Author Archives: Anthony

1992 September: Yanco Murrumbidgee River. Pesticide: Atrazine

Atrazine detected at 0.08ug/L at Yanco leaving Murrumbidgee River and entering main canal at Yanco.

p51 PESTICIDE MONITORING IN THE IRRIGATION AREAS OF SOUTH-WESTERN NSW, 1990 – 1995K H Bowmer, W Korth, A Scott, G McCorkelle, M Thomas CSIRO LAND & WATER April 1998TECHNICAL REPORT 17/98

https://www.clw.csiro.au/publications/technical98/tr17-98.pdf

2016 June: Pesticide Spill Orange NSW.

Hazards of the job for firefighters: Peisley Street pesticide spill clean up operation

June 3, 2016 Central Western Daily
DECONTAMINATION: Orange Fire and Rescue officers and members of Fire and Rescue NSW’s hazardous material team, working at the Elders site yesterday following a pesticide spill

A PESTICIDE spill at Elders in Peisley Street on Thursday afternoon was the focus of a decontamination exercise which took several hours to clean up.

Orange Fire and Rescue officers were joined by the Fire and Rescue NSW hazardous materials team from Bathurst in the early afternoon after reports of a spill of cropping pesticide from the back of a truck which was making a delivery at the site.

Inspector Brett Jackson of NSW Fire and Rescue said 15 firefighters were involved in the clean up.

“Initially two workers had to be decontaminated as the liquid had spilled onto their boots and gloves,” Inspector Jackson said.

He said firefighters then used absorbent material to soak up the surplus pesticide liquid.

They also donned breathing apparatus during the process.

After the spill was cleaned up firefighters had to be decontaminated themselves to ensure no residue remained.

https://www.centralwesterndaily.com.au/story/3945762/hazards-of-the-job-for-firefighters-peisley-street-pesticide-spill-clean-up-operation/?cs=103

1990’s: Peel River (NSW). Pesticide: Endosulfan

Endosulfan – Peel River

Source: Integrative Modelling of Transport and Fate of Endosulfan in the Riverine Environment. CSIRO Technical Report 14/98 – June 1998

1990’s: Namoi River at Bugilbone. Pesticide: Endosulfan

Endosulfan – Namoi River at Bugilbone

Source: Integrative Modelling of Transport and Fate of Endosulfan in the Riverine Environment. CSIRO Technical Report 14/98 – June 1998

1990’s: Namoi River d/s Weeta Weir. Pesticide: Endosulfan

Endosulfan – Namoi River d/s Weeta Weir

Source: Integrative Modelling of Transport and Fate of Endosulfan in the Riverine Environment. CSIRO Technical Report 14/98 – June 1998

1990’s: Gunidjera Creek (NSW). Pesticide: Endosulfan

Endosulfan – Gunidjera Creek

Source: Integrative Modelling of Transport and Fate of Endosulfan in the Riverine Environment. CSIRO Technical Report 14/98 – June 1998

1990’s: Narrabri Creek at Narrabri. Pesticide: Endosulfan

Endosulfan – Narrabri Creek at Narrabri

Source: Integrative Modelling of Transport and Fate of Endosulfan in the Riverine Environment. CSIRO Technical Report 14/98 – June 1998

1990’s Namoi River – Gunnedah. Pesticide: Endosulfan

Endosulfan – Namoi River Gunnedah

Source: Integrative Modelling of Transport and Fate of Endosulfan in the Riverine Environment. CSIRO Technical Report 14/98 – June 1998

1997 January: Coxs Creek Boggabri. Pesticide: Endosulfan

Coxs Creek Boggabri

Endosulfan 0.09ug/L, 0.1ug/L, 0.08ug/L January 1997

Source: Integrative Modelling of Transport and Fate of Endosulfan in the Riverine Environment. CSIRO Technical Report 14/98 June 1998

1993 September: Pian Creek Rossmore (NSW). Pesticide: Endosulfan

Pian Creek Rossmore

Endosulfan 28/9/93 0.12ug/L

Endosulfan 12/10/93 0.08ug/L

Source: Integrative Modelling of Transport and Fate of Endosulfan in the Riverine Environment. CSIRO Technical Report 14/98 June 1998

1993-1997: Gwydir River (NSW). Highest levels of Endosulfan in water.

