Diuron, Simazine

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix E p75 Table 36 TERRESTRIAL RUN-OFF ASSESSMENT- GRAB Sample RESULTS(ng.L-1)

16/1/13 Herbert River – Channel North: Diuron 12

17/1/13 Herbert River – South (Mouth): Diuron 24, Simazine 22

17/1/13 Herbert River – Channel South: Diuron 15, Simazine 17

25/3/13 Herbert River – Mouth 1 Diuron 33

2012 May – 2013 April: North Keppel Island (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p74 Table 35 North Keppel Island, Fitzroy region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

15 May 12 – 10 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.32, DE Atrazine 0.05, Diuron 0.72, Hexazinone 0.05, Simazine 0.16, Tebuthiuron 0.11

10 Jul 12 – 7 Sep 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.26, DE Atrazine 0.06, DI Atrazine 0.09, Diuron 0.55, Hexazinone 0.7, Simazine 1.4, Tebuthiuron 5.2, Metolachlor 0.06

7 Sep 12 – 10 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.17, DE Atrazine 0.04, DI Atrazine 0.05,  Diuron 0.31, Hexazinone 0.03, Simazine 0.71,  Tebuthiuron 2.4, Metolachlor 0.02

10 Nov 12 – 10 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.21, DE Atrazine 0.04, Diuron 0.71, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.06, Tebuthiuron 0.69, Metolachlor 0.03

10 Dec 12 – 29 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.28, DE Atrazine 0.04, Diuron 0.9, Hexazinone 0.03, Simazine 0.1, Tebuthiuron 0.35, Metolachlor 0.3

29 Jan 13 – 11 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.45, Atrazine 8.1, DE Atrazine 0.67, DI Atrazine 0.58, Diuron 5.6, Hexazinone 1.6, Prometryn 0.06, Simazine 0.95, Tebuthiuron 57, Terbutryn 0.41,  Metolachlor 6.4

11 Feb 13 – 13 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.44, Atrazine 2.8, DE Atrazine 0.22, DI Atrazine 0.09, Diuron 5.1, Hexazinone 0.83, Prometryn 0.1, Simazine 0.14, Tebuthiuron 2.9, Bromacil 0.26,  Terbutryn 0.08,  Metolachlor 1.3

13 Mar 13 – 23 Apr 13: Atrazine 1.1, DE Atrazine 0.23, Diuron 1.4, Hexazinone 0.25, Simazine 0.1, Tebuthiuron 0.77,  Metolachlor 0.76

2012 May – 2013 April: Sarina Inlet (Qld). Pesticides Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p73 Table 34 Sarina Inlet, Mackay Whitsunday  region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

6 May 12 – 11 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.04, Atrazine 1.1, DE Atrazine 0.15, Diuron 1.3, Hexazinone 0.34, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.11, Tebuthiuron 0.96

11 Jul 12 – 27 Aug 12: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 2.2, DI Atrazine 0.18, Diuron 3.2, Hexazinone 1.2, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.16, Tebuthiuron 0.71, Metolachlor 0.18

27 Aug 12 – 9 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.09, Atrazine 2.3, DE Atrazine 0.43,  Diuron 3.7, Hexazinone 1.0, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.15,  Tebuthiuron 0.63, Metolachlor 0.26

9 Nov 12 – 6 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.05, Atrazine 0.8, DE Atrazine 0.14, Diuron 2.1, Hexazinone 0.5, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.17, Tebuthiuron 0.25, Metolachlor 0.09

6 Dec 12 – 17 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.26, Atrazine 6.4, DE Atrazine 0.6, Diuron 15, Hexazinone 6.1, Simazine 0.09, Tebuthiuron 12, Metolachlor 2.4, Imidacloprid 1.9

 

2012 May – 2013 May: Outer Whitsunday Islands. Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p72 Table 33 Outer Whitsunday, Mackay Whitsunday  region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

5 May 12 – 27 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 2.84, DE Atrazine 0.37,, Diuron 2.44, Hexazinone 0.37, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.15, Tebuthiuron 1.11, Metolachlor 0.04

27 Jul 12 – 31 Aug 12: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.34, Diuron 0.93, Hexazinone 0.11, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.02, Tebuthiuron 0.51

31 Aug 12 – 1 Oct 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.33, DE Atrazine 0.06,  Diuron 0.5, Hexazinone 0.06, Simazine 0.03,  Tebuthiuron 0.16, Metolachlor 0.04

1 Oct 12 – 3 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.17, Diuron 0.3,Tebuthiuron 0.04, Metolachlor 0.02

3 Nov 12 – 3 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.07, Diuron 0.32, Hexazinone 0.03, Prometryn 0.01, Tebuthiuron 0.02, Metolachlor 0.01

3 Dec 12 – 5 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.13, DE Atrazine 0.03, Diuron 0.25,  Hexazinone 0.02, Simazine 0.03, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.01

5 Feb 13 – 4 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.61 (PDMS 2.9), Atrazine 3.2, DE Atrazine 0.06, Diuron 38,  Hexazinone 6.8, Tebuthiuron 4.7, Metolachlor 0.58, Imidacloprid 0.52, Galaxolide (PDMS 0.08)

4 Mar 13 – 5 May 13: Ametryn 0.11, Atrazine 1.0, DE Atrazine 0.12, Diuron 2, Hexazinone 0.53, Simazine 0.07, Tebuthiuron 3.7, Metolachlor 0.39 (PDMS 4.6)

 

2012 June – 2012 September: Pioneer Bay (Qld). Pesticides: Ametryn, Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone, Tebuthiuron, Terbutryn

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p71 Table 32 Pioneer Bay, Mackay Whitsunday region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

3 Jun 12 – 16 Sep 12: Ametryn 0.2, Atrazine 0.07, Diuron 3.7, Hexazinone 0.1, Tebuthiuron 0.38, Terbutryn 0.19

 

2012 May – 2013 May: Cape Cleveland (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p70 Table 31 Cape Cleveland, Burdekin region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

3 May 12 – 3 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.2, Atrazine 2.3, DE Atrazine 0.32,, Diuron 3.2, Hexazinone 0.8, Simazine 0.06, Tebuthiuron 0.15, Bromacil 0.21,  Terbutryn 0.51

3 Jul 12 – 3 Sep 12: Ametryn 0.45, Atrazine 0.65, Diuron 0.98, Hexazinone 0.24,Tebuthiuron 0.13, Metolachlor 1.1

3 Sep 12 – 5 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 0.32, Diuron 0.65, Hexazinone 0.12, Tebuthiuron 0.08, Metolachlor 0.33

5 Nov 12 – 3 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.08, Atrazine 0.57, Diuron 0.46, Hexazinone 0.06, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.08, Tebuthiuron 0.02, Metolachlor 0.06

3 Dec 12 – 2 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.1, Atrazine 0.51, DE Atrazine 0.1, Diuron 0.8, Hexazinone 0.1, Tebuthiuron 0.04, Metolachlor 0.09

2 Jan 13 – 13 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.41, Atrazine 28, DE Atrazine 4, DT Atrazine 1.1,  Diuron 11,  Hexazinone 0.27, Prometryn 0.01,  Simazine 0.16, Tebuthiuron 0.18, Metolachlor 0.46 (6 PDMS)

13 Feb 13 – 6 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.53, Atrazine 20, DE Atrazine 2.6, Diuron 9.2,  Hexazinone 0.48, Simazine 0.13, Tebuthiuron 0.38, Metolachlor 0.29

6 Mar 13 – 8 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.39, Atrazine 5.1, DE Atrazine 1.2, DI Atrazine 0.27, Diuron 11, Hexazinone 2.2, Simazine 0.07, Tebuthiuron 0.4, Metolachlor 0.16

8 Apr 13 – 13 May 13: Ametryn 0.33, Atrazine 2.2, DE Atrazine 0.13, Diuron 8.6, Hexazinone 2.5, Simazine 0.05, Tebuthiuron 2.4, Metolachlor 0.39 (6.3 PDMS)

2012 May – 2013 May: Magnetic Island (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p69 Table 30 Magnetic Island, Burdekin region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

5 May 12 – 3 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 1.9, DE Atrazine 0.29,, Diuron 9.2, Hexazinone 0.64, Simazine 0.12, Tebuthiuron 0.14, Terbutryn 0.17

3 Jul 12 – 27 Aug 12: Ametryn 0.12, Atrazine 2.5, DE Atrazine 0.48, DI Atrazine 0.12, Diuron 5.0, Hexazinone 0.28, Simazine 0.1, Tebuthiuron 0.11, Metolachlor 0.3

27 Aug 12 – 2 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 0.53, DE Atrazine 0.02, Diuron 5.4, Hexazinone 0.14, Simazine 0.03, Tebuthiuron 0.03, Metolachlor 0.04

2 Nov 12 – 19 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.51, DE Atrazine 0.07, Diuron 5.5, Hexazinone 0.06, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.03, Tebuthiuron 0.03, Metolachlor 0.04

19 Dec 12 – 13 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.81, DE Atrazine 0.15, DI Atrazine 0.05,, Diuron 5.1, Hexazinone 0.05, Simazine 0.08,  Tebuthiuron 0.68, Metolachlor 0.04

13 Jan 13 – 9 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.21, Atrazine 13, DE Atrazine 1.4, DT Atrazine 0.23,  Diuron 21,  Hexazinone 0.46, Prometryn 0.01,  Simazine 0.11, Tebuthiuron 0.16, Metolachlor 0.19

9 Feb 13 – 4 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.11, Atrazine 11, DE Atrazine 1.4, DT Atrazine 0.42, , Diuron 8.6,  Hexazinone 0.38, Simazine 0.1, Tebuthiuron 0.27, Metolachlor 0.16

4 Mar 13 – 2 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.04, Atrazine 2.1, DE Atrazine 0.3, DI Atrazine 0.08, Diuron 5.3, Hexazinone 0.45, Simazine 0.05, Tebuthiuron 0.14, Metolachlor 0.03

2 Apr 13 – 21 May 13: Ametryn 0.15, Atrazine 4.2, DE Atrazine 0.56, DI Atrazine 0.12, Diuron 9.9, Hexazinone 2.1, Simazine 0.08, Tebuthiuron 2.5, Metolachlor 0.26 (6 PDMS)

2012 May – 2013 May: Orpheus Island (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p68 Table 29 Orpheus Island, Burdekin region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

4 May 12 – 7 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.05, Atrazine 0.68, DE Atrazine 0.03,, Diuron 2.0, Hexazinone 0.53, Simazine 0.01, Tebuthiuron 0.07

7 Jul 12 – 29 Aug 12: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.33, DE Atrazine 0.04, Diuron 0.81, Hexazinone 0.15, Simazine 0.02, Tebuthiuron 0.04, Metolachlor 0.07

29 Aug 12 – 4 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.04, Atrazine 0.47, DE Atrazine 0.08, Diuron 0.54, Hexazinone 0.11, Simazine 0.04, Tebuthiuron 0.04, Metolachlor 0.07

4 Nov 12 – 1 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.17, Diuron 1.0, Simazine 0.04, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.03

1 Dec 12 – 5 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.05, Atrazine 1.7, DE Atrazine 0.13, Diuron 5.1, Hexazinone 0.89, Simazine 0.13,  Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.09, Imidacloprid 0.18

5 Feb 13 – 2 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.12, Atrazine 5.6, DE Atrazine 0.56, Diuron 11,  Hexazinone 1.9, Simazine 0.13, Tebuthiuron 0.1, Metolachlor 0.15

2 Mar 13 – 6 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.09, Atrazine 2.4, DE Atrazine 0.2, Diuron 5.1,  Hexazinone 1, Simazine 0.02, Tebuthiuron 0.12, Metolachlor 0.06

15 Mar 13 – 8 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.22, Atrazine 0.89, Diuron 11, Hexazinone 2.9, Tebuthiuron 3.7, Metolachlor 0.36

2013 February – 2013 April: Crees Creek (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p67 Table 28 Crees Creek, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

27 Feb 13 – 2 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.08, DE Atrazine 0.09, DI Atrazine 1.9, Diuron 43, Hexazinone 17, Simazine 2.8, Bromacil 0.89, Terbutryn 0.61, Metolachlor 0.09, Imidacloprid 18

2012 December – 2013 April: Dickson Inlet (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p67 Table 28 Dickson Inlet, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

21 Dec 12 – 11 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.13, Diuron 21, Hexazinone 0.12, Simazine 0.12, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.02, Galaxolide (PDMS 0.13)

27 Feb 13 – 2 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.43, Atrazine 5.5, DE Atrazine 0.54, DI Atrazine 0.1,, Diuron 9.5, Hexazinone 1.5, Prometryn 0.01, Simazine 0.41, Tebuthiuron 0.06, Metolachlor 0.12, Imidacloprid 0.17, Pendimethalin (PDMS 0.01)

 

2012 April – 2013 May: Dunk Island (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p66 Table 27 Dunk Island, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

23 Apr 12 – 29 May 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.26, DE Atrazine 0.04,, Diuron 3.2, Hexazinone 0.33, Tebuthiuron 0.24, Metolachlor 0.02, Imidacloprid 0.01

29 May 12 – 12 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 0.22,, Diuron 3.0, Hexazinone 0.78, Prometryn 0.01, Tebuthiuron 0.07, Terbutryn 0.1

12 Jul 12 – 29 Aug 12: Ametryn 0.07, Atrazine 0.11, Diuron 2.82, Hexazinone 0.57,Simazine 0.03, Tebuthiuron 0.09, Metolachlor 0.19

29 Aug 12 – 4 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.27, Atrazine 0.4, DE Atrazine 0.08, Diuron 0.58, Hexazinone 0.14, Prometryn 0.01, Tebuthiuron 0.02, Metolachlor 0.05

4 Nov 12 – 15 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.11, Diuron 0.41,  Hexazinone 0.08, Simazine 0.01, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.02

15 Dec 12 – 9 Jan 13 (PDMS): Galoxolide 0.04

9 Jan 13 – 4 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.11, Atrazine 0.29, Diuron 11,  Hexazinone 2, Simazine 0.02, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.29, Imidacloprid 1.4

4 Feb 13 – 15 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.19, Atrazine 3.4, DE Atrazine 0.07, Diuron 15,  Hexazinone 3.8, Simazine 0.06, Tebuthiuron 0.11, Metolachlor 0.28, Imidacloprid 0.26

15 Mar 13 – 8 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.09, Atrazine 1.1, DE Atrazine 0.03, Diuron 5.2,  Hexazinone 1.1, Tebuthiuron 0.14, Metolachlor 0.07, Imidacloprid 0.49

8 Apr 13 – 14 May 13: Ametryn 0.14, Atrazine 0.73, Diuron 6.7,  Hexazinone 2.1, Tebuthiuron 1.9, Metolachlor 0.22, Imidacloprid 0.21 (Metolachlor 6.8 PDMS)

 

2012 May – 2013 May: Normanby Island (Qld). Pesticides detected: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p65 Table 26 Normanby Island, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

5 May 12 – 21 Jul 13: Ametryn 0.1, Atrazine 1.1, DE Atrazine 0.03,, Diuron 2.9, Hexazinone 0.71, Tebuthiuron 0.15, Terbutryn 0.18

June 12 (PDMS): Galaxolide 0.18

21 July 13 – 31 Aug 13: Ametryn 0.05, Atrazine 0.34,, DE Atrazine 0.07,  Diuron 0.93, Hexazinone 0.1, Simazine 0.06, Tebuthiuron 0.02

Aug 12 (PDMS): Galaxolide 0.04

31 Aug 13 – 2 Nov 13: Ametryn 0.37, Atrazine 0.25, Diuron 1.0, Hexazinone 0.11, Prometryn 0.05,  Simazine 0.03, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.07

Oct 12 (PDMS): Galaxolide 0.04

2 Nov 12 – 22 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.1, DE Atrazine 0.02, Diuron 0.4, Hexazinone 0.04, Simazine 0.04, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.01, Imidacloprid 0.05

22 Dec 12 – 18 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.42, Atrazine 1.2, DE Atrazine 0.06, Diuron 1.2,  Hexazinone 0.22, Prometryn 0.1,  Simazine 0.07, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.11, Imidacloprid 0.14

8 Feb 13 – 2 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.04, Atrazine 1.4, DE Atrazine 0.14, Diuron 5.1,  Hexazinone 1.1, Simazine 0.09, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.06

2 Mar 13 – 26 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.07, Atrazine 2.2, DE Atrazine 0.2, Diuron 4.5,  Hexazinone 1.1, Simazine 0.04, Tebuthiuron 0.35, Metolachlor 0.07