Although infequent, the influx of endosulfan into rivers during a runoff event can pose a major threat of acute contamination. Preece and Whalley (1993) monitored endosulfan concentrations in surface waters in the Gwydir River during a storm event in December 1991 in which total endosulfan concentrations peaked at around 7 ug/L and elevated endosulfan concentrations persisted for several days.  Muschal (1997) also sampled endosulfan concentrations in the Gwydir River during a storm event in January 1997 during which total endosulfan concentrations reached 1.75ug/L and elevated endosulfan concentrations persisted for at least 48 hours. As the ANZECC (1992) guideline for the protection of aquatic ecosystems is 0.01ug/L, and the revised (ANZECC and ARMCANZ 2000) is 0.03ug/L, storm events such as these pose a major threat to riverine ecosystems.

(The Transport, Fate and Effects of Endosulfan in the Australian Freshwater Environment. (Grant C Hose, Richard P Lim and Ross P Vine). Australasian Journal of Ecotoxicology Vol 9 pp101-111, 2003

2010: Macquarie Island. Hundreds of Birds Killed. Pesticide: Brodifacoum

There are about 1829 breeding pairs of northern giant petrel; 2534 breeding pairs of southern giant petrels; and 1030 breeding skua pairs on Macquarie Island.
Reported deaths following 2010 baiting as at 8 October 2010 included 276 northern giant petrels (7.5% of number in breeding population); 10 southern giant petrels (0.2%); and 91 skuas (4.4%)

https://www.parks.tas.gov.au/file.aspx?id=20985

2007: Haughton River/Barratta Creek (Qld). Pesticide: Diuron

2007 Plume Haughton River/Barratta Creek (Qld) 0.08ug/L

apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/15386-diuron-environment.pdf

2005 January. Proserpine River (Qld). Pesticide: Diuron

January 2005: Plume from Proserpine/O’Connelll River Diuron 0.44ug/L

apvma.gov.au/default/files/publication/15386-diuron-environment.pdf

1994: Mirool Creek – Barren Box Swamp. Pesticide: Diuron

Diuron detected at 0.17ug/L in Mirool Creek just above Barren Box Swamp 1994

apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/15386-diuron-environment.pdf

2005 December: Burnett River Catchment. Pesticide: Diuron

December 2005, Burnett Catchment, Sugarcane farm

During peak runoff, concentrations of diuron ranged between 64 and 73ug/L and rose steeply to 280ug/L on last sampling.

Source: Diuron Environmental Assessment July 2011

apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/15386-diuron-environment.pdf

1972-73: Brisbane River. Pesticide DDT

Evidence suggests that the concentrations of DDT in Australian rivers have progressively declined, as indicated by water in the Brisbane River, which consistently fell from maximum concentrations of about 1.7 μg/L in 1972-1973 to not detectable in 1986-1987 (Connell et al 2001). Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2011

1994 November: Little Mirool Creek (NSW). Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

November 1994

Little Mirool Creek Chlorpyrifos 0.08ug/L, 0.07ug/L

Little Mirool Creek Diuron 7.5ug/L 1994 (apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/15386-diuron-environment.pdf)

1992/3: Willbriggie (NSW). Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

Exit drains Willbriggie 1992 and 1993 Chlorpyrifos 25ug/L

Rice Bay 38ug/L October 1992

Drained Floodwater 7.1ug/L

Source: APVMA

1995 March: Mehi River (NSW). Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

Mehi River at Bronte, Downstream of Moree

8/3/95 Chlorpyrifos 26ug/L

1995 March: Boomi River (NSW). Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

Boomi River Kanowna, upstream of Mungindi (Border River)