26 Apr 13 – 3 May 13: Ametryn 0.11, Atrazine 3.4, DE Atrazine 0.48, Diuron 11.0,  Hexazinone 2.5, Simazine 0.11, Tebuthiuron 1.9, Metolachlor 0.16

2012 September – 2013 April: Fitzroy Island (Qld). Pesticides: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p64 Table 25 Fitzroy Island, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

5 Sep 12 – 4 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.19, Diuron 1.4, Hexazinone 0.12, Tebuthiuron 0.02, Metalochlor 0.02

4 Dec 12 – 14 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 1.8,, DE Atrazine 0.2,  Diuron 9.0, Hexazinone 1.0, Simazine 0.18, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metalochlor 0.08, Imidacloprid 0.08

14 Mar 13 – 3 May 13: Ametryn 0.3, Atrazine 6.5, DE Atrazine 0.74,  Diuron 19, Hexazinone 3.7,  Simazine 0.15, Tebuthiuron 1.5, Metolachlor 0.25,

April 13 (PDMS): Galaxolide 0.09

 

2012 May – 2013 May: Green Island (Qld). Pesticide detections: Multiple

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p63 Table 24 Green Island, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

5 May 12 – 2 Jul 12: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.54, DE Atrazine 0.08,  Diuron 1.3, Hexazinone 0.34, Simazine 0.08,  Tebuthiuron 0.06, Terbutryn 0.05

2 Jul 12 – 29 Aug 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.06, Diuron 2.3, Hexazinone 0.09,  Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.01

29 Aug 12 – 8 Dec 12: Ametryn 0.02, Diuron 0.38, Hexazinone 0.01,  Tebuthiuron 0.01

8 Dec 12 – 15 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.02, Atrazine 0.11, Diuron 0.59, Prometryn 0.01,  Simazine 0.05, Galoxolide 0.06

15 Jan 13 – 4 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.04, Atrazine 0.43, DE Atrazine 0.04, Diuron 3.0, Hexazinone 0.42,  Simazine 0.09, Tebuthiuron 0.02, Metolachlor 0.05

4 Feb 13 – 3 Mar 13: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.32, DE Atrazine 0.03, Diuron 2,2, Hexazinone 0.31,  Simazine 0.07, Tebuthiuron 0.02, Metolachlor 0.04

3 Mar 13 – 2 Apr 13: Ametryn 0.06, Atrazine 3.9, DE Atrazine 0.41, DI Atrazine 0.15,  Diuron 5.4, Hexazinone 1.2,  Simazine 0.1, Tebuthiuron 0.09

2 Apr 13 – 12 May 13: Ametryn 0.11, Atrazine 1.5, DE Atrazine 0.12,  Diuron 5.3, Hexazinone 1.3,  Simazine 0.04, Tebuthiuron 1.4, Metolachlor 0.13, Imidacloprid 0.17

2012 August – 2013 February: Low Isles Queensland. Pesticide: Ametryn, Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone, Simazine, Tebuthiuron, Metolachlor

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Pesticide monitoring in inshore waters of the Great Barrier Reef using both time-integrated and event monitoring techniques (2012 – 2013) September 2013
Prepared for – The Program Manager, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.

Entox The University of Queensland National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology

Appendix D p62 Table 23 Low Isles, Wet Tropics region – Concentration in water (ng.L-1)

24 Aug 12 – 11 Nov 12: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.04, Diuron 0.41, Hexazinone 0.04, Tebuthiuron 0.01

10 Dec 12 – 11 Jan 13: Ametryn 0.01, Atrazine 0.1, Diuron 0.7, Hexazinone 0.05, Simazine 0.02, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.01

11 Jan 13 – 15 Feb 13: Ametryn 0.03, Atrazine 0.12, Diuron 2.2, Hexazinone 0.46, Simazine 0.02, Tebuthiuron 0.01, Metolachlor 0.03

 

1974 Werribee South (Vic). Milk residues. Dieldrin exceeding Health Guidelines

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Werribee South Milk Detections

13/9/74:

HCB: Between 0.01-0.08ppm

Lindane: Between 0.01-0.03ppm

DDE: Between 0.03-0,5ppm

DDT: Between 0.05-0.65ppm

Dieldrin: Between 0.01-0.41ppm

1974 August – 1975 June: Wallace (Vic) Milk Residues. Pesticides: DDE, TDE, DDT, HCB, Lindane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Wallace Milk Detections

9/6/75: DDE 0.08ppm

24/4/75: DDE 0.06ppm, TDE 0.08ppm, DDT 0.1ppm

25/2/75: DDE 0.06ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.01ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.05ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.04ppm

1974 August – 1975 June: Stanhope (Vic). Milk residues: Pesticides: DDE, HCB, Lindane, TDE, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Stanhope Milk Detections

9/6/75: DDE 0.05ppm

7/4/75: DDE 0.03ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.006ppm, Lindane 0.004ppm, DDE 0.04ppm, TDE 0.03ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.05ppm, Dieldrin 0.02ppm

1974 August – 1975 July: PDC Werribee (Vic). Milk Residues. Pesticides. Excessive Dieldrin levels

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

PDC Werribee Milk Detections

1/7/75: HCB 0.3ppm, Lindane 0.1ppm, DDE 0.3ppm, Dieldrin 0.1ppm

14/4/75: DDE 0.2ppm, Dieldrin 0.006ppm

25/2/75: HCB 0.02ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.27ppm, Dieldrin 0.08ppm

2/12/74: HCB 0.025ppm, DDE 0.17ppm, Dieldrin 0.09ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.05ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.4ppm, Dieldrin 0.18

5/8/74: HCB 0.05ppm, DDE 0.4ppm, Dieldrin 0.07ppm

1974 August – 1975 July: Traralgon (Vic). Milk Residues. Pesticides: Lindane, DDE, HCB

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Traralgon Milk Detections

1/7/75: Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.004ppm, DDE 0.05ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.03ppm

1974 June – 1975 September + 2014 April: Camperdown (Vic) Milk Residues. Pesticides: HCB, DDE, Lindane, Triclopyr (water)

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Camperdown Milk Detections

2/9/75: HCB 0.005ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

7/7/75: Lindane 0.1ppm, DDE 0.3ppm

12/5/75: Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.03ppm

3/3/75: DDE 0.02ppm

2/9/74: DDE 0.01ppm

?/6/74: HCB 0.008ppm, Lindane 0.4ppm

7/4/14: Camperdown Water Supply – Triclopyr 0.04ug/L

1974 June – 1975 September: Colac (Vic) Milk detections. Pesticides: HCB, DDE, Lindane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Colac Milk Detections

2/9/75: HCB 0.005ppm, DDE 0.03ppm

9/7/75: Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.06ppm

12/5/75: DDE 0.02ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm

3/3/75: DDE 0.03ppm

8/1/75: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.009ppm

2/9/74: DDE 0.02ppm

?/6/74: HCB 0.01ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

1975 September – 1974 June: Warrnambool (Vic) Milk residues. Pesticides: Lindane over guideline limits

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Warrnambool Milk Detections

2/9/75: DDE 0.01ppm

15/7/75: DDE 0.01ppm

18/3/75: DDE 0.02ppm

14/1/75: Lindane 0.03ppm

3/9/74: HCB 0.02ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

?/6/74: Lindane 0.26ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

1974 August – 1975 December: Shepparton (Vic) Milk residues. Pesticides: DDE, Lindane, DDT, Dieldrin, HCB,

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Shepparton Milk Detections

2/12/75: DDE 0.02ppm

21/10/75: Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.05ppm

10/6/75: DDE 0.04ppm, DDT 0.1ppm, Dieldrin 0.03ppm

8/4/75: DDE 0.05ppm

2/10/74: HCB 0.008ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.05ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.09ppm, Dieldrin 0.04ppm

?/6/74: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.05ppm, DDE 0.09ppm, DDT 0.08ppm

1974 August – 1975 December: Moe (Vic) Milk detections. Pesticides: Lindane, DDE, TDE, DDT, HCB

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Moe Milk Detections

1/12/75: Lindane 0.01ppm, DDT 0.02ppm, DDT 0.03ppm

7/4/75: DDE 0.04ppm

24/2/75: Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.03ppm, TDE 0.11ppm, DDT 0.07ppm

?/10/74: Lindane 0.02ppm, HCB 0.009ppm, DDE 0.03ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.05ppm

1974 August – 1975 November: Leongatha (Vic) Milk residues. Pesticides: DDE, Dieldrin, TDE, DDT, HCB, Lindane, BHC, Carbophenothion

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Leongatha Milk Detections

28/11/75: DDE 0.02ppm

3/9/75: DDE 0.01ppm, Dieldrin 0.03ppm

16/7/75: DDE 0.03ppm

14/5/75: DDE 0.03ppm

13/5/75: DDE 0.06ppm, TDE 0.05ppm, DDT 0.06ppm

12/3/75: DDE 0.04ppm, TDE 0.07ppm

8/1/75: HCB 0.01ppm

?/12/74: HCB 0.007ppm, Lindane 0.009ppm, DDE 0.02ppm, BHC 0.037ppm, Carbophenothion 0.47ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.05ppm

1974 June – 1976 January: Strathmerton (Vic) Milk residues. Pesticides: DDE, HCB, Lindane,

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Strathmerton Milk Detections

8/1/76: DDE 0.03ppm

2/9/75: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.008ppm, DDE 0.05ppm

7/7/75: DDE 0.04ppm,

12/5/75: DDE 0.03ppm

9/3/75: DDE 0.02ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm

8/1/75: Lindane 0.07ppm

?/12/74: DDE 0.024ppm

3/9/74: DDE 0.05ppm

?/6/74: DDE 0.06ppm

1974 June – 1976 January: Dennington (Vic). Milk residues. Pesticides: DDE, TDE, DDT, Dieldrin, HCB, Lindane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Dennington Milk Detections

6/1/76: DDE 0.2ppm, TDE 0.2ppm, DDT 0.1ppm

11/11/75: DDE 0.2ppm, TDE 0.3ppm, DDT 0.1ppm

2/9/75: DDE 0.1ppm, Dieldrin 0.03ppm

15/7/75: HCB 0.01ppm, DDE 0.27ppm, TDE 0.11ppm

19/5/75: DDE 0.1ppm

18/3/75: DDE 0.14ppm, TDE 0.03ppm

14/1/75: DDE 0.12ppm

?/12/74: DDE 0.091ppm

3/9/74: DDE 0.23ppm

?/?/74: Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.3ppm

?/6/74: DDE 0.2ppm

1974 September – 1976 January + 2011 November: Cobden (Vic). Milk Residues: Pesticides: DDE, HCB, Lindane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Cobden Milk Detections

5/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm

10/11/75: DDE 0.02ppm

2/9/75: HCB 0.005ppm, DDE 0.03ppm

7/7/75: Lindane 0.1ppm, DDE 0.1ppm

12/5/75: DDE 0.06ppm

3/3/75: DDE 0.05ppm

8/1/75: HCB 0.008ppm

?/12/74: DDE 0.015ppm

2/9/74: DDE 0.11ppm

7/11/11: Wannon Water Cobden Mecoprop 0.01ug/L

1974 June – 1976 January: Cobram (Vic). Milk residues. Pesticides: HCB, Lindane, DDE, TDE, DDT

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Cobram Milk Detections

5/1/76: HCB 0.01ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.1ppm, TDE 0.08ppm, DDT 0.2ppm

10/11/75: DDE 0.03ppm

2/9/75: HCB 0.007ppm, TDE 0.09ppm, DDE 0.08ppm, DDT 0.09ppm

7/7/75: Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.09ppm, TDE 0.3ppm, DDT 0.3ppm

12/5/75: DDE 0.06ppm

4/3/75: DDE 0.05ppm

8/1/75: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.008ppm, DDE 0.03ppm

?/12/74: HCB 0.004ppm, DDE 0.023ppm

3/9/74: HCB 0.02ppm, DDE 0.1ppm

?/6/74: HCB 0.008ppm, Lindane 0.09ppm, DDE 0.08ppm,

?/?/74: Lindane 0.06ppm, DDE 0.17ppm

1974 June – 1976 January: Drouin (Vic) Milk Detections. Pesticides: DDE, HCB, Lindane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Drouin Milk Detections

5/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm

2/9/75: HCB 0.005ppm, DDE 0.04ppm

8/7/75: DDE 0.03ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm

14/5/75: DDE 0.05ppm

3/3/75: DDE 0.05ppm

8/1/75: DDE 0.03ppm

?/12/74: DDE 0.022ppm

2/11/74: DDE 0.02ppm

?/6/74: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

1974 June – 1976 January: Bacchus Marsh (Vic) Milk residues. Pesticides: DDE, Lindane, HCB, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Bacchus Marsh Milk Detections

5/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm

4/9/75: DDE 0.03ppm

27/5/75: DDE 0.04ppm

3/3/75: Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.04ppm

?/12/74: HCB 0.006ppm, Lindane 0.015ppm, DDE 0.025ppm

?/6/74: HCB 0.008ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.04ppm, Dieldrin 0.02ppm

 

1974 June – 1976 January: Kiewa (Vic). Milk detections. Pesticide: DDE

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Kiewa Milk Detections

6/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm

2/9/75: DDE 0.06ppm

19/5/75: DDE 0.06ppm

4/3/75: DDE 0.08ppm

8/1/75: DDE 0.05ppm

?/12/74: DDE 0.028ppm

?/6/74: DDE 0.08ppm

 

1974 August – 1976 February: Merrigum (Vic). Milk detections. Pesticides: DDE, Lindane, Endrin, HCB, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Merrigum Milk Detections

2/2/76: DDE 0.05ppm

1/12/75: DDE 0.05ppm

9/6/75: DDE 0.1ppm

7/4/75: DDE 0.1ppm

24/2/75: Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.1ppm, Endrin 0.13ppm

2/12/74: DDE 0.1ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.01ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.16ppm, Dieldrin 0.03ppm

?/?/74: DDE 0.06ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.18ppm, Dieldrin 0.07ppm

1974 August – 1976 February: Tatura (Vic). Milk detections. Pesticides: DDE, Dieldrin, HCB, Lindane,

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Tatura Milk Detections

2/2/76: DDE 0.04ppm

9/6/75: DDE 0.07ppm, Dieldrin 0.03ppm

7/4/75: DDE 0.1ppm

24/2/75: DDE 0.05ppm

2/12/74: DDE 0.06ppm

?/?/74: DDE 0.05ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.007ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.1ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.11ppm

 

1975 June – 1976 February: Maffra (Vic) Milk detections. Pesticides: DDE, Lindane, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Maffra Milk Detections

2/2/76: DDE 0.03ppm

1/12/75: DDE 0.03ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm

9/6/75: DDE 0.02ppm, Dieldrin 0.04ppm

 

1974 August – 1976 February: Longwarry (Vic) Milk detections. Pesticides: DDE, TDE, HCB, Lindane, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Longwarry Milk Detections

2/2/76: DDE 0.05ppm, TDE 0.09ppm

9/6/75: DDE 0.05ppm

8/4/75: DDE 0.08ppm, TDE 0.06ppm

13/3/75: DDE 0.04ppm

24/2/75: Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.04ppm

7/1/75: HCB 0.005ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm

?/12/74: HCB 0.004ppm, Lindane 0.007ppm, DDE 0.022ppm

5/8/74: DDE 0.06ppm, Dieldrin 0.02ppm

?/?/74: Lindane 0.06ppm, DDE 0.06ppm

1974 September – 1976 February: Warragul (Vic) Milk detections. Pesticides: DDE, TDE, Dieldrin, HCB, Lindane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Warragul Milk Detections

2/2/76: DDE 0.04ppm, TDE 0.09ppm

14/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm

2/9/75: DDE 0.02ppm, Dieldrin 0.03ppm

1/7/75: HCB 0.01ppm, Lindane 0.02ppm, DDE 0.05ppm

?/6/74: DDE 0.014ppm

12/5/75: DDE 0.04ppm

13/3/75: DDE 0.04ppm, TDE 0.02ppm

3/9/74: DDE 0.02ppm

1974 June – 1976 January: Toora (Vic) Milk Residues. Pesticides: DDE, TDE, DDT, Chlordane

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Toora Milk Detections

14/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm

3/9/75: DDE 0.02ppm

13/3/75: DDE 0.05ppm, TDE 0.04ppm

7/1/75: DDE 0.08ppm, TDE 0.14ppm, DDT 0.12ppm

6/74: Chlordane 0.05ppm, DDE 0.01ppm

?/74: HCB 0.006ppm, Lindane 0.011ppm, DDE 0.046ppm, TDE 0.015ppm

1974 September – 1976 January: Darnum (Vic). Milk Residues. Pesticides: DDE, Dieldrin, HCB, Lindane, BHC

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Darnum milk detections

14/1/76: DDE 0.02ppm,

2/9/75: DDE 0.02ppm, Dieldrin 0.02ppm

1/7/75: HCB 0.01ppm, Lindane 0.01ppm, DDE 0.02ppm

13/3/75: DDE 0.02ppm

8/1/75: Lindane 0.02ppm

?/12/74: DDE 0.034ppm, BHC 0.4ppm

3/9/74: DDE 0.02ppm

1974 August – 1976 January: Poowong (Vic). Milk residues. Pesticides: HCB, DDE, Lindane, Dieldrin

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Pesticide Residue Division of Dairying – Victoria

Milk Results in ppm (Fat Basis)

Max Residues: 1974/5

Guideline Levels – HCB: 0.5ppm, Dieldrin: 0.15ppm, Total DDT: 1.25ppm (including DDT, DDD, TDE), Lindane 0.2ppm, Aldrin 0.15ppm

Poowong milk detections

Jan 1976: DDE 0.05ppm

9/6/75: DDE 0.03ppm

7/4/75: DDE 0.02ppm

7/10/74: HCB 0.006ppm, Lindane 0.004ppm.

5/8/74: DDE 0.06ppm, Dieldrin 0.02ppm

1953 January: Irrigation Weed Poisoning. Pesticide

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Fisheries Office
Swan Hill,
21/1/1953

The Superintendent,
Fisheries Branch,
Sydney

Weed poisoning by Victorian State Rivers and Water Supply Commission.

I have to report that on the 17th January I attended a weed killing experiment carried out by Victorian State Rivers and Water Supply Commission at Lake Boga.

Two irrigation channels were treated, each with a different type of poison, effect of poison on fish life is as follows.

Channel No.1

About 11.30am on the 17th of January, 40 gallons of E.F.805M, was released in a irrigation channel near Lake Boga. E.F.805M. is a Vacuum Oil Co. product, (weed killer).

A mixture of E.F.805M and water was pumped into the Channel through a fine spray, the process took about 1 hour. As the weed killer was taken downstream by the run of water in the channel, water turned a milky colour, about 20 minutes after operations began small carp were observed leaping from water, ten minutes later large numbers of carp from 1/2″ to 6″ in length began to float to the surface, by this time the water was very milky from place of pumping to about 60 yards downstream.

It was noticed that poison had no effect on fish where water was not milky. When operations ceased (1 Hour) the water was milky for about 130 yards downstream from pump and dead Carp were floating to surface in large numbers throughout this area. I counted 158 dead fish in 40 yards, this would be no accurate count as many fish could not float to the surface owing to the thick weeds in the channel. About 2 hours later larger carp were observed floating on the water and number of dead Yabbies were observed on the bank.
Channel No.2

About 2.30 p.m on the 17th January, 40 gallons of E.F.860M, was released in an irrigation channel near Lake Boga. About 10-15 minutes after operations began water began to turn milky to about 35 yards downstream from point where poison was released.

Small carp and Redfin began leaping from water. Ten minutes later dead fish began to float to the surface, it was noticed that many small Redfin had leaped onto the bank in an attempt to escape poison, as weed killer spreads slowly I am of the opinion that many of the larger fish may have swan downstream ahead of it.

About 45 minutes after operations began all marine life in an area 50 yards downstream from pump appeared to be extinct, large numbers of small Carp, Redfin were floating on the surface, Yabbies had ceased to move among the weeds and no shrimps were apparent. When pumping operations ceased water was discoloured to about 150 yards downstream and poison was still moving further down the channel, about 1 hour later dead Carp and Redfin were observed on the surface doe about 350 yards downstream.

I removed 6 Carp and 6 Redfin which were floating on the surface but still kicking, the fish were placed in a tin of freshwater, the Redfin died but all Carp revived and were kept for 48 hours when they were destroyed by me.

1974 September: Werribee South. Spray drift. Pesticides: Dieldrin, DDT

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Werribee Pesticide Survey 26 November 1974

… As a result of a high pesticide reading in PDC depot milk sampled at Metropolitan Dairy Broadmeadows…

I sampled each individual farm of the drift on 12/9/74. Results which have just been made available, showed 7 excessive readings in Dieldrin and one high DDT sample.

… One common factor emerged from my investigations. All seven farms had adjoining market gardens. In several instances farmers remembered sprays being used on vegetables about that time.

Enquiries at Werribee South store showed that a chemical “Dieldrin” contaiing Dieldrin is widely used as an insecticide. I suggest that spray-drift from market gardening spraying is responsible for the high Dieldrin level and most likely the DDT case also.

1976 January: Vervale milk contaminated: Pesticide: Endrin.

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30th January 1976 – Chief Division of Dairying

Contamination of Milk with Endrin.

On 28.1.76 advice was received by *** at Warragul that several cows on the ***, *** Vervale, had been affected by spray used on a potato crop on the same farm.

The substances sprayed onto the crop the previous day had been supplied by ***… The products were Shell products Dilhane 45 and a proprietary pesticide mixture containing 30% endrin.

Despite attempts to prevent the collection of milk from this herd, the milk tanker did take the milk. This tanker of milk was subsequently run to waste at the *** Drouin, on the instructions of the General Manager after he received advice of the contamination from this Department.

An order was placed on the farm under Section 75 of the Milk & Dairy Supervision Act prohibiting the removal of milk from the farm, initially for 72 hours, later for an indefinite period.

Samples of the milk and pasture have been taken from the property of *** and of milk from neighbouring farms that also had pasture contaminated by the spray.

Milk arriving in Melbourne from Milk depots collecting milk in the Koo-Wee-Rup and Thorpdale areas is also being sampled for pesticide analysis.

Samples will be taken from the *** farm at 3 day intervals… These samples will be from bulked milk from cows not affected by the spray. Every effort will be made to remove the prohibition of sale order as soon as possible, but it is considered that the pesticide level on the bulked milk of non-affected cows will need to be near 0.3ppm.

1974 – 1975: Wentworth (NSW). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Merbein (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Mildura (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Robinvale (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Swan Hill (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974- 1975: Lake Boga (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Barham (NSW). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Cohuna (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Echuca (Vic). Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Tocumwal (NSW) Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos.

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Cobram (Vic) Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1975 -1975: Yarrawonga (Vic) Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Corowa (NSW) Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Murray River, Howlong, Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Tempehos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1974 – 1975: Murray River, Albury Encephalitis Spraying. Pesticide: Temephos

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Encephalitis Spray Program 23/12/74

1. The chemical to be used in Abate, an organophosphate of low toxicity…

2. Abate is readily soluble in water, the estimated concentration in water being 1ppm – a level approved by the World Health Organisation for Abate as a larvaecide in drinking water. The material degrades in 2-7 days.

3. It is intended to treat lagoons near high density population centres along the Murray River, not streams or reservoirs. The area to be treated extends from the South Australian border to Albury. Mildura will be completed today, the last treatment being in the Albury region on January 7th.

4. There are no precautions the Commission need to recommend other than stress than the material is of low toxicity.

29/11/74

Encephalitis fight (Australian 29/11/74)

The Victorian and Federal governments are organising a campaign to eliminate the threat of another outbreak of encephalitis in the Murray Valley region of Victoria.

The State Minister for Health, Mr Scanlon, was arranging a meeting with the Federal Minister for Health, Dr Everingham, to work out an eradication program which he hoped would be financed by the two governments.

Mr Scanlon said yesterday initial plans were to create an area of immunity around northern Victorian towns by using a pesticide which would destroy mosquito larvae.

Earlier this year an outbreak of the disease caused by a species of mosquito killed eight people and put another 22 in hospital.

The outbreak resulted in the loss of millions of dollars in tourist spending in Murray Valley towns.

1975 September: Mount Macedon. Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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1975 September

Lands Department.

… In the small catchments at Mt Macedon where streams are used directly for domestic water supplies, spraying of blackberries in or adjacent to these streams could result in contamination of water.

There would be little dilution of contaminated water with uncontaminated water and, in the cases of 2,4,5-T and amitrole, residues exceeding the levels of 0.02 ppm (2,4,5-T) and 0.01ppm (amitrole) set by the National Health and Medical Research Council could occur in domestic supplies…

Experimental evidence suggests that there is little movement of 2,4,5-T from treated areas into streams in run-off water and, therefore, any spraying outside of 10 metres from catchment streams should not result in contamination

Would you please see that the policy of the Board, as outlined above, is implemented in the Mt.Macedon area…

1982 January: Fish Kill East Goulburn Channel (Vic). Pesticide: Endosulfan.

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission
19th January 1982

Fish Kill – Drain 4 and East Goulburn Channel 12 – Shepparton

On the 5th of January, 1982 I investigated a report from Head Baliff *** of a fish kill in Drain No.4, Shepparton. Drain 4 is part of the irrigation system in that it discharges into the East Goulburn Channel 12 which is also a source of domestic supply…

The results of the investigation are as follows:

1. A large number of redfin and carp were dead in the Number 4 drain and along the East Goulburn Channel 12. Sizes of the fish varied from 5 to 50 cm and would have numbered well over 200 individuals over 2 to 3 kilometres of the watercourse. It was difficult to estimate the number of dead fish as the kill was at least 3 days old when observed.

2. It was obvious that the kill was due to a toxic substance in the water. This was established by examination of the dead fish. Upstream of the point where the 5/4 drain enters the Drain, live fish and other aquatic life was seen. Downstream of that point no aquatic life was observed.

3. A tomato crop on *** was sprayed some 4 days prior to this investigation by Field Air (Benalla) Pty Ltd.

In the event of any overspray occurring it would eventually discharge into drain 4.

After investigating all possible sources of contamination of the water the only factor which could be established was that overspray into the channel or the drain may have caused the fish kill.

On the 14th of January I saw the owner of the tomato crop *** who said that Field Air (Benalla) Pty Ltd had sprayed his crop on the 1st of January with Thiodan (Endosulfan) and Copper Cocide…

1967 June: Truck Accident Sunday Creek (Vic). Pesticides: DDT, Phosmet

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4th July 1967 From: Deputy Chief Chemist

Pesticide Incident – Hume Highway – Sunday Creek 29th June, 1967

At approximately 2 a.m. 29th June, a semi trailer with a mixed load including pesticides crashed beside the bridge over Sunday Creek on the Hume Highway, a few miles south of Seymour. The driver escaped before a fire developed which destroyed most of the load.

At 10.30am *** Chief Irrigation Officer of the SR&WSC phoned to advise that a load of Imidan had entered Sunday Creek. The initial report was 44 gallon drums which later was corrected to 5 gallon drums and DDT also received mention. I.C.I. disclaimed any responsibility and eventually it was found that the load had been consigned by Monsanto. Monsanto accepted some degree of responsibility of the accident at 1.30pm…

The load had consisted of –

50 drums (5 gallons) 25% D.D.T. Solution
20 drums (5 gallons) 15% Imidan Solution
both in inflammable solvent…

After the accident a fierce fire developed which destroyed most of the pesticide load and other goods.

An insepection at the scene of the accident disclosed that 3 drums of DDT and 1 drum of Imidan were in the water. These drums were damaged but leakage was small and negligible contamination was likely from this source. The drums were removed from the stream and placed beyond the fire which was still burning.

There was evidence that during the fire drums had burst on the seams and the burning contents (up to 300 gallons) had flowed from the seat of the fire to the waters edge. There was no means of telling whether this burning liquid had entered the water but this appeared unlikely…

Water samples were drawn from the site of the accident and from sites 20 yards upstream and downstream in Sunday Creek.

Analyses made the next day disclosed the following –

Upstream sample: DDT (nil), Imidan (nil, less than 0.02 ppm)
Accident site: DDT (1.3ppm) Imidan (nil)
Downstream sample (20 yards): DDT 0.014ppm, Imidan Nil

These results suggest negligible contamination of the Goulburn Water System.

A sample of water from the site of the accident was taken after clean up operations. This sample contained 0.85 ppm. This figure is probably indicative of further contamination from the bank during cleanup operations.

The calculated pesticide residue in the Goulburn River on the basis of stream flow and determined residues in Sunday Creek, would have been no greater than 0.0003ppm and it is considered that this would have been for a relatively short time…

2006 September – 2007 August: Bull Creek (WA). Pesticides: Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Bull Creek WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: 20ng/L (Replicate A), 20ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 14ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 4ng/L ( Replicate A), 4.5ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND% 4

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 7.7ng/L

Simazine: 54ng/L

Atrazine: <1ng/L

Hexazinone: <1ng/L

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 9.4ng/ED, 2.5Cw. (Replicate B) 13ng/ED, 3.5Cw. 32 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 2.6ng/ED, 0.7Cw. (Replicate B) 6.8ng/ED, 1.8Cw. 26 ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 32%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 27ng/L (Replicate A), 26ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 1.2ng/L (Replicate A), 0.9ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.1ng/L (Replicate A), 0.1ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 13

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 48ng/ED, 15Cw. (Replicate B) 36ng/ED, 11Cw. 28 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 43ng/ED, 13Cw. (Replicate B) 40ng/ED, 13Cw. 5.8 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 8.4ng/ED, 2.7Cw. (Replicate B) 10ng/ED, 3.3Cw. 20 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) 2.3ng/ED, 0.7Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 18%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 23 Apr 10ng/L, 23 Apr 10ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 10ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 19ng/L, 23 Apr 29ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 24ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <0.1ng/L, 23 Apr 4.4ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 2.2ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr 1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 16ng/L (Replicate A), 16ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 12ng/L (Replicate A), 11ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1g/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 3.5%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 6.1ng/L (Replicate A), 6.8ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 130ng/L (Replicate A), 140ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 1.3ng/L (Replicate A), 1.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 7.1ng/L (Replicate A), 8.6ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: >30ng/L (Replicate A), >30ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 6ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 39ng/L (Replicate A), 54ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 17

2006 September – 2007 August: Corfield Street, Southern River, WA. Pesticides: Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Corfield Street, Southern River, WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 44ng/L (Replicate A), 37ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 7ng/L ( Replicate A), 6ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 7ng/L ( Replicate A), 6ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: 0.7ng/L (Replicate A), 0.6ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 32ng/L

Simazine: 74ng/L

Atrazine: <1ng/L

Hexazinone: 6.8ng/L

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 96ng/ED, 30Cw. (Replicate B) 107ng/ED, 34Cw. 11 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 5300ng/ED, 1700Cw. (Replicate B) 6680ng/ED, 2140Cw. 23 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 0.8ng/ED, 0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <82ng/ED, 26Cw. (Replicate B) 88ng/ED, 28Cw. 6.7 ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 13%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 59ng/L, 23 Apr 47ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 53ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 48ng/L, 23 Apr 12ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 30ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 1.5ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 15ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 10ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 785ng/L (Replicate A), 857ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.4ng/L (Replicate A), 0.4ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 0.9ng/L (Replicate A), 0.7ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 25ng/L (Replicate A), 23ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: 1g/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 16%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 21ng/L (Replicate A), 18ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 630ng/L (Replicate A), 620ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 4.3ng/L (Replicate A), 4.1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 24ng/L (Replicate A), 24ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: 1ng/L (Replicate A), <0.3ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 19ng/L (Replicate A), 16ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 14ng/L (Replicate A), 15ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 14ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 31ng/L (Replicate A), 30ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), 11ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 11

2006 September – 2007 May: Mills Street Compensating Basin, Welshpool (WA). Pesticides: Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Mills Street, Compensation Basin, WA

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 190ng/ED, 50Cw. (Replicate B) 120ng/ED, 33Cw. 45 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 43ng/ED, 11Cw. (Replicate B) 32ng/ED, 8.6Cw. 29 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 160ng/ED, 42Cw. (Replicate B) 110ng/ED, 28Cw. 37 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 31ng/ED, 8.3Cw. (Replicate B) 14ng/ED, 3.7Cw. 76 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 9.9ng/ED, 2.7Cw. (Replicate B) 5.6ng/ED, 1.5Cw. 55 ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) 32ng/ED, 8.6Cw. (Replicate B) 16ng/ED, 4.2Cw. 70 ND%

Mean ND 52%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 26ng/L (Replicate A), 18ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 0.5ng/L (Replicate A), 0.3ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: 0.9ng/L (Replicate A), 0.7ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 2ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 72ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 27

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 162ng/ED, 52Cw. (Replicate B) 138ng/ED, 44Cw. 16.4 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 27ng/ED, 8.8Cw. (Replicate B) 26ng/ED, 8.5Cw. 3.1 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 14ng/ED, 4.8Cw. (Replicate B) 15ng/ED, 4.8Cw. 1.3 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 6.9%

 

2006 September – 2007 August. Liege Street Wetland (WA). Pesticides: Multiple.

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Liege Street Wetlands, WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 14ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 0.6ng/L ( Replicate A), 1ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 36ng/L