20/3/95 6.5ug/L

1995-1996: Lower Namoi River at Bugilbone. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

Lower Namoi River at Bugilbone

March 1995: Chlorpyrifos 0.1ug/L

April 1996: Chlorpyrifos 9.1ug/L

Source: Muschal/Cooper

1995 March – 1996 April: Brageen Crossing (Gwydir River). Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

Brageen Crossing – Gwydir River upstream Moree

3 March 1995: Chlorpyrifos 8.7ug/L

5 April 1996: Chlorpyrifos 0.18ug/L

Source: Muschal

1997 January: Cox’s Creek (NSW). Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

1997 Cox’s Creek Upper Namoi River Catchment

Chlorpyrifos 1.2ug/L and 0.4ug/L

Diuron 24ug/L

Fluometuron 9ug/L

Source: Muschal 1997

1997 December/1998 February: Pian Creek, Rossmore. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

December 1997 and February 1998

Pian Creek, Rossmore

Chlorpyrifos 0.1ug/L

Source: Mushcal 1998

1995-1997: Thalaba Creek (NSW). Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

March 7 1995 Thalaba Creek 0.2ug/L

June 1996 Thalaba Creek 0.83ug/L

October 1997 Thalaba Creek, Merrywinebone

Chlorpyrifos 0.13ug/L

Source: Muschal

October 1997: Thalaba Creek Fluometuron 31ug/L

*Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Cotton Production. Proceeding of the Cropping Systems Forum 2 & 3 December 1998 Narrabri NSW

1998 January: Moomin Creek Iffley (NSW). Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

January 1998 Moomin Creek (NSW) Iffley.

Chlorpyrifos 0.2ug/L

Muschal 1998.

1997 March: Bribie Island Fish Kill. Pesticide. Chlorpyrifos

The Queensland Department of the Environment provided the following details of
chlorpyrifos related contamination and fish kill incidents, noting that incidents in and
around Brisbane are often associated with under slab treatments in the vicinity,
particularly after rain. This pattern of contamination suggests that label warnings to
prevent runoff from treated areas may not be sufficiently prominent or are being
disregarded. Alternatively, the formulation may be leaching. Recent sediment surveys
in Brisbane waterways, which contain a legacy of organochlorine contamination
originating from termite treatments, has found both bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos
at a few μg/kg in some samples…
Bribie Island Sunshine Coast, March 1997
Probable Source: Under slab treatment
Chlorpyrifos in water: Up to 5ug/L (15ug/kg in sediment).
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: 2835ug/kg
p180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1996 December: Coombabah Creek (Qld) Fish Kill. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

The Queensland Department of the Environment provided the following details of
chlorpyrifos related contamination and fish kill incidents, noting that incidents in and
around Brisbane are often associated with under slab treatments in the vicinity,
particularly after rain. This pattern of contamination suggests that label warnings to
prevent runoff from treated areas may not be sufficiently prominent or are being
disregarded. Alternatively, the formulation may be leaching. Recent sediment surveys
in Brisbane waterways, which contain a legacy of organochlorine contamination
originating from termite treatments, has found both bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos
at a few μg/kg in some samples…
Coombabah Creek Gold Coast, December 1996
Probable Source: Stormwater drain and construction
Chlorpyrifos in water: Up to 1.2 ug/L.
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: n.a
p180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1996 October: Cooparoo Creek (Qld) Fish Kill. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

The Queensland Department of the Environment provided the following details of
chlorpyrifos related contamination and fish kill incidents, noting that incidents in and
around Brisbane are often associated with under slab treatments in the vicinity,
particularly after rain. This pattern of contamination suggests that label warnings to
prevent runoff from treated areas may not be sufficiently prominent or are being
disregarded. Alternatively, the formulation may be leaching. Recent sediment surveys
in Brisbane waterways, which contain a legacy of organochlorine contamination
originating from termite treatments, has found both bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos
at a few μg/kg in some samples…
Cooparoo Creek Brisbane, October 1996
Probable Source: Unknown
Chlorpyrifos in water: Up to 70 ug/L.
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: Up to 14,200kug/kg
p180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1996 October: Kedron Brook Fish Kill. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