Simazine: 43ng/L

Atrazine: 3.4ng/L

Hexazinone: <1ng/L

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 7.6ng/ED, 2Cw. (Replicate B) 7.8ng/ED, 2.1Cw. 2.9 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 4ng/ED, 1.1Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 2ng/ED, 1Cw. (Replicate B) 0.3ng/ED, 0.6Cw. 14 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 2.9%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), 0.6ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 0

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 162ng/ED, 52Cw. (Replicate B) 138ng/ED, 44Cw. 16.4 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 27ng/ED, 8.8Cw. (Replicate B) 26ng/ED, 8.5Cw. 3.1 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 14ng/ED, 4.8Cw. (Replicate B) 15ng/ED, 4.8Cw. 1.3 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 6.9%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 220ng/L, 23 Apr 199ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 209ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 18ng/L, 23 Apr 22ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 20ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 9.1ng/L, 23 Apr 10ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 9.5ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 14ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 13ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1g/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 10%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 8.8ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 12ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 2.2ng/L (Replicate A), 2.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 1.8ng/L (Replicate A), 1.8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: 0.9ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 6ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 5

2006 September – 2007 August: Belmont South (WA). Pesticides: Multiple.

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Belmont South WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: 19ng/L (Replicate A), 19ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 10ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 2.5ng/L ( Replicate A), 2.8ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: 0.6ng/L (Replicate A), 0.7ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 11ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 6ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 22ng/L

Simazine: 47ng/L

Atrazine: <1ng/L

Hexazinone: <1ng/L

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 31ng/ED, 8.4Cw. (Replicate B) 23ng/ED, 6.2Cw. 30 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 34ng/ED, 9.2Cw. (Replicate B) 25ng/ED, 6.6Cw. 31 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 2ng/ED, 0.5Cw. (Replicate B) 2.3ng/ED, 0.6Cw. 14 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 8.9ng/ED, 2.4Cw. (Replicate B) 6.8ng/ED, 1.8Cw. 26 ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 25%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 0.4ng/L (Replicate A), 0.4ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.5ng/L (Replicate A), 0.4ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 10ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 16

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 34ng/ED, 11Cw. (Replicate B) 51ng/ED, 16Cw. 39.6 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 3620ng/ED, 1160Cw. (Replicate B) 4260ng/ED, 1360Cw. 16 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 16ng/ED, 5.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) 1.1ng/ED, 0.4Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 49ng/ED, 15Cw. (Replicate B) 77ng/ED, 24Cw. 44 ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 4.8ng/ED, 1.5Cw. (Replicate B) 8.7ng/ED, 2.8Cw. 57 ND%

Mean ND 39%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 25ng/L, 23 Apr 8.5ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 16ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 7655ng/L, 23 Apr 74ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 3870ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 43ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 21ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 49ng/L, 23 Apr 1.7ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 25ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr 2.1ng/L, 23 Apr 1.8ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 1.9ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 14ng/L (Replicate A), 16ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 58ng/L (Replicate A), 54ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.8ng/L (Replicate A), 0.9ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 11ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1g/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 7.3%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 1.6ng/L (Replicate A), 1.9ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 15ng/L (Replicate A), 15ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 0.4ng/L (Replicate A), 0.2ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 0.4ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: >30ng/L (Replicate A), >30ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 6ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 11

2006 September – 2007 August: Perth Airport Main Drain. Pesticides: Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Perth Airport South Main Drain WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 0.6ng/L ( Replicate A), 0.7ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 18ng/L

Simazine: 21ng/L

Atrazine: 6ng/L

Hexazinone 11ng/L

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 24ng/ED, 6.4Cw. (Replicate B) 17ng/ED, 4.4Cw. 34 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 35ng/ED, 9.3Cw. (Replicate B) 32ng/ED, 8.5Cw. 9 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 8.1ng/ED, 2.2Cw. (Replicate B) 6.7ng/ED, 1.8Cw. 19 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 14ng/ED, 3.9Cw. (Replicate B) 13ng/ED, 3.6Cw. 7.4 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 6.6ng/ED, 1.8Cw. (Replicate B) 5.1ng/ED, 1.4Cw. 25 ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 4.5ng/ED, 1.2Cw. (Replicate B) 4.8ng/ED, 1.3Cw. 4.9 ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 17ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1.4ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 30

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 46ng/ED, 15Cw. (Replicate B) 46ng/ED, 15Cw. 0.1 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 110ng/ED, 36Cw. (Replicate B) 110ng/ED, 36Cw. 0.3 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 30ng/ED, 9.6Cw. (Replicate B) 29ng/ED, 9.5Cw. 0.9 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 11ng/ED, 3.7Cw. (Replicate B) 4.3ng/ED, 1.4Cw. 92 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 11ng/ED, 3.8Cw. (Replicate B) 10ng/ED, 3.2Cw. 16 ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 2.9ng/ED, 0.9Cw. (Replicate B) 8.6ng/ED, 2.3Cw. 0.7 ND%

Mean ND 24%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 19ng/L, 23 Apr 72ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 45ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 61ng/L, 23 Apr 71ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 66ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 8.3ng/L, 23 Apr 22ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 15ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr 13ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 6.5ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 3.7ng/L, 23 Apr 11ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 7.3ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr 2.7ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 1.3ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 82ng/L (Replicate A), 83ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 14ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), 0.8ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 15ng/L (Replicate A), 16ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1g/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 8.3%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 22ng/L (Replicate A), 31ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 41ng/L (Replicate A), 50ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 9.8ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: 3.2ng/L (Replicate A), 4.8ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 8.5ng/L (Replicate A), 8.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: <1ng/L (Replicate A), 0.3ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 13ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 10

1964/5: Bamawm Drain Weed Control. Pesticide: Amitrole

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Details of Testing and Results

1964/5 Forty seven samples (including one standard) were submitted for analysis in this season.

One sample from the Deakin Drain gave a just detectable result of (0.03ppm) and one sample from the Bamawm drain contained 0.1ppm. This was taken just downstream of the spray team.

1964/5: Deakin Drain (Vic). Aquatic Weed Control. Pesticide: Amitrole

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Details of Testing and Results

1964/5 Forty seven samples (including one standard) were submitted for analysis in this season.

One sample from the Deakin Drain gave a just detectable result of (0.03ppm) and one sample from the Bamawm drain contained 0.1ppm. This was taken just downstream of the spray team.

1961 March: Tongala (Vic). Weed Control in Drains. Pesticide: Amitrole – highest level 19,500ug/L

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Details of Testing and Results

1961. In the period 14/3/61 – 23/3/61 various formulations (Weedazol 50, Weedazol Total, Weedazol T1) were applied to water couch in 12 miles of drains at Tongala, and 77 samples were taken from drains to indicate the pattern and extent of contamination. Flow velocities in the drains varied from 0 – 0.9 MPH. Sampling at the outfall of this system gave a maximum of 0.70 p.p.m., but a more representative figure would be 0.30 p.p.m.

Samples taken 100 yards – 3/4 mile downstream of operating spray teams showed levels in the range of 0 – 19.5 p.p.m. The average contamination level was 0.25 p.p.m., representing 20% of applied material. There was no indication of reduction of contamination with distance downstream, or any consistent loss of activity with storage over three months…

1966: Whitfield and surrounds (Vic). Fish Kills

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Wangaratta fisherman, ***, said he had used a pressure pack insect spray to clear mosquitoes from a van in which he and a friend were camping in 1963.

They immediately became ill and vomited for two hours.

*** said he had seen a large quantity of dead minnows and carp taken from a lagoon near Myrtleford after an aircraft had passed over on a spraying run.

Near Whitfield, he had found 12 small trout dead in the King River after a storm.

A nearby farmer had told him that 10 days before he had sprayed blackberries on the bank, and had agreed that the rain had probably washed the poison into the stream.

Wangaratta Fly Fishing Club president, ***, said there appeared to have been a general decline in the sizes of rainbow trout taken from the King river in recent years…

***, said his theory was pesticides used in the area caused a slow poisoning of fish, both directly and through poisoned insects on which they fed.

He said that as a fisherman and not a naturalist he had also observed over the past eight years a decline in bird life along the Ovens, King and nearby streams…

Newspaper Article 1966. (Victorian Pesticide Inquiry)

1965 February: Myrtleford Region – Ovens River. Spray drift, water pollution.

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Mr *** of Myrtleford, told how fish deaths in the district had been reported within 24 hours of aerial spraying in February 1965.

A total of 17 reports had later come in from areas where aircraft had operated.

In one case, 400 dead fish had been counted.

In a personal investigation he had counted 21 dead fish in three-quarters of a mile of river alongside tobacco which had been air-sprayed.

“In wading up this water no sign of any aquatic life was seen”

“Immediately above the area sprayed there were many fish, nymphs and aquatic life and fish were rising to surface insects”.”

“It was the most conclusive thing I had seen.”

Mr Robbins said he had been told that spray had been found on the windows of a house on ground a mile from a tobacco crop sprayed from the air.

In another case, two people bathing in the Ovens river had been covered with spray.

Mr Robbins claimed aerial spraying was a major cause of stream contamination in the tobacco growing districts, causing the loss of fish and fish food.

Newspaper Article 1966. (Victorian Pesticide Inquiry)

1960’s: King River (Vic). Fish Kills from aerial spraying.

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***, himself a tobacco grower, said he had received many reports of fish deaths after aerial spraying in the King Valley.

Sometimes aircraft continued to spray as they crossed the river. Sometimes spray dripped from the pipes for periods after the pilot cut off the flow.

Newspaper Article 1966. (Victorian Pesticide Inquiry)

1960 December + 1963: Myrtle Creek Myrtleford Fish Kill. Pesticide: DDT

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In December 1960, fish died in the Myrtle Creek, Myrtleford, after boom-spraying of tobacco nearby with DDT…

Wodonga fisheries officer, ***, quoted another case on the Myrtle Creek in 1963 when a flash flood had lifted a tin of poison from a normally safe place.

The tin had leaked and dead fish were found.

Newspaper Article 1966. (Victorian Pesticide Inquiry)

2007 January – 2007 August: Helena River (WA). Pesticides: Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Helena River, WA

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 44ng/ED, 12Cw. (Replicate B) 40ng/ED, 11Cw. 9.5 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 19ng/ED, 5.1Cw. (Replicate B) 18ng/ED, 4.7Cw. 5.4 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 5ng/ED, 1.4Cw. (Replicate B) 2.1ng/ED, 0.6Cw. 83 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 6.7ng/ED, 1.8Cw. (Replicate B) 6.3ng/ED, 1.7Cw. 5.3 ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) 2.5ng/ED, 0.7Cw. – %

Mean ND 26%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 63ng/L (Replicate A), 54ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3 (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.2ng/L (Replicate A), 0.2ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 21

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 72ng/ED, 23Cw. (Replicate B) 61ng/ED, 19Cw. 16.9 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 110ng/ED, 36Cw. (Replicate B) 110ng/ED, 36Cw. 1.2 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 15ng/ED, 4.9Cw. (Replicate B) 19ng/ED, 6.1Cw. 21 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, 0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 7.7ng/ED, 2.5Cw. (Replicate B) 10ng/ED, 3.2Cw. 26 ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 3.1ng/ED, 1.0Cw. (Replicate B) 4.6ng/ED, 1.5Cw. 39 ND%

Mean ND 21%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 39ng/L, 23 Apr 54ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 46ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 90ng/L, 23 Apr 43ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 66ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 8.3ng/L, 23 Apr 5.1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 6.7ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 9.2ng/L, 23 Apr 7.1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 8.1ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr 1.8ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 0.9ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 121ng/L (Replicate A), 114ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 15ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 16%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 16ng/L (Replicate A), 11ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 150ng/L (Replicate A), 110ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 17ng/L (Replicate A), 14ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: 2.1ng/L (Replicate A), 1.9ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 8.3ng/L (Replicate A), 9.1ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: 3.7ng/L (Replicate A), 2.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: 0.3ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 21ng/L (Replicate A), 19ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: 102ng/L (Replicate A), 100ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 10

2006 September – 2006 October: Ellen Brook, Henley Brook (WA). Pesticides: Chlorpyrifos, Metolachlor, Diuron, Simazine, Atrazine

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Ellen Brook, Henley Brook WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 1ng/L ( Replicate A), 1ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 10ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), 0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND% 14

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 1.5ng/L

Simazine: 7.5ng/L

Atrazine: 5.5ng/L

Hexazinone: <1ng/L

2006 October – August 2007: Bennett Brook, Caversham (WA). Pesticides Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Bennett Brook, Caversham WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 2ng/L ( Replicate A), 2ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: 0.9ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 1.4ng/L (Replicate A), 1.3ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 11ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 6%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 8.1ng/L

Simazine: 55ng/L

Atrazine: <1ng/L

Hexazinone: <1ng/L

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 5ng/ED, 1.3Cw. (Replicate B) 4.8ng/ED, 1.3Cw. 3.5 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 5.6ng/ED, 1.5Cw. (Replicate B) 5.3ng/ED, 1.4Cw. 5.1 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) 4.2ng/ED, 1.1Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) 15ng/ED, 0.4Cw. – %

Mean ND -%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 1ng/L (Replicate A)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A)

Chlorpyrifos: 0.2ng/L (Replicate A)

Chlordane Trans: 0.1ng/L (Replicate A)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A)

Mean ND%:

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 170ng/ED, 55Cw. (Replicate B) 170ng/ED, 55Cw. 1.2 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 96ng/ED, 30Cw. (Replicate B) 92ng/ED, 29Cw. 4.1 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 3ng/ED, 1Cw. (Replicate B) 3.5ng/ED, 1.1Cw. 12 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, 0.3Cw. – ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, 0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, 0.3Cw. – ND%

Mean ND 6%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 5.1ng/L, 23 Apr 1.7ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 3.4ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 15ng/L, 23 Apr 1.9ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 8.4ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: <10ng/L (Replicate A), <10ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: present (Replicate A), present (Replicate B)

Mean ND 10%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 9.3ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 410ng/L (Replicate A), 380ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3.2ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 9.8ng/L (Replicate A), 11ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 7

2006 September – 2007 August: Bayswater Main Drain (WA). Pesticides: Multiple

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A baseline study of organic contaminants in the Swan and Canning catchment drainage system using passive sampling devices. Government of Western Australia Department of Water. December 2009

Bayswater Main Drain, Bayswater WA

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from the accumulation in PDMS strips deployed during September- October 2006.

Phosphate tri-n-butyl: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L ( Replicate A), <3ng/L ( Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 2ng/L ( Replicate A), 2ng/L ( Replicate B)

Fenitrothion: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: <7ng/L (Replicate A), <7ng/L (Replicate B)

Heptachlor Epoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chordane trans: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 0.6ng/L (Replicate A), 0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during September – October 2006.

Diuron: 44ng/L

Simazine: 52ng/L

Atrazine: 3.3ng/L

Hexazinone 4.9ng/L

Deployment period two; January – February 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 43ng/ED, 12Cw. (Replicate B) 27 ng/ED, 7.1Cw. 46 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 130ng/ED, 35Cw. (Replicate B) 66ng/ED, 18Cw. 65 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 150ng/ED, 41Cw. (Replicate B) 66ng/ED, 18Cw. 78 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 3.7ng/ED, 1Cw. (Replicate B) 2.7ng/ED, 0.7Cw. 30 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 5.4ng/ED, 1.4Cw. (Replicate B) <1ng/ED, <0.3Cw. – ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 10ng/ED, 2.8Cw. (Replicate B) 9.9ng/ED, 2.7Cw. 1.2 ND%

Ametryn: (Replicate A) 1.9ng/ED, 0.5Cw. (Replicate B) 3.1ng/ED, 0.8Cw. 46 ND%

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-butyl: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: <6ng/L (Replicate A), <6ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbuthylazine: <8ng/L (Replicate A), <8ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 0.8ng/L (Replicate A), 0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.3ng/L (Replicate A), 0.3ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND%: 24

Deployment period three; April – May 2007
The estimated concentration in water (CW) (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in January – February 2007 in sub-catchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: (Replicate A) 490ng/ED, 155Cw. (Replicate B) 360ng/ED, 114Cw. 30.1 ND%

Simazine: (Replicate A) 150ng/ED, 46Cw. (Replicate B) 110ng/ED, 35Cw. 27 ND%

Atrazine: (Replicate A) 1040ng/ED, 333Cw. (Replicate B) 760ng/ED, 244Cw. 30 ND%

Desethyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 13ng/ED, 4.3Cw. (Replicate B) 9.6ng/ED, 3.1Cw. 32 ND%

Desisopropyl Atrazine: (Replicate A) 17ng/ED, 5.4Cw. (Replicate B) 16ng/ED, 5.4Cw. 1 ND%

Hexazinone: (Replicate A) 12ng/ED, 4Cw. (Replicate B) 8.6ng/ED, 2.7Cw. 1.2 ND%

Mean ND 26%

The concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides, detected in snapshot water samples collected during April – May 2007.

Diuron: Replicates 16 Apr 630ng/L, 23 Apr 82ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 350ng/L

Simazine: Replicates 16 Apr 197ng/L, 23 Apr 5ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 101ng/L

Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 2900ng/L, 23 Apr 41ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 1470ng/L

Desethyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

Desisopropyl Atrazine: Replicates 16 Apr 26ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 26ng/L

Hexazinone: Replicates 16 Apr 0.8ng/L, 23 Apr 3.6ng/L. Mean 23 Apr 2.2ng/L

Ametryn: Replicates 16 Apr <1ng/L, 23 Apr <1ng/L. Mean 23 Apr <1ng/L

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during April – May 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 9ng/L (Replicate A), 8ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 24ng/L (Replicate A), 25ng/L (Replicate B)

Propazine: 25ng/L (Replicate A), 18ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 4ng/L (Replicate A), 4ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 81ng/L (Replicate A), 59ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: 2ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 0.6ng/L (Replicate A), 0.6ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 12ng/L (Replicate A), 12ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: 3ng/L (Replicate A), 3ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: 5ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 15ng/L (Replicate A), 21ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: 0.9ng/L (Replicate A), 0.9ng/L (Replicate B)

Rotenone: <2ng/L (Replicate A), <2ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 14%

Deployment period four; July – August 2007
The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of herbicides predicted from ED passive samplers deployed in July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth. The sampling rates used 0.12 L/day.

Diuron: 27ng/L (Replicate A), 30ng/L (Replicate B)

Simazine: 37ng/L (Replicate A), 40ng/L (Replicate B)

Atrazine: 13ng/L (Replicate A), 6ng/L (Replicate B)

Desethyl Atrazine: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Desisopropyl Atrazine: 5.4ng/L (Replicate A), 5.6ng/L (Replicate B)

Hexazinone: 5.0ng/L (Replicate A), 5.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Tebuthiuron: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

The estimated concentration in water (ng/L) of insecticides predicted from PDMS passive samplers deployed during July – August 2007 in subcatchments near Perth.

Phosphate Tri-n-Butyl: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 9ng/L (Replicate B)

Trifluralin: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 2ng/L (Replicate B)

Diazinon: 6ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Triallate: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Terbutryn: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlorpyrifos: 7ng/L (Replicate A), 7ng/L (Replicate B)

Metolachlor: 10ng/L (Replicate A), 10ng/L (Replicate B)

Hepatchor Epoxide: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Pendimethalin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Chlordane Trans: 1ng/L (Replicate A), 1ng/L (Replicate B)

Methidathion: <30ng/L (Replicate A), <30ng/L (Replicate B)

Oxadiazon: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Dieldrin: 8ng/L (Replicate A), 10ng/L (Replicate B)

Piperonyl Butoxide: <0.5ng/L (Replicate A), <0.5ng/L (Replicate B)

Benalaxyl: <3ng/L (Replicate A), <3ng/L (Replicate B)

Propiconazole: 16ng/L (Replicate A), 13ng/L (Replicate B)

Bifenthrin: <1ng/L (Replicate A), <1ng/L (Replicate B)

Mean ND 16

 

 

1960 July: Mildura complain of SRWSC impacting on vines. Pesticide: 2,4-D

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

4th of July 1960

Chief Irrigation Officer … issued Circular L.D.46 on the 29/12/59 setting out the precautions to be taken when using sprays, the types of sprays, quantity for the various species of weeds, and concluding with the statement that before using a channel after it had been sprayed, the channel was to be flushed out and the flushing water disposed of on pasture paddocks or wastelands, and not so as to reach the river systems or horticultural plantings.

The District Engineers considered this statement, put a complete stoppage to their winter spraying program because it would be almost impossible to prevent flushing water reaching a river system.

The reason for the insertion of the statement concerned has now been ascertained with certainty, but before *** left for overseas he informed me that last Summer there were some citrus growers in the Mildura region who claimed the loss of leaf from the trees was due to the Commission’s use of chemicals spray on irrigation channels in the Goulburn-Murray District.

*** stated it was most unlikely the loss of leaf was due to the chemicals, but it more likely to have been caused by the heat wave experienced last summer. *** said that the amount of chemicals in the River Murray at Mildura was so infinitesimal as to be unmeasureable, but that the only way to convince the Mildura growers that chemicals were not the cause of their trouble was to keep all chemicals out of the river until the matter had been cleared up.

The amount of 2,4-D at Mildura, under the worst possible conditions, is estimated at 1 in 500,000,000 but the actual quantity would be considerably less…

Attached herewith is a statement produced by *** giving information on the estimated amount of pollution by 2,4-D. *** estimates the dilution of 1 in 200,000,000 assuming all the 2,4-D used appeared in the River Murray.

The quantities are so small and the dilution so great, that there is no risk of any damage being caused to citrus vines, or any other sort of production irrigated from the River Murray.

*** states that crops would not be harmed by an irrigation using water containing 20 p.p.m.

1962 December: Malmsbury Reservoir Spillway. Pesticides: Amitrole, Diquat, Paraquat

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

6th of December 1962

Weed control – Malmsbury Reservoir.

My memorandum to *** of 16th November gave recommendations for the control of weeds on the embankment, spillway and paths at Malmsbury Reservoir. After further consideration, I have some doubts about the wisdom of using Weedazol Total or any other Weedicide in the spillway.

I had assumed the first flow over the spillway after treatment would be in midwinter when there was no use of the Malmsbury pool for watering gardens. In actual fact however, a heavy rain soon after spraying could result in water moving over the spillway, even though there was no discharge through the gates, at a time when there was a considerable demand for water from the pool. In other words there is a possibility that the use of Weedazol Total in the spillway could cause damage to private gardens in Malmsbury. Its use should therefore be limited to the embankment.

As regards spray treatments using Diquat and Paraquat, you have already been advised of the withdrawal from use of these two chemicals in all areas. This will affect the recommendation concerning treatment of the paths and the follow-up spraying of the embankment.

Your requirements then as regards weedicides for Malmsbury are thus 60 lbs of Weedazol Total and 1/2 gallon of Plus 50 to be used on the embankment, preferably during December.

1965? Boggy Creek/Thompson River (Vic). Pesticides: Amitrole, Diuron

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Increased use of Weedazol – Macalister Irrigation District

Present Position

At the present time, Weedazol is used in relatively small quantities in the Macalister Irrigation District to treat regrowth of water couch in drains, following the application of Karmex (diuron) during winter.

It is not used however in drains flowing into the Macalister or Thompson Rivers. The Macalister River supplies water to Maffra while the Thompson River supplies water to Sale. The Interdepartmental Committee on Pesticides did not favour the use of Weedazol in Gippsland where domestic Water supplies could be contaminated, because Gippsland is regarded as a goitre area.

The limit set by the Committee for water supplies elsewhere was 0.3 ppm of aminotriazole. The State Rivers and Water Supply Commission established a limit of 0.002 ppm to apply to its own operations wherever water was used for irrigation.

Proposal

The Committee’s approval is sought for a proposal which would result in contamination of the Thompson and Macalister Rivers by aminotriazole between December and April each year. Spraying would be restricted so that the pollution level of aminotriazole does not exceed 0.002 ppm.

The area mainly concerned is Area “A” on the attached plan. Drains in this area flow into the Macalister River which has a controlled summer flow of about 200 cusecs. This would permit the use of some 30 gallons weekly of Weedazol TL i.e. 75 lbs of aminitriazole.

Drains in Area “B” flow into the Thompson River. Only a very limited amount of spraying would be possible in this area because of a small summer flow in the Thompson River.

The consumption of aminotriazole by persons in Maffra and Sale would be very small. Only 0.6 mgm would be consumed each year by a person who drank 2 litres of water daily during the spray period.

1965?: Macalister River Weed Control. Pesticides: Amitrole, Diuron

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Increased use of Weedazol – Macalister Irrigation District

Present Position

At the present time, Weedazol is used in relatively small quantities in the Macalister Irrigation District to treat regrowth of water couch in drains, following the application of Karmex (diuron) during winter.

It is not used however in drains flowing into the Macalister or Thompson Rivers. The Macalister River supplies water to Maffra while the Thompson River supplies water to Sale. The Interdepartmental Committee on Pesticides did not favour the use of Weedazol in Gippsland where domestic Water supplies could be contaminated, because Gippsland is regarded as a goitre area.

The limit set by the Committee for water supplies elsewhere was 0.3 ppm of aminotriazole. The State Rivers and Water Supply Commission established a limit of 0.002 ppm to apply to its own operations wherever water was used for irrigation.

Proposal

The Committee’s approval is sought for a proposal which would result in contamination of the Thompson and Macalister Rivers by aminotriazole between December and April each year. Spraying would be restricted so that the pollution level of aminotriazole does not exceed 0.002 ppm.

The area mainly concerned is Area “A” on the attached plan. Drains in this area flow into the Macalister River which has a controlled summer flow of about 200 cusecs. This would permit the use of some 30 gallons weekly of Weedazol TL i.e. 75 lbs of aminitriazole.

Drains in Area “B” flow into the Thompson River. Only a very limited amount of spraying would be possible in this area because of a small summer flow in the Thompson River.

The consumption of aminotriazole by persons in Maffra and Sale would be very small. Only 0.6 mgm would be consumed each year by a person who drank 2 litres of water daily during the spray period.

1981 November: Numurkah. Pesticide: Acrolein

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10 November 1981

State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Regulations Applying to the use of Acrolein

It was bought to my attention Friday evening (6th November), By Works Inspector *** (Nathalia) that a drum of acrolein in the Numurkah store was considered to be in an unsafe condition. I later learnt that the drum had been opened some eight days previously and part of the contents used in a channel injection.

… The drum exhibited signs of swelling, indicative of a build up of pressure with creases occurring on the top of the drum. It was considered that the contents of the drum be disposed of immediately.

Regulations applying to the use of Acrolein.

Section V4 of the Weed Control Operating Instructions…, clearly states that an opened drum, provided it is blanketed by nitrogen, may only be kept for a maximum of 3 days. This is not only the Commission’s policy but also that of the manufacturers of acrolein…

1983 December: Greensborough possible miscarriages. Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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The Age 14 December 1983

Ban moves towards and end to 2,4,5-T

State Government departments have been banned from using the herbicide 2,4,5-T in built-up areas or on open land near residential areas throughout Victoria…

The Government’s limited ban follows recent claims by three Greensborough women that the use of 2,4,5-T close to their homes may have caused their miscarriages.

1984 February: Boort area (Vic) Fish Kill. Pesticide: Fenvalerate

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission February 5 1984

I inspected the No.2 and the 2/2 with *** and *** on Monday 9th January, 1984.

Dead Fish were found in Allotment 9 and on the No.2 channel down to the Lake Neran outfall. At every bridge over the channel dead fish could be observed floating at the margin of the channel.

While inspecting the channels, we spoke to two of the tomato growers. Both *** and *** were extremely candid about what pesticides had been used on their tomatoes and I subsequently contacted the aerial spray contractor, *** of Elmore. He gave me the following information I had been given by the tomato growers.

Sumicidin (Fenvalerate), Kocide (Copper Oxychloride), Dithane, Endosulfan.

Detection of Dead Fish

The supervision water bailiffs on the No. 2 Channel first noticed distressed fish at noon on Wednesday 4th January, 1984. By the following day, Thursday, many dead fish were floating in the water and no distressed fish were observed.

On Friday 6th January, 1984, a number of dead fish were removed by Commission workers after a local landholder had expressed concern about the dead fish and the possible detrimental affect on water for domestic supply.

Initially I suspected endosulfan as the cause of the fish kill but according to the growers and the spraying contractor, endosulfan was only used adjacent to the 2/2 channel. It is worth noting that the 2/2 channel was treated with acrolein some two weeks prior to the aerial spraying so very few live fish would have been present.

However, it has been reported to me by one of the markers to the spraying contractors noticed one small fish in the 2/2 was distressed after Allotment 53 was sprayed with endosupfan, fenvalerate and kocide on the 4th January 1984.

The most toxic material used near the No.2 channel was fenvalerate. Therefore at this stage, without any residue data to support any conclusions it appears that the fish in the No.2 channel were killed by inadvertent drift of fenvalerate from the aerial spraying of tomatoes in Allotments 45, 10, 9 and 8 C.

It is inevitable that some chemical will drift from any type of spraying operations but the disturbing feature of this fish kill is that fish appeared to have died some 6 kilometres downstream from the point of spraying…

Conclusion

1. The fish kill in the No.2 channel was caused by accidental drift from aerial spraying of tomatoes adjacent to the channel.

2. Fenvalerate appears to have been the pesticide responsible.

3. It was an isolated incident in an area where tomatoes have been grown for at least 10 years and where aerial spraying has been the predominant method of applying pesticides in the past 6 years.

Recommendation

Aerial spraying of crops adjacent to channels be closely observed to identify if this incident was as isolated as we believe.

1973/4: Bright Pine Plantations (Vic). Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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Forests Commission Victoria

1973/74 Aerial Spraying of 2,4,5-T

In Bright district, a combination of steep, secluded gullies and severe down-draught in the lee of ridges created an extremely difficult flying situation. One one occasion the pilot was forced to dump 50 gallons of the spray load to clear trees on a spur. The area of the dump with immediately located on, and adjacent to, a steep track. Run off gutters were cut across the track to ensure that rainfall flushed the pesticide into the forest. A polystyrene dam was floated across the nearby creek draining the area. However no rain fell on the area for at least three days. The area of the dump with clearly marked to permit observation of its effect on the patch of pines drenched by the pesticide.

1962 June – 1962 September: Tongala drains (Vic). Pesticide: Monuron

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

29th March 1963

Pollution of Water Supplies by CMU

Control of water couch in drains can be obtained by application of Telvar (CMU) at a rate of 50 lbs per acre, provided the drains are relatively dry and there is little foliage present.

The experiment described below was conducted in order to determine the extent of pollution of water supplies resulting from the use of CMU is this way and the time at which it occurs. The information obtained enabled an assessment to be made of the risk of injury to crops being irrigated directly from drains treated with CMU and from streams into which the treated drains flow.

Experimental Procedure.

From the 11th to 22nd June, 1962, 560 lbs of Telvar was applied to the batters of a drain in the Tongala district with the standard Furphy spray unit, the application rate being approximately 50 lbs per acre. Before spraying, batters had been cleaned with the Briscoe sloper in the usual way.

During application, and until the 26th September, 88 water samples were taken at the point furthest downstream of treatment…

Results and Discussion

Analysis of the water samples for CMU content produced two important facts. Firstly the contamination of drain water during the three months after application was fairly constant – 1.3% per month of the quantity applied. Secondly, contamination during the first days high flow after the commencement of irrigation was 9% of the quantity applied.

The considerable loss of CMU during the first high flow in drains is most significant. Unless CMU was used on a small scale only, a loss to drain water of the order of 9% of the applied material in such a short period as one day, could cause a dangerously high pollution level in irrigation supplies…

As the quantity of CMU that can be safely used is so small, it is suggested for practical purposes, that it’s use be confined to one district. Tongala is preferred as it has the worst weed problems…

CMU content ranged from 0.18ppm to 6.6ppm in June 1962.

To between 0.3 to 1.31 ppm in July 1962

To between 0.03ppm – 0.5 ppm in September 1962

1971 July: Buffalo River (Vic). Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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14 November 1971

Department of Agriculture Victoria

Analyses of Water for 2,4,5-T Residues

11 water samples from near forest areas sprayed with 2,4,5-T for wattle control by aerial spraying in July 1971.

Pesticide used – 2,4,5-T Butyl Ester in No 2 Fuel Oil at the rate of 1 lb a.i./5 gallons oil/acre

Results of analysis – parts per thousand million

Fiery Creek:
before spraying                      0.7ug/L
24 hours after spraying         6.3ug/L
after 15/7/71                           0.5ug/L

Blue Range (Mansfield):
before spraying 7/7/71 9am                     2.2ug/L
during spraying 8/7/71 9am                     1.9ug/L
during spraying 9/7/71 8am                     6.5ug/L
17 hours after spraying 10/7/71 10am    1.5ug/L
42 hours after spraying 10/7/71 11am    0.7ug/L
After rain                                                   0.5ug/L

Buffalo River:
before spraying                                         0.8ug/L
(Myrtleford) within 24 hours.                    0.5ug/L
After Spraying                                            5.0ug/L

Comments:

A calculation based on 1 lb/acre application of 2,4,5-T shows that water a foot deep directly sprayed could have an initial concentration of about 400 parts per thousand million….