The Queensland Department of the Environment provided the following details of
chlorpyrifos related contamination and fish kill incidents, noting that incidents in and
around Brisbane are often associated with under slab treatments in the vicinity,
particularly after rain. This pattern of contamination suggests that label warnings to
prevent runoff from treated areas may not be sufficiently prominent or are being
disregarded. Alternatively, the formulation may be leaching. Recent sediment surveys
in Brisbane waterways, which contain a legacy of organochlorine contamination
originating from termite treatments, has found both bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos
at a few μg/kg in some samples…
Kedron Creek Brisbane, October 1996
Probable Source: Stormwater Drain
Chlorpyrifos in water: Up to 190 ug/L.
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: Present but not quantified
p180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1996 May: Norman Creek Brisbane Fish Kill. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

The Queensland Department of the Environment provided the following details of
chlorpyrifos related contamination and fish kill incidents, noting that incidents in and
around Brisbane are often associated with under slab treatments in the vicinity,
particularly after rain. This pattern of contamination suggests that label warnings to
prevent runoff from treated areas may not be sufficiently prominent or are being
disregarded. Alternatively, the formulation may be leaching. Recent sediment surveys
in Brisbane waterways, which contain a legacy of organochlorine contamination
originating from termite treatments, has found both bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos
at a few μg/kg in some samples…
Norman Creek Brisbane, May 1996
Probable Source: Stormwater Drain
Chlorpyrifos in water: Up to 525ug/L.
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: n.a
p180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1995 November/1997 June: Biggera Creek (Qld) Fish Kill. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

The Queensland Department of the Environment provided the following details of
chlorpyrifos related contamination and fish kill incidents, noting that incidents in and
around Brisbane are often associated with under slab treatments in the vicinity,
particularly after rain. This pattern of contamination suggests that label warnings to
prevent runoff from treated areas may not be sufficiently prominent or are being
disregarded. Alternatively, the formulation may be leaching. Recent sediment surveys
in Brisbane waterways, which contain a legacy of organochlorine contamination
originating from termite treatments, has found both bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos
at a few μg/kg in some samples…
Biggera Creek Gold Coast, November 1995
Probable Source: Stormwater Drain
Chlorpyrifos in water: 0.5ug/L.
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: n.a
Biggera Creek Gold Coast, June 1997
Probable Source: Unknown
Chlorpyrifos in water: 4.7ug/L.
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: n.a
p180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1995 September: Loders Creek (Qld) Fish Kill. Pesticides: Chlorpyrifos

The Queensland Department of the Environment provided the following details of
chlorpyrifos related contamination and fish kill incidents, noting that incidents in and
around Brisbane are often associated with under slab treatments in the vicinity,
particularly after rain. This pattern of contamination suggests that label warnings to
prevent runoff from treated areas may not be sufficiently prominent or are being
disregarded. Alternatively, the formulation may be leaching. Recent sediment surveys
in Brisbane waterways, which contain a legacy of organochlorine contamination
originating from termite treatments, has found both bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos
at a few μg/kg in some samples…
Loders Creek Gold Coast, September 1995
Probable Source: Unknown
Chlorpyrifos in water: 0.5ug/L.
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: n.a
p180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1995 September: Norman Creek Brisbane (Qld) Fish Kill. Pesticide. Chlorpyrifos