1971 July: Blue Range (Vic). Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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14 November 1971

Department of Agriculture Victoria

Analyses of Water for 2,4,5-T Residues

11 water samples from near forest areas sprayed with 2,4,5-T for wattle control by aerial spraying in July 1971.

Pesticide used – 2,4,5-T Butyl Ester in No 2 Fuel Oil at the rate of 1 lb a.i./5 gallons oil/acre

Results of analysis – parts per thousand million

Fiery Creek:
before spraying                      0.7ug/L
24 hours after spraying         6.3ug/L
after 15/7/71                           0.5ug/L

Blue Range (Mansfield):
before spraying 7/7/71 9am                     2.2ug/L
during spraying 8/7/71 9am                     1.9ug/L
during spraying 9/7/71 8am                     6.5ug/L
17 hours after spraying 10/7/71 10am    1.5ug/L
42 hours after spraying 10/7/71 11am    0.7ug/L
After rain                                                   0.5ug/L

Buffalo River:
before spraying                                         0.8ug/L
(Myrtleford) within 24 hours.                    0.5ug/L
After Spraying                                            5.0ug/L

Comments:

A calculation based on 1 lb/acre application of 2,4,5-T shows that water a foot deep directly sprayed could have an initial concentration of about 400 parts per thousand million….

1971 July: Fiery Creek (Vic). Pesticide: 2,4,5-T

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14 November 1971

Department of Agriculture Victoria

Analyses of Water for 2,4,5-T Residues

11 water samples from near forest areas sprayed with 2,4,5-T for wattle control by aerial spraying in July 1971.

Pesticide used – 2,4,5-T Butyl Ester in No 2 Fuel Oil at the rate of 1 lb a.i./5 gallons oil/acre

Results of analysis – parts per thousand million

Fiery Creek:
before spraying                      0.7ug/L
24 hours after spraying         6.3ug/L
after 15/7/71                           0.5ug/L

Blue Range (Mansfield):
before spraying 7/7/71 9am                     2.2ug/L
during spraying 8/7/71 9am                     1.9ug/L
during spraying 9/7/71 8am                     6.5ug/L
17 hours after spraying 10/7/71 10am    1.5ug/L
42 hours after spraying 10/7/71 11am    0.7ug/L
After rain                                                   0.5ug/L

Buffalo River:
before spraying                                         0.8ug/L
(Myrtleford) within 24 hours.                    0.5ug/L
After Spraying                                            5.0ug/L

Comments:

A calculation based on 1 lb/acre application of 2,4,5-T shows that water a foot deep directly sprayed could have an initial concentration of about 400 parts per thousand million….

1973-74: Rochester (Vic) Drains. Pesticide: Amitrole

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State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

18 November 1979

Large quantities of the weedicide amitrole are used by the Commission, mainly to control the growth of water couchgrass in drains. The commercial product generally used, of which amitrole is the active ingredient, is Weedazol TL.

Amitrole is not used for this purpose or for the control of other aquatic species in the U.S.A. because of its alleged cancer producing properties. The evidence for this claim was considered by the Health Department (through the Interdepartmental Committee on Pesticides – the forerunner of the Pesticides Review Committee), but was rejected. As a result the proposal by the Commission to use amitrole for aquatic weed control was accepted.

In spite of the approval given to use amitrole, a common belief amogst workers in the aquatic weed field is that a move away from its use would ultimately be desirable, simply because of its controversial history. It is now considered that more positive steps should be taken with this objective in mind.

The reason for this proposal is that legal action at present being taken by the Environment Protection Authority in the U.S.A. could result in the weedicide 2,4,5-T being banned in that country. Pressure for a similar ban in Victoria is certain to follow, although it would have little immediate effect on the Commission’s weed control program as only a relatively small quantity of 2,4,5-T is used. On the other hand, the Lands Department and farmers throughout the State would be obliged to use amitrole instead of 2,4,5-T for control of some noxious weeds such as blackberry. It is only a matter of time before amitrole, when used on such a scale, would come under scrutiny and perhaps be banned.

1973/4? Testing
Drains, Rochester and Murray Valley
No.
51    0.22ppm 220 ug/L
52    0.17ppm 170 ug/L
57    0.78ppm 780 ug/L
58    2.40ppm 2,400 ug/L
59    2.10ppm 2,100 ug/L
62    2.00ppm 2,000 ug/L

1988 December: Fitzroy Island (Qld): Pesticide Aldrin

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http://www.seagrasswatch.org/Info_centre/Publications/pdf/meg/Coles_et_al_1990.pdf

1988 February: Cairns Salt Water Creek. Pesticide: Aldrin

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http://www.seagrasswatch.org/Info_centre/Publications/pdf/meg/Coles_et_al_1990.pdf

1988 February: Cairns Esplanade Mudflats. Pesticides: Dieldrin, Aldrin

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http://www.seagrasswatch.org/Info_centre/Publications/pdf/meg/Coles_et_al_1990.pdf

1972 August: Kerang Drain 3. Pesticide: Amitrole detected at 72,000ug/L.

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Kerang Drain 3

State Rivers and Water Supply Commission 1972 August (document).

Contamination limits

At a meeting of the Victorian Interdepartmental Committee on Pesticides on 24th September, 1962, approval was given for the Commission to use amitrole provided the level in domestic drinking water did not exceed 0.3ppm. The only exception was in Gippsland where contamination of drinking water was not permitted as it is a goitre area.

After completion of experiments on the toxicity of amitrole to crops and pastures, the Commission in June, 1963, adopted a maximum contamination level of amitrole in streams of 0.002 ppm. This level was 1/500 th of the concentration which in one irrigation, damaged the most sensitive crop tested.

On the basis of experience the Commission has had with amitrole over the the past ten years, it is considered that the maximum concentration of amitrole in streams could be safely determined at 0.01ppm or higher if necessary. This concentration is slightly higher than the sensitivity of the amitrole analytical method but considerably below the level of 0.3 ppm originally approved.

Although water containing amitrole residues may be pumped from drains for irrigation, this is closely controlled under license to the Commission. Also drainage water is always diluted in streams before use for domestic purposes. Establishment of a separate limit for drainage effluent is therefore unnecessary.

Drain 3 Kerang

Lot C

41 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 52 parts per million (52,000 ug/L)

42 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 72 parts per billion (72,000 ug/L)

41A Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 0.19 parts per billion (190 ug/L)

42A Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 61 parts per billion (61,000 ug/L)

43A Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 28 parts per billion (28,000 ug/L)

44 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 0.31 parts per billion (310 ug/L)

45 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 44 parts per billion (44,000 ug/L)

46 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 35 parts per billion (35,000 ug/L)

47 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 0.06 parts per billion (60 ug/L)

48 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 55 parts per billion (55,000 ug/L)

49 Drain 3, Kerang Amitrole 23 parts per billion (23,000 ug/L)

State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Memo 31 August 1983

On 29 July I drew your attention to the expected withdrawal from sale of the herbicide amitrole by a major supplier. It was understood that the basis for the withdrawal was the alleged carcinogenic (cancer producing) nature of amitrole. A confirmatory letter from ICI Australia was tabled at a meeting of the Agricultural and Domestic Chemicals Review Committee (ADCRC) on 26 August.

You will be aware that amitrole has been used extensively by the Commission for about twenty years, mainly to control the growth of water couchgrass in drains. The withdrawal of amitrole from sale would necessitate the use of an alternative herbicide, At present, glyphosate is the only satisfactory alternative, the additional cost being about $40,000 annually.

The main decision arising from discussion at the meeting was that the Premier be notified of the cation taken by ICI, and that ADCRC considers that State Departments and instrumentalities should cease using amitrole.

However, at a meeting of several members of ADCRC on 30 August, convened when further information had been obtained, it was agreed that no recommendation should be made at present to terminate the use of amitrole. Instead, the Premier would be advised that ADCRC was taking immediate steps to consult ICI on the company’s action, and to obtain a review by the National Health and Medical research Council in toxicological data on amitrole.

It is evident that, for the time being at least, the Commission should plan to continue using amitrole for control of water couchgrass in drains in the usual way. Nevertheless contingency plans should be made so that a change from amitrole to glyphosate can be made as smoothly as possible if such as change becomes necessary.

1972 August: Murrabit Drain 3. Pesticide detected: Amitrole at 72,000 ug/L

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Murrabit Drain 3

State Rivers and Water Supply Commission 1972 August (document).

Contamination limits

At a meeting of the Victorian Interdepartmental Committee on Pesticides on 24th September, 1962, approval was given for the Commission to use amitrole provided the level in domestic drinking water did not exceed 0.3ppm. The only exception was in Gippsland where contamination of drinking water was not permitted as it is a goitre area.

After completion of experiments on the toxicity of amitrole to crops and pastures, the Commission in June, 1963, adopted a maximum contamination level of amitrole in streams of 0.002 ppm. This level was 1/500 th of the concentration which in one irrigation, damaged the most sensitive crop tested.

On the basis of experience the Commission has had with amitrole over the the past ten years, it is considered that the maximum concentration of amitrole in streams could be safely determined at 0.01ppm or higher if necessary. This concentration is slightly higher than the sensitivity of the amitrole analytical method but considerably below the level of 0.3 ppm originally approved.

Although water containing amitrole residues may be pumped from drains for irrigation, this is closely controlled under license to the Commission. Also drainage water is always diluted in streams before use for domestic purposes. Establishment of a separate limit for drainage effluent is therefore unnecessary.

Drain 3 Murrabit

Lot D X Drain 3, Murrabit Amitrole 0.5 parts per million (500 ug/L)
Lot D Y Drain 3, Murrabit Amitrole 72 parts per million (72,000 ug/L)
Lot D Z Drain 3, Murrabit Amitrole 7.2 parts per billion (7,200 ug/L)

State Rivers and Water Supply Commission

Memo 31 August 1983

On 29 July I drew your attention to the expected withdrawal from sale of the herbicide amitrole by a major supplier. It was understood that the basis for the withdrawal was the alleged carcinogenic (cancer producing) nature of amitrole. A confirmatory letter from ICI Australia was tabled at a meeting of the Agricultural and Domestic Chemicals Review Committee (ADCRC) on 26 August.

You will be aware that amitrole has been used extensively by the Commission for about twenty years, mainly to control the growth of water couchgrass in drains. The withdrawal of amitrole from sale would necessitate the use of an alternative herbicide, At present, glyphosate is the only satisfactory alternative, the additional cost being about $40,000 annually.

The main decision arising from discussion at the meeting was that the Premier be notified of the cation taken by ICI, and that ADCRC considers that State Departments and instrumentalities should cease using amitrole.

However, at a meeting of several members of ADCRC on 30 August, convened when further information had been obtained, it was agreed that no recommendation should be made at present to terminate the use of amitrole. Instead, the Premier would be advised that ADCRC was taking immediate steps to consult ICI on the company’s action, and to obtain a review by the National Health and Medical research Council in toxicological data on amitrole.

It is evident that, for the time being at least, the Commission should plan to continue using amitrole for control of water couchgrass in drains in the usual way. Nevertheless contingency plans should be made so that a change from amitrole to glyphosate can be made as smoothly as possible if such as change becomes necessary.

 

2010 + 2015: Regent Street, Mount Waverely (Vic). Pesticides: Dieldrin, Simazine, Desisopropylatrazine, Imidacloprid, p,p’DDE, p,p’DDD

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 322: u/S Regent St Mt Waverley

21/04/2010. Dieldrin 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.093ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.01ug/L, Imidicloprid 0.007ug/L.

Sediment: p,p’DDE 8.6ug/kg, p,p’DDD 3ug/kg

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Regent St Wetlands u/s Regent St; Mt Waverley

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: Bifenthrin 41ug/kg, DEET 10ug/kg, Diuron 51ug/kg, Trifloxystrobin 48ug/kg

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

 

2010 + 2015: Cala Street Ponds, Footscray. Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 321: Cala St Ponds West Footscray

29/04/2010. Dimethoate 0.001ug/L, Dieldrin 0.004ug/L, Atrazine 0.033ug/L, Simazine 0.46ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.065ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L, Triadimenol 0.004ug/L.

Sediment: 29/4/10 p,p-DDE 3ug/kg, Dieldrin 11ug/kg, Simazine 4ug/kg, atrazine-2-hydroxy 2ug/kg

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Cala St Ponds at Cala St; West Footscray

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: Bifenthrin 16ug/kg, DEET 8.8ug/kg, Metolachlor 51.9ug/kg, Pyrimethanil 4ug/kg

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

 

2010 April: Truganina Swamp, Altona (Vic). Pesticides; Atrazine, Hexazinone, Simazine, Terbutryn, Desisopropylatrazine, Metalaxyl

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 320:  Truganina Swamp Altona

20/04/2010. Atrazine 0.026ug/L, Hexazinone 0.015ug/L, Simazine 0.56ug/L, Terbutryn 0.001ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.047ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.003ug/L

2010 April: Sharps Road Keilor (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 319: Sharps Rd Keilor

28/04/2010.  Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Dieldrin 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.029ug/L, Simazine 0.2ug/L, Terbutyrn 0.002ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.028ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L, Triadimenol 0.002ug/L.

Sediment: 29/4/10 Bifenthrin 27ug/kg, Dieldrin 5.4ug/kg, cis-Chlordane 2ug/kg, Chlorothalonil 53ug/kg, Simazine 2ug/kg

2010 + 2015: Cherry Lake, Altona (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 316:  Cherry Lake Altona

20/04/2010. Fenvalerate 0.033ug/L, Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 1.65ug/L, Hexazinone 0.014ug/L, Metribuzin 0.99ug/L, Simazine 1.72ug/L, Terbutryn 0.002ug/L, Desethylatrazine 0.17ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.25ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.001ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.011ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.001ug/L, Triadimenol 0.016ug/L, Propiconazole 0.005ug/L.

Sediment 20/4/10 Atrazine 2ug/kg, Simazine 2ug/kg, atrazine-2hydroxy 2ug/kg

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Cherry Lake @ Sugargum Drive, Altona

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: Bifenthrin 26ug/kg, Diuron 20ug/kg, Pyrimethanil 7.2ug/kg

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

2010 April: Woodland Park Essendon. Pesticides: Atrazine, Simazine, Imidacloprid, Tebuconazole, Propiconazole, p,p’DDE

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 315: Woodland Park Essendon

29/04/2010. Atrazine 0.002ug/L, Simazine 0.023ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.008ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.021, Propiconazole 0.022ug/L.

Sediment 29/4/10 p,p’DDE 2ug/kg

2010 + 2015: Queens Park Moonee Ponds (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 314: Queen’s Park Moonee Ponds

29/04/2010. Atrazine 0.015ug/L Simazine 4.78ug/L, Terbutryn 0.001ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.22ug/L, Imidicloprid 0.065ug/L.

Sediment: 29/4/10 p,p’DDE 5.4ug/kg, Simazine 7.1ug/kg, atrazine-3-hydroxy 7ug/kg

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Queens Park Lake at the Strand, Moonee Ponds

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: Bifenthrin 8ug/kg

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

 

2010 + 2015: Jack Roper Reserve (Vic) Broadmeadows. Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 312: Jack Roper Reserve Broadmeadows

28/04/2010. Dieldrin 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.029ug/L, Simazine 0.05ug/L, Terbutryn 0.022ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.034ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.002ug/L, Propiconazole 0.002ug/L.

Sediment: 29/4/10 Bifenthrin 12ug/kg, Permethrin 28ug/kg, Dieldrin 2ug/kg, trans-Chlordane 1ug/kg

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Jack Roper Reserve Lake at Camp Rd; Broadmeadows

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: Bifenthrin 32ug/kg, DEET 13ug/kg, Diuron 96ug/kg, Permethrin 29.5ug/kg

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

2010 April: Jawbone Conservation Reserve Williamstown. Pesticides: Simazine, Desisopropylatrazine, Imidacloprid, Propiconazole, Bifenthrin, Atrazine-2-Hydroxy

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 311: Jawbone Conserv. Res. Williamstown

20/04/2010. Simazine 0.31ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.036ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.005ug/L, Propiconazole 0.002ug/L.

Sediment: 20/4/10 Bifenthrin 35ug/kg, atrazine-2-hydroxy 3ug/kg

2010 + 2015: Endeavour Hills Frog Hollow Reserve (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple.

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 310: Frog Hollow Reserve Endeavour Hills

21/04/2010. Simazine 0.027ug/L, Terbutryn 0.002ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.013ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.001ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L, Myclobutanil 0.002ug/L, Triadimenol 0.004ug/L.

Sediment 21/4/10 Bifenthrin 29ug/kg

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Frog Hollow Reserve Wetland at Belgrave-hallam Rd, Endevour Hills

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: Bifenthrin 245ug/kg, Diuron 5ug/kg, Permethrin 13.35ug/kg, Pyrimethanil 2.4ug/L

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

2010 April: Chirnside Park (Vic). Pesticides: Atrazine, Simazine, Terbutryn, Desisopropylatrazine, Imidacloprid, Pirimicarb, Metalaxyl, Fipronil

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 308: Pezzimenti Pl Chirnside Park

27/04/2010. Atrazine 0.022ug/L, Simazine 0.097ug/L, Terbutryn 0.002ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.005ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.006ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.001ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L, Fipronil 0.01ug/L

2010 + 2015: Mount Cooper, Bundoora. Pesticides: Atrazine, Simazine, Terbutryn, Bifenthrin, DEET, Diuron, Prometryn

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 306: Mount Cooper wetlands Bundoora

22/04/2010. Atrazine 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.049ug/L, Terbutryn 0.022ug/L.

Sediment: 22/4/10 Bifenthrin 35ug/kg

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Mt Cooper Wetland; Bundoora

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: Bifenthrin 43ug/kg, DEET 13ug/kg, Diuron 86ug/kg, Prometryn 26ug/kg,

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

2010 April: Lennon Street Point Cook. Pesticides: Dimethoate, Atrazine, Simazine, Terbutryn, Imidacloprid, Metalaxyl, Bifenthrin

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 305: Lennon St Pt Cook

Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.013ug/L, Simazine 0.12ug/L, Terbutryn 0.002ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.004ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.004ug/L.

Sediment: 29/4/10 Bifenthrin 30ug/kg

2010 + 2015: Berwick Springs (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 303: Berwick Springs Lake Berwick Springs

21/04/2010 Fenamiphos 0.005ug/L, Atrazine 0.004ug/L, Prometryn 0.16ug/L, Simazine 0.07ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.01ug/L, Methomyl 0.011ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.49ug/L, Oxadixyl 0.012ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.018ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.19ug/L, Dimethomorph 0.002ug/L.

Sediment: 21/4/10 Fenamiphos 2ug/kg, Imidacloprid 8ug/kg, Metalaxyl 1ug/kg, Azoxystrobin 7ug/kg, Linuron 1ug/kg

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Berwick Springs Lake at The Esplanade Jetty; Narre Warren South

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: Bifenthrin 51.6ug/kg, Diuron 4ug/kg, Permethrin 10.95ug/kg Pyrimethanil 2ug/kg

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

2010 + 2015: Boardwalk Point Cook (Vic). Pesticides: Atrazine, Simazine, Metalaxyl, Bifenthrin, DEET, Pyrimethanil

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

302 Boardwalk Pt Cook -37.88167177 144.7371936 28/04/2010 Atrazine 0.001ug/L, Simazine 0.058ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.003ug/L

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Boardwalk Wetland at Central Park Ave; Point Cook

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: Bifenthrin 38ug/kg, DEET 12ug/kg, Pyrimethanil 7.22ug/kg

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

2010 + 2015: Gresswell Reserve Bundoora. Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI Agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment Project Report 2009-10

Table 5: Urban Wetland Survey

Site 301: Greswell Reserve Bundoora

22/04/2010. Atrazine 0.006ug/L, Simazine 0.039ug/L, Terbutryn 0.001ug/L, Propiconazole 0.006ug/L.

Sediment: 22/4/10 Bifenthrin 59ug/kg, Permethrin 34ug/kg, p,p’DDE 4.7ug/kg, Trifloxystrobin 1ug/kg

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Gresswell Reserve, Bundoora

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: Bifenthrin 92.2ug/kg, Diuron 221ug/kg, Permethrin 27.15ug/kg, Pyrimethanil 2ug/kg

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

2009 September – 2010 January: Meadow Heights (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 41: Shankland Wetland Meadow Heights

9/9/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 1.6ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.07ug/L

12/10/09: Hexazinone 0.009ug/L, Simazine 1.4ug/L

7/12/09: Prometryn 0.03ug/L, Simazine: 0.1ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.02ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.004ug/L

19/1/10: Atrazine 0.004ug/L, Simazine 2.21ug/L, Terbutryn 0.01ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.31ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.001ug/L

Site 41 Sediment: 7/9/09 Simazine 11ug/kg. 7/12/09 Bifenthrin 8ug/kg. 19/1/10 Simazine 8.4ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – January 2010: Brodies Lake Greenvale (Vic). Pesticides: Simazine, Desisipropylatrazine, Metalaxyl, Prometryn, Imidacloprid

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Site 40: Brodies Lakes Greenvale

9/9/09: Simazine 0.66ug/L, Desisipropylatrazine 0.07ug/L

12/10/09: Simazine 0.39ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.12ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.004ug/L

7/12/09: Prometyrn 0.02ug/L, Simazine: 0.085ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.03ug/L

19/1/10: Simazine 0.049ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.072ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.005ug/L

Site 40 Sediment: 7/9/09 Simazine 27ug/kg. 12/10/09 Simazine 2ug/kg. 7/12/09 Bifenthrin 14ug/kg, Simazine 3ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Mill Park. Pesticides detected: Simazine, Prometryn, Metalaxyl, Atrazine, Terbutryn

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Site 39: Red Leap Reserve Mill Park

9/9/09: Simazine 0.05ug/L

9/10/09: Simazine 0.03ug/L

7/12/09: Prometryn 0.19ug/L, Simazine: 0.03ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.008ug/L

20/1/10: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.03ug/L, Terbutryn 0.01ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.012ug/L

Site 39 Sediment: 7/9/09 Simazine 3.1ug/kg. 20/1/10 7ug/kg. 20/1/10 Terbutryn 2ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Craigieburn. Pesticides: Atrazine, Simazine, Prometryn, Bifenthrin, Pendimethalin

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Site 38: Highlands Estate Wetland Cragieburn

9/9/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.04ug/L

12/10/09: Simazine 0.02ug/L

7/12/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Prometryn 0.12ug/L, Simazine: 0.05ug/L

20/1/10: Atrzazine 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.02ug/L

Site 38 Sediment: 7/12/09 Bifenthrin 11ug/kg, Pendimethalin 1ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Wetland Mernda. Pesticides: Atrazine, Simazine, Propiconazole, Tebuconazole, Prometryn, Imidacloprid

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Site 37: Stockland Development Wetland Mernda

9/9/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.01ug/L, Propiconazole 0.01ug/L

9/10/09: Simazine 0.03ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.006ug/L, Propiconazole 0.008ug/L

8/12/09: Prometryn 0.12ug/L, Simazine: 0.01ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.011ug/L, Propiconazole 0.003ug/L

20/1/10: Simazine 0.01ug/L, Propiconazole 0.01ug/L

Site 37: Sediment: 9/10/09: Propiconazole 2ug/kg. 20/1/10 Permethrin 55ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Maribyrnong River Avondale Heights. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 36: Maribyrnong @ Canning St Ford Avondale Heights

8/9/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.14ug/L

7/10/09: Simazine 0.06ug/L

8/12/09: Atrazine 0.004ug/L, Prometryn 0.13ug/L, Simazine: 0.53ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.05ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.034ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.011ug/L

20/1/10: Simazine 0.05ug/L, Pyraclostrobin 0.003ug/L

Site 36 Sediment: 7/9/09 Simazine 2.6ug/kg. 8/12/09 Bifenthrin 6ug/kg, p,p’DDE 4ug/kg, Dieldrin 4ug/kg, Simazine 3ug/kg, Boscalid 1.3ug/kg, Pendimethalin 2ug/kg. 20/1/10 p,p’DDE 4ug/kg, Dieldrin 1ug/kg, BHC-alpha 9ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Maribyrnong River Keilor. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 35: Maribyrnong @ Calder Hwy Keilor

8/9/09: Simazine 0.45ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.05ug/L

13/10/09: Simazine: 0.1ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.021ug/L

9/12/09: Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Dieldrin 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Prometryn 0.08ug/L, Simazine: 0.51ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.059ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.024ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.007ug/L

19/1/10: Fenamiphos 0.001ug/L, Atrazine 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.45ug/L, Desisoproylatrazine 0.05ug/L, Methomyl 0.002ug/L, Carbaryl 0.003ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.001ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.004ug/L, Tebufenozide 0.002ug/L

Site 35 Sediment: 7/9/09 p,p’DDE 11ug/kg, Simazine 8.2ugkg, Pirimicarb 1ug/kg. 13/10/09 p,p’DDE 13ug/kg. 9/12/09 p,p’DDE 10ug/kg, Simazine 2ug/kg, Boscalid 2ug/kg. 19/1/10 p,p’DDE 6ug/kg, Dieldrin 2ug/kg, BHC-alpha 2ug/kg. 19/1/10 Simazine 6.3ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Arundel Creek (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 34: Arundel Creek @ Annadale Rd Arundel

8/9/09: Dieldrin 0.019ug/L, Atrazine 0.03ug/L Simazine 0.82ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.09ug/L,

13/10/09: Dieldrin 0.026ug/L, Atrazine 0.02ug/L, Simazine: 0.19ug/L

9/12/09: Dieldrin 0.006ug/L, Atrazine 0.02ug/L, Prometryn 0.17ug/L, Simazine: 0.092ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.062ug/L

19/1/10: Dieldrin 0.014ug/L, Atrazine 0.02ug/L, Simazine 0.62ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.088ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.031ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.002ug/L

Site 34 Sediment: 7/9/09 Permethrin 49ug/kg, Dieldrin 96ug/kg, Simazine 15ug/kg. 13/10/09 Dieldrin 34ug/kg. 9/12/09 Cypermethrin 13ug/kg, Permethrin 39ug/kg, Dieldrin 25ug/kg. 19/1/10 Malathion 5ug/kg, Dieldrin 18ug/kg. 19/1/10 Simazine 2ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Maribyrnong River Keilor. Pesticides: Simazine, Imadacloprid, Atrazine, Prometryn, Desisipropylatrazine, Metalaxyl

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Site 33: Maribyrnong @ McNabs Weir Keilor

8/9/09: Simazine 0.45ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.057ug/L

8/10/09: Simazine 0.12ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.02ug/L

9/12/09: Atrazine 0.004ug/L, Prometryn 0.4ug/L, Simazine: 0.52ug/L, Desisipropylatrazine 0.04ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.036ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.007ug/L

19/1/10: Atrazine 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.052ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L

Site 33 Sediment: 7/9/09 Simazine 4.7ug/kg. 9/12/09 p,p’DDE 3ug/kg. 19/1/10 p,p’DDE 3ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Maribyrnong River Sydenham (Vic). Pesticides: Simazine, Imidacloprid, Propiconazole, Pyraclostrobin, Atrazine

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Site 32: Maribyrnong d/s Jacksons Ck Sydenham

8/9/09: Simazine 0.6ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.073ug/L, Propiconazole 0.01ug/L

8/10/09: Simazine 0.2ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.025ug/L, Pyraclostrobin 0.002ug/L

19/1/10: Atrazine 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.054ug/L

Site 32 Sediment: 7/9/09 Simazine 6ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Deep Creek, Bulla (Vic). Pesticides: Propinconazole, Simazine, Atrazine, Prometryn, Desisopropyl Atrazine, Imidacloprid, Metalaxyl

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Site 31: Deep Ck @ Bulla Rd Bulla

8/9/09: Propiconazole 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.02ug/L

7/10/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.01ug/L

9/12/09: Atrzazine 0.005ug/L, Prometryn 0.66ug/L, Simazine: 0.22ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.02ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.029ug/L

19/1/10: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.03ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L

Site 31 Sediment: 7/9/09 p,p’DDE 8.7ug/kg, Dieldrin 6.3ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

 

 

2009 October – 2010 January: Jacksons Creek Sunbury (Vic). Pesticides: Simazine, Imidacloprid, Metalaxyl, Atrazine, Prometryn, Azoxystrobin

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30 Jacksons Ck @ Homestead Way Sunbury

7/10/09: Simazine: 0.03ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.015ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.004ug/L

9/12/09: Atrazine 0.003ug/L, Prometryn 0.49ug/L, Simazine: 0.03ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.005ug/L

19/1/10: Simazine 0.02ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.004ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.001ug/L

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Darebin Creek Fairfield. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site17: Darebin Creek Abbott Rd, Fairfield

9/9/09: Dieldrin 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.01ug/L Simazine 1.5ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.04ug/L

5/10/09: Hexazinone 0.004ug/L, Simazine 0.13ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.02ug/L

10/12/09: Fenamiphos 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Prometryn 0.66ug/L, Simazine 0.14ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.006ug/L, Carbaryl 0.004ug/L

20/1/10: Fenamiphos 0.009ug/L, Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.11ug/L, Terbutryn 0.003ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.001ug/L

Site 17 Sediment: 7/9/09 Permethrin 84ug/kg, Dieldrin 25ug/kg, Endosulfan beta 3ug/kg, Simazine 79ug/kg. 5/10/09: Dieldrin 25ug/kg. 10/12/09 Dieldrin 7ug/kg, Simazine 1.6ug/kg. 20/1/10 Aldrin 5ug/kg, Dieldrin 12ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Merri Creek Clifton Hill. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 16: Merri Creek Roseneath St Clifton Hill

9/9/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L Simazine 1.5ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.08ug/L

13/10/09: Simazine 0.33ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.05ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.019ug/L

10/12/09: Atrazine 0.026ug/L, Prometryn 0.9ug/L, Simazine 0.36ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.05ug/L, Carbaryl 0.004ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.002ug/L, Triadimefon 0.002ug/L, Propiconazole 0.01ug/L

20/1/10: Dichlorvos 0.009ug/L, Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Atrazine 0.2ug/L, Hexazinone 0.042ug/L, Simazine 0.29ug/L, Terbutryn 0.004ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.04ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.002ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.003ug/L

Site 16 Sediment: 7/9/09 p,p’DDE 50ug/kg, Dieldrin 23ug/kg, Simazine 50ug/kg. 3/10/09 Dieldrin 20ug/kg, Simazine 3ug/kg. 10/12/09 p,p’DDE 6ug/kg, Dieldrin 8ug/kg, Simazine 1.5ug/kg. 20/1/10 Bifenthrin 25ug/kg, Aldrin 5ug/kg, Dieldrin 10ug/kg. 20/1/10 Simazine 2ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009/2010 + 2015: Lynbrook Estate Wetlands. Pesticides: Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

Site 29: Lynbrook Estate Wetlands Lynbrook Bvd, Lynbrook

8/9/09: Simazine 0.02ug/L

6/10/09: Bifenthrin 0.14ug/L, Atrazine 0.005ug/L, Simazine 0.02ug/L

16/12/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Prometryn 0.67ug/L, Simazine 0.65ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.062ug/L

22/1/10: Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Prometryn 0.001ug/L, Simazine 0.29ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.005ug/L

Site 29: Sediment: 7/9/09  p,p’DDE 7.4ug/kg, p,pDDD 39ug/kg, p,p’DDT 157ug/kg, Dieldrin 11ug/kg, Endosulfan alpha 10ug/kg. 6/10/09: Bifenthrin 23ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Lynbrook Estate Wetlands

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: Bifenthrin 136ug/kg, DEET 4.8ug/kg, Diuron 165ug/kg, Fenamiphos 69.6ug/kg, Permethrin 49.2ug/kg

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

2009 September – 2010 January: Koonung Creek (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 28: Koonung Creek Bulleen Rd

9/9/09: p,p-DDE 0.004ug/L, Dieldrin 0.007ug/L, Simazine 0.08ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.049ug/L

14/10/09: Dimethoate 0.005ug/L, Dieldrin 0.004ug/L, Simazine 1.9ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.021ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.01ug/L

22/1/10: Dimethoate 0.004ug/L, Simazine 0.29ug/L, Terbutryn 0.003ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.004ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.001ug/L, Desisopropylatrazine 0.03ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.042ug/L

Site 28 Sediment: 7/9/09 p.p’DDE 16ug/kg, Dieldrin 38ug/kg, Simazine 23 ug/kg. 14/10/09 Bifenthrin 34ug/kg, p,p’DDE 16ug/kg, Dieldrin 27ug/kg, Simazine 3.8ug/kg. 22/1/10 Bifenthrin 25ug/kg, Aldrin 3ug/kg, p,p’DDE 4ug/kg, Dieldrin 7ug/kg, trans-chlordane 3ug/kg. 22/1/10 Propiconazole 2ug/kg

 

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – 2010 January: Dandenong Creek Wantirna. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 27: Dandenong Creek Wantirna Rd

9/9/09: Dieldrin 0.007ug/L, Atrazine 0.01ug/L, Simazine 0.08ug/L, Methomyl 0.014ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.007ug/L, Propiconazole 0.07ug/L

6/10/09: Dimethoate 0.003ug/L, Dieldrin 0.004ug/L, Simazine 0.94ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.03ug/L, Propiconazole 0.02ug/L