The Queensland Department of the Environment provided the following details of
chlorpyrifos related contamination and fish kill incidents, noting that incidents in and
around Brisbane are often associated with under slab treatments in the vicinity,
particularly after rain. This pattern of contamination suggests that label warnings to
prevent runoff from treated areas may not be sufficiently prominent or are being
disregarded. Alternatively, the formulation may be leaching. Recent sediment surveys
in Brisbane waterways, which contain a legacy of organochlorine contamination
originating from termite treatments, has found both bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos
at a few μg/kg in some samples…
Norman Creek Brisbane, September 1995
Probable Source: Construction Site
Chlorpyrifos in water: n.a.
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: Up to 4500ug/kg
p180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1995 May: Loders Creek Gold Coast Qld Fish Kill. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

The Queensland Department of the Environment provided the following details of
chlorpyrifos related contamination and fish kill incidents, noting that incidents in and
around Brisbane are often associated with under slab treatments in the vicinity,
particularly after rain. This pattern of contamination suggests that label warnings to
prevent runoff from treated areas may not be sufficiently prominent or are being
disregarded. Alternatively, the formulation may be leaching. Recent sediment surveys
in Brisbane waterways, which contain a legacy of organochlorine contamination
originating from termite treatments, has found both bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos
at a few μg/kg in some samples…
Loders Creek Gold Coast, May 1995
Probable Source: Unknown
Chlorpyrifos in water: Up to 0.1ug/L
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: n.a
p180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1995 March: Carramundi Park Qld Fish Kill. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

The Queensland Department of the Environment provided the following details of
chlorpyrifos related contamination and fish kill incidents, noting that incidents in and
around Brisbane are often associated with under slab treatments in the vicinity,
particularly after rain. This pattern of contamination suggests that label warnings to
prevent runoff from treated areas may not be sufficiently prominent or are being
disregarded. Alternatively, the formulation may be leaching. Recent sediment surveys
in Brisbane waterways, which contain a legacy of organochlorine contamination
originating from termite treatments, has found both bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos
at a few μg/kg in some samples…
Curramundi Park Sunshine Coast, March 1995
Probable Source: Stormwater Drain
Chlorpyrifos in water: Up to 0.5ug/L
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: 560ug/kg
p180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1995 January: Fish Kill Curramundi Park Sunshine Coast (Qld). Pesticide Chlorpyrifos

The Queensland Department of the Environment provided the following details of
chlorpyrifos related contamination and fish kill incidents, noting that incidents in and
around Brisbane are often associated with under slab treatments in the vicinity,
particularly after rain. This pattern of contamination suggests that label warnings to
prevent runoff from treated areas may not be sufficiently prominent or are being
disregarded. Alternatively, the formulation may be leaching. Recent sediment surveys
in Brisbane waterways, which contain a legacy of organochlorine contamination
originating from termite treatments, has found both bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos
at a few μg/kg in some samples…
Curramundi Park Sunshine Coast, January 1995
Probable Source: Stormwater Drain
Chlorpyrifos in water: None detected
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: 200ug/kg
p180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1995 January: Fish Kill Paradise Point Gold Coast (Qld). Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

The Queensland Department of the Environment provided the following details of
chlorpyrifos related contamination and fish kill incidents, noting that incidents in and
around Brisbane are often associated with under slab treatments in the vicinity,
particularly after rain. This pattern of contamination suggests that label warnings to
prevent runoff from treated areas may not be sufficiently prominent or are being
disregarded. Alternatively, the formulation may be leaching. Recent sediment surveys
in Brisbane waterways, which contain a legacy of organochlorine contamination
originating from termite treatments, has found both bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos
at a few μg/kg in some samples…
Paradise Point Gold Coast, February 1995
Probable Source: Unknown
Chlorpyrifos in water: Up to 4.1ug/L
Chlorpyrifos in fish tissue: 130ug/kg
p180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1998: Fish Kill Kedron Brook/Sandy Creek Qld. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

A kill of aquatic fauna was reported from Kedron Brook and Sandy Creek, near
Brisbane airport, in the intervening period. Inspectors from the Department of the
Environment followed the contamination up to a storm water drain at Ennogera, where
high concentrations were found close to a pest control operator base. No direct

source could be found, and no prosecution occurred, but officers from the Department
of the Environment discussed the incident with the pest controllers. The most likely
cause was probably inappropriate washing or disposal.
p 179/180 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1997 February: Fish Kill Southport Qld. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

No further incidents in the Gold Coast area were reported to Dow until a fish kill in
Koorong Street drain at Southport in February 1997. Water upstream of the weir
contained 1.2 μg/L chlorpyrifos. The most likely cause was thought to be an under
slab treatment, where the pouring of the concrete slab was delayed for 6 days by rain.
Dow responded by communicating the sequence of events to all under slab applicators
in the Gold Coast and Brisbane areas.
https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1996 January: Fish Kill Runaway Bay (Qld). Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

Minor fish kills in canal areas of the Gold Coast were reported following rainfall on
three occasions during summer 1995/96 (1 December, 11 and 24 January). Sampling
and analysis found chlorpyrifos in the water column at 0.05-1.2μg/L. The last of these incidents, at Runaway Bay, was investigated in detail. No new house
constructions with drainage to the canal were found, and records of under-slab
treatments at the nearest construction site did not coincide with the fish kill. Dow
concluded that garden spray runoff was the most likely cause, or washing of containers
into storm drains. The possibility of contamination from dirty equipment during a
storm event was also mooted. In response, Dow convened a pest control seminar in
conjunction with Gold Coast City Council, at which correct washing procedures,
equipment cleanliness and avoidance of storm events were stressed.
p179 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf

1990’s Mirrool Creek (NSW). Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

“Environmental monitoring generally does not find chlorpyrifos, even in irrigation
drainage waters with a detection limit of 0.01μg/L. Samples taken from drains in the
Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area found occasional occurrences, generally at concentrations below 0.1 μg/L, with a few samples taken near the exit point from rice bays approaching
10μg/L. Persistent contamination occurs in certain areas during spring, notably Mirrool Creek (used as a drain) where concentrations between 0.01 and 0.1μg/L prevail
through September and October with occasional high detections (approaching 20
μg/L) in grab samples.”
p278 https://apvma.gov.au/sites/default/files/publication/14756-chlorpyrifos-irr-environment.pdf
1991: Mirrooll Creek: 14ug/L, 17ug/L

2009 Dec – 2010 Jan: Noosa Heads. Pesticide: Diuron + Carbendazim

Table 3b. Estimated concentration of OCs, OPs and SPs in water (μgL-1) calculated from the
mass accumulated in Empore Disk samplers deployed from 11 December 2009 through 11th
January 2010, together with ANZECC trigger values for aquatic ecosystem protection (freshwater, slightly to moderately disturbed ecosystem, 95% species protection value). Detections highlighted in green. No results from Site 3 due to loss of equipment.

 

Diuron and Carbendazim detected at 9 locations including Noosa Heads

Levels at Noosa Heads: Diuron 0.0045ug/L, Carbendazim 0.0003ug/L

https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/53059/45-NFHTIF-Detection-andMeasurement-of-Noosa-River-Catchment.pdf

2009 Jul-Aug: Lake Cooroibah (Qld). Pesticide: Endosulfan

July-Aug 2009;

Endosulfan Sulfate detected in Lake Cooroibah at 0.002ug/L

Source: https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/53059/45-NFHTIF-Detection-andMeasurement-of-Noosa-River-Catchment.pdf

2009 January: Cooloothin Creek “Cancer Cluster”. Pesticide: Carbendazim

Two-headed fish linked to ‘cancer cluster’

Brisbane Times  January 22, 2009

A Sunshine Coast community is waiting for test results to confirm whether contaminated water that may have led to two-headed fish embryos hatching in the area is also responsible for a possible cancer cluster.

Residents of all four houses that back on to Cooloothin Creek, which is flanked by large macadamia plantations near the Noosa River, have been diagnosed with cancer since deformities were found in fish hatchlings four years ago.

Bernard Gevers, who has worked for five years at the Sunland Fish Hatchery where the deformed fish larvae were found, has begun treatment for suspected bowel cancer.

Mr Gevers, 66, told brisbanetimes.com.au he was certain his illness had been caused by water contaminated by products containing Carbendazim which are used by farmers on the macadamia farm.

He said he used to drink the water from the creek at the back of the hatchery before he fell ill.

“I used to wash my face and hands in the water too just to cool down but then I started getting big blotches on my face.

“I went to the doctor and he told me it was from old age but I thought, could it come from the (chemical) spray (in the water).”

Mr Gevers stopped drinking water from the property and the blotches on his skin disappeared.

Less than five years later Mr Gevers is being treated for suspected bowel cancer and will have further tests next month.

Sunland Fish Hatchery, owned and operated by Gwen Gilson, 55, came to national attention last week after 90 per cent of her latest batch of embryos, taken from breeding stock from the Noosa River, emerged deformed, including some with two heads.

“It’s case of putting two and two together; when my fish have such deformities and you find so many people with (cancer),” Ms Gilson said.

She believes a contaminant in the water is to blame.

“Over two years ago, we noticed that after the spraying drifted over our ponds, our next batch had convulsions and every time we have used water that has been exposed to the (Carbendazim) spray, we have the same results,” Ms Gilson said.

“We can only get normal births by using water from our other site or treating them with atropine.”

Mr Gilson said two neighbours had died in the past two years from cancer, including one man in his 40s.

Another woman, in her early 40s, has suspected ovarian cancer.

Roger Arbuckle, the owner and former operator of the macadamia plantation adjacent to the hatchery, is himself in remission from prostate cancer.

Carbendazim products, which are banned in the US, are currently being reviewed by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority. The chemicals are used to control mould, spot, mildew, scorch, rot and blight in a variety of crops including cereals, fruit and macadamias.

Despite the recent concern, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will wait to consult with Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (DPI&F) before conducting further testing in the Noosa River catchment.

“The timing of sampling will be determined in consultation with DPI&F,” an EPA spokeswoman said.

https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/news/queensland/twoheaded-fish-linked-to-cancer-cluster/2009/01/21/1232471375335.html

2009 May: Cooloothin Creek (Qld). Pesticides: Carbendazim, Atrazine, Metolachlor

Source Courier Mail: May 20 2009

CHEMICAL contamination blamed for millions of fish larvae having two heads has been found in a creek at Noosa.

But the State Government is playing down the find, saying it is of such low levels as to be insignificant.

The agricultural chemicals carbendazim, atrazine and metolachlor were found near the Sunland Fish Hatchery by Noosa Fish Health Taskforce scientists.

Hatchery owner Gwen Gilson and neighbours have argued that chemical contamination, believed to be from a macadamia farm, had caused millions of fish larvae to become grossly deformed and caused a cancer cluster among residents.

National Toxics Network spokeswoman Jo Immig, who has called for bans on carbendazim and endosulfan, said the findings confirmed her fears.

“We’re pleased they are at low levels but that doesn’t excuse their presence there at all,” Ms Immig said. “This is just one detection. How often does this go on?

“There are serious concerns about carbendazim and it is linked to birth defects. It shouldn’t be used.

Atrazine also has been under the spotlight because it is an endocrine disruptor (a chemical that interferes with hormones) at very minute levels and is recognised in Europe as such.

“Atrazine has been linked as a breast and prostate cancer promoter.

“Any level of metolachlor in rivers is concerning because of evidence that it persists in the environment and bioaccumulates in edible species of fish. Its adverse effect on growth and development raises concerns on its effects on human health.”

DPI Minister Tim Mulherin said the chemicals were found in Cooloothin Creek, a waterway that borders the hatchery and the macadamia farm.

“The levels of chemicals detected were extremely low, are not a risk to human health and are well within relevant guidelines for such a setting,” Mr Mulherin said.

Samples taken upstream, closer to the two properties, did not detect agricultural chemicals.

Levels