16/12/09: Prometryn 0.35ug/L, Simazine 0.4ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.051ug/L, Oxadixyl 0.008ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.042ug/L, Propiconazole 0.034ug/L

22/1/10: Simazine 0.38ug/L, Terbutryn 0.003ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.015ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.002ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.002ug/L

Site 27 Sediment: 6/10/09: Bifenthrin 50ug/kg, Dieldrin 25ug/kg, Simazine 3.5ug/kg, Tebuconazole 4ug/kg, Propiconazole 3ug/kg. 16/12/09 Bifenthrin 12ug/kg, p,p’DDE 3ug/kg, Dieldrin 12ug/kg, Fenarimol 160ug/kg, Simazine 1.1ug/kg, Propiconazole 2ug/kg. 22/1/10 Bifenthrin 54ug/kg. 22/1/10 Tebuconazole 2ug/kg, Propiconazole 2ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009 September – January 2010: Gardiners Creek (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Site 26: Gardiners Creek upstream-High St Glen Iris

8/9/09: Atrazine 0.01ug/L Simazine 0.55ug/L, Terbutryn 0.01ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.092ug/L

20/10/09: Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Dieldrin 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.08ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.025ug/L

22/1/10: Dimethoate 0.002ug/L, Simazine 0.49ug/L, Terbutryn 0.002ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.001ug/L, Azoxystrobin 0.002ug/L

Site 26 Sediment: 7/9/09 Bifenthrin 110ug/kg, p,p’DDE 20ug/kg, Dieldrin 28ug/kg, Simazine 12ug/kg. 20/10/09: Bifenthrin 25ug/kg, Dieldrin 18ug/kg, Simazine 2ug/kg. 22/1/10 Bifenthrin 43ug/kg, Chlorpyrifos 4ug/kg, Aldrin 4ug/kg, p,p’DDE 4ug/kg, Dieldrin 9ug/kg, trans-chlordane 3ug/kg. 22/1/10 Trifloxystrobin 1ug/kg

Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

2009/2010 + 2015: Platypus Wetlands Lilydale. Pesticides Multiple

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Melbourne Water and DPI agrochemicals in Port Phillip Catchment project report 2009-10

Site 25: Platypus wetlands (Hull Rd wetlands) Hull Rd, Lilydale

7/9/09: Dimethoate 0.003ug/L, Simazine 0.04ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.012ug/L, Indoxacarb 0.005ug/L

21/10/09: Simazine 0.02ug/L, Tebufenazole 0.006ug/L

10/12/09: Dimethoate 0.059ug/L, Atrazine 0.02ug/L, Prometryn 1.64ug/L, Simazine 0.37ug/L, Methomyl 0.051ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.014ug/L, Oxadixyl 0.002ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.003ug/L, Myclobutanil 0.004ug/L, Fenoxycarb 0.002ug/L

21/1/10: Simazine 0.03ug/L, Methomyl 0.019ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.002ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.003ug/L

Site 25 Sediment: 10/12/09 Simazine 1.7ug/kg, Myclobutanil 1.1ug/kg, Penconazole 1ug/kg. 21/1/10 Oxychlordane 8ug/kg, trans-chlordane 1ug/kg

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Platypus Wetlands Lilydale

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: Bifenthrin 23ug/kg, DEET 18ug/kg

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

 

2012 October – 2013 February: Troups Creek Narre Warren. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site #210. Troups Creek retarding basin (RB) wetland (suburban storm water retention system from which water reuse to domestic customers by SE Water). Narre Warren

Oct 12: Simazine 0.047ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.01ug/L, Diuron 0.03ug/L, Metolachlor 0.001ug/L, Dicamba 0.063ug/L, 2,4-D 0.018ug/L, MCPA 0.1ug/L, Triclopyr 0.027ug/L, Metsulfuron Methyl 0.005ug/L

Feb 13: Simazine 0.1ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.013ug/L, Diuron 0.051ug/L, Terbutyrn 0.002ug/L, Picloram 0.079ug/L, 2,4-D 0.004ug/L, MCPA 0.133ug/L, Triclopyr 0.009ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2012 October – 2013 February: Ti-Tree Creek Berwick. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site #209. Ti-Tree Creek drainage scheme (DS) (suburban storm water retention system). Clyde road/greaves rd Berwick

Oct 12: Simazine 0.14ug/L. DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.01ug/L, Atrazine 0.005ug/L, Diuron 0.02ug/L, Metolachlor 0.42ug/L, Prometryn 0.17ug/L, Linuron 0.04ug/L, Clopyralid 0.056ug/L, Dicamba 0.05ug/L, 2,4-D 0.075ug/L, MCPA 0.51ug/L, Triclopyr 0.024ug/L, Metsulfuron Methyl 0.016ug/L

Feb 13: Simazine 0.117ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.017ug/L, Diuron 0.025ug/L, Metolachlor 0.029ug/L, Prometryn 0.028ug/L, Clopyralid 0.011ug/L, 2,4-D 0.033ug/L, MCPA 0.277ug/L, Triclopyr 0.004ug/L, Metsulfuron Methyl 0.018ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2012 October – 2013 February: Wallan Wetlands. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site #208. Wallan Wetlands (a regional urban (town) catchment).

Oct 12: Simazine 0.022ug/L, Atrazine 0.009ug/L, Diuron 0.03ug/L, Clopyralid 0.03ug/L, Dicamba 0.12ug/L, 2,4-D 0.018ug/L, MCPA 0.28ug/L, Triclopyr 0.085ug/L, Metsulfuron Methyl 0.057ug/L.

Feb 13: Simazine 0.018ug/L, Atrazine 0.008ug/L, Diuron 0.044ug/L, Clopyralid 0.016ug/L, 2,4-D 0.013ug/L, MCPA 0.005ug/L, Triclopyr 0.007ug/L, Metsulfuron Methyl 0.008ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2012 October – 2013 February: Afton Street Wetlands, Aberfeldie (Vic). Pesticides: Multiple

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Site #207. Afton St Wetlands (a wetland system for storm water harvesting and irrigation). (Aberfeldie)

Oct 12: Simazine 0.35ug/L. DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.031ug/L, Atrazine 0.008ug/L, Diuron 0.09ug/L, Metolachlor 0.002ug/L, Dicamba 0.036ug/L, 2,4-D 0.019ug/L, MCPA 0.09ug/L, Triclopyr 0.009ug/L

Feb 13: Simazine 0.194ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.034ug/L, Atrazine 0.005ug/L, Diuron 0.047ug/L, Terbutryn 0.004ug/L, 2,4-D 0.006ug/L, MCPA 0.027ug/L, Triclopyr 0.123ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2012 October: Edinburgh Gardens Fitzroy. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site #206. Edinburgh Gardens (a bioretention system for storm water harvesting and irrigation).

Oct 12: Simazine 0.22ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.04ug/L, DEA ( desethyl atrazine) 0.005ug/L, Atrazine 0.012ug/L, Diuron 0.04ug/L, Metolachlor 0.002ug/L, Clopyralid 0.059ug/L, 2,4-D 0.01ug/L, MCPA 0.2ug/L, Triclopyr 0.006ug/L, Metsulfuron Methyl 0.003ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2012 October – 2013 February: Sanctuary Lakes Leopold. Pesticides: Multiple

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Site #205. Sanctuary Lakes, Leopold (suburban storm water retention system).

Oct 12: Simazine 2ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.14ug/L, Atrazine 0.013ug/L, Diuron 0.05ug/L, Metolachlor 0.002ug/L, 2,4-D 0.051ug/L, MCPA 0.4ug/L, Triclopyr 0.006ug/L .

Feb 13: 0.513ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.142ug/L, Atrazine 0.007ug/L, Diuron 0.27ug/L, Terbutryn 0.008ug/L, Picloram 0.14ug/L, 2,4-D 0.006ug/L, MCPA 0.016ug/L, Triclopyr 0.002ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2012 October – February 2013: Darling Street East Melbourne. Pesticides Multiple.

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Darling Street Storm Water Collection System

Site #203. Darling St storm water collection system, East Melbourne (inner urban, newly established system; CAPIM investigations at this site began in 2011-12, as part of a study funded by the City of Melbourne in this system (providing additional in-kind support to this study)).

Oct 12: Simazine 0.097ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.33ug/L, Diuron 0.31ug/L, Metolachlor 0.002ug/L, Clopyralid 0.01ug/L, Dicamba 0.12ug/L, 2,4-D 0.067ug/L, MCPA 0.051ug/L, Triclopyr 0.014ug/L.

Feb 13: Simazine 0.013ug/L, DIA (desisopropyl atrazine) 0.714ug/L, Diuron 0.185ug/L, Metolachlor 0.002ug/L, Fluroxpyr 0.021ug/L, 2,4-D 0.002ug/L, Triclopyr 0.054ug/L

Use of novel rapid assessment tools for efficient monitoring of micropollutants in urban storm water

(SWF Project 8OS – 8100) Final Report Graeme Allinson Mayumi Allinson, Jackie Myers, Vincent Pettigrove

2011 April: Nambour (Qld). Road workers hospitalised.

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Seven Treated after Chemical Spill

Sunshine Coast Daily 14 April 2011

A CREW of seven road maintenance workers had to be treated in hospital for exposure to a dangerous pesticide which spilled out of a dumped drum.

The men were working an overnight shift on the Bruce Highway near the turn-off to Keel Mountain Road at Nambour yesterday.

It is not known how the chemicals spilled on the roadside but it is understood the men where doing excavation-type duties.

A Department of Emergency Services spokeswoman said six of the workers presented to Nambour General Hospital from about 4am.

Firefighters were called in to erect decontamination showers outside emergency and helped doctors to inspect the severity of the men’s injuries.

They were suffering from minor irritations such as pain and swelling of the eye.

The spokeswoman said another man presented himself to Royal Brisbane Hospital about 6am after completing his shift.

Fire crews removed the pesticide drum from Keel Mountain Road and made sure the site was safe.

http://www.sunshinecoastdaily.com.au/news/seven-treated-after-chemical-spill/824241/

2007 July: Lockwood (Vic). Truck Crash herbicides.

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Driver alert as Roads Freeze

The Age July 18 2007

Icy conditions are causing havoc on Victorian roads as the big chill settles across central Victoria.

After more near-zero temperatures this morning, rain and sleet have turned into black ice on many roads, making them treacherous hazards.

In the worst reported incident, ice is being blamed for a huge herbicide spill after a truck rolled on black ice on the Calder Alternative Road at Lockwood about 3.45am.

The truck was carrying 64 20-litre drums of weed killer, many of which have now spilled causing emergency services to close the road in both directions.

A CFA spokeswoman said specialists from the Environment Protection Agency and 20 firefighters wearing splash suits were attempting a “recovery proceedure”.

“They are using over-sized drums to take away the broken drums,” said the spokeswoman.

The male truck driver has been taken to hospital.

http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/driver-alert-as-roads-freeze/2007/07/18/1184559820055.html

2014 September: Wagga (NSW). Truck accident

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Truck involved in Wagga Chemical Spill Unregistered

September 30 2014 – The Daily Advertiser

POLICE say the truck involved in an accident that shut down a major Wagga intersection for about nine hours on Monday was unregistered.

The truck, laden with farm equipment and chemicals, was being driven north on the Olympic Highway by a 31-year-old West Albury man when the accident occurred.

Investigators say as the truck approached the intersection of the Sturt and Olympic highways, shortly after 10am, the driver lost control and the vehicle rolled down an embankment.

The driver managed to free himself and was assisted by passing motorists.

He was treated at the scene by paramedics for minor injuries and grazing.

Due to the hazardous nature of the truck’s cargo, a 100-metre exclusion zone was put in place and the intersection closed for most of the day.

Fire and Rescue NSW HAZMAT crews worked to contain the spill, understood to have been about 1000 litres of herbicide.

Containment lines were set up to prevent any spread into a nearby creek.

The road closure caused extensive detours, with Sturt Highway motorists diverted through Uranquinty.
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Pearson Street, Glenfield Road and Red Hill Road were used as an alternate route by motorists travelling in all directions.

Westbound lanes at the intersection were re-opened about 5.50pm, with the scene cleared by 7.15pm.

In a statement, released on Tuesday, Wagga police said “preliminary investigations revealed that the truck was unregistered”.

The truck has been seized by Roads and Maritime Services pending a mechanical examination.

Inquiries into the accident are continuing.

http://www.dailyadvertiser.com.au/story/2593595/truck-involved-in-wagga-chemical-spill-crash-unregistered-police/

2011 March: Bayswater (WA). Truck Pesticide Spill

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Truck Jack-Knife Spills 100 Litres of Strong Smelling Herbicide

Perth Now March 17 2011

A TRUCK has jack-knifed in Bayswater, spilling about 100 litres of liquid herbicide onto the road and causing major disruption to traffic.

The accident occurred near the intersection of Collier Road and Tonkin Highway.

The truck roll-over spilled 100 litres of herbicide on the road and embankment. Approximately 40 to 50 drums of herbicide are on the ground.

There is no threat to the community however there is a strong smell being carried downwind towards the Morley area.

People are also asked to stay away from the intersection of Collier Road and Tonkin Highway.

People with medical concerns should contact their local doctor or call Health Direct on 1800 022 222.

ChemCentre and the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) Pollution Response Unit have conducted air monitoring and analysis. The chemical is not harmful.

DEC officers are conducting further tests to determine if there is any environmental impact.

Twenty five career Fire and Rescue Service firefighters from six stations are on the scene.

WA Police are also in attendance.

Tonkin Highway is closed at Morley Drive heading south. There is a traffic diversion on Collier Road near Tonkin Highway. Mainroads says the closures are expected to remain in place until 4pm today and advises motorists to  avoid the area.

http://www.perthnow.com.au/news/western-australia/drivers-advised-to-avoid-crash-site/story-e6frg13u-1226023230553

2014 June: Millerman (Qld) Truck Crash. Pesticides: 2,4-D, Glyphosate

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The Chronicle June 5 2014

Chemical Spill from Truck Crash Contained

UPDATE: The prime-mover and first trailer have been removed from the scene of a chemical spill about 35km south of Millmerran on the Gore Hwy.

Millmerran police officer Senior Constable Hans van Kempen said herbicide had spilled on the road and into a table drain after the second trailer of the B Double combination rolled onto its side about 1.30pm yesterday.

He said a nearby resident had this morning voiced contamination concerns over the spill.

Emergency crews as well as Department of Environmental Heritage Protection staff and Toowoomba Regional

Council workers have spent the day managing a clean up.

The truck was carrying chemicals 2, 4-D and glysophate from Melbourne to Toowoomba when the incident occurred.

Queensland Fire and Emergency Service Dalby officer Acting Inspector Peter Bradow said the table drain was dammed last night to stop the chemicals from spreading into the watercourse or neighbouring dams.

“This has been successful and contained the product,” Act. Insp. Bradow said.

“We will now have the operators of this trailer clean up the waste and have it removed.”

He said an accurate measurement of how much chemical had been spilled was today being ascertained.

“Estimates are around 9000 to 10,000 litres.”

Tests are being done to establish how much contaminated soil will need to be taken from the site.

“At this stage, estimates are about 300mm of earth to be remove

The highway is expected to be reduced to one lane at the site for the rest of today.

The 59-year-old driver of the truck, from Highfields, was uninjured.

EARLIER: Emergency services have returned to the Gore Hwy south of Toowoomba this morning where a truck crash has caused a major chemical spill.

A truck carrying a dangerous herbicide crashed near Captains Mountain about 4pm.

About 9000 litres of the poisonous chemical spilled on to the highway.

A sand bund has been put in place to contain the chemical.

The highway is currently open to one lane, but will close completely later this morning to allow authorities to continue the clean-up.

The driver of the truck was not injured.

http://www.thechronicle.com.au/news/deadly-chemical-spill-closes-highway-south-toowoom/2280320/

2009 March: Scotts Creek (Vic) Crop Duster Accident

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Pilot escapes Timboon Plane Crash

March 11 2009. Warrnambool Standard

A DERRINALLUM man has been airlifted to a Melbourne hospital with neck injuries and burns to his arm after crashing his plane near Timboon. The man escaped the burning wreckage and was driven by a farmer to a nearby farmhouse where he rinsed his burns under a cold shower.The crash occurred shortly after 10:30am. The Standard understands the pilot was spreading cricket baits from his crop-duster on farmland at the time of the accident near Tognellas Road, Scotts Creek. An air ambulance landed at the Camperdown Showgrounds about 12:15pm to convey the man to Melbourne.Another pilot in the area of the crash reported seeing a ball of flame.

http://www.standard.net.au/story/733540/pilot-escapes-timboon-plane-crash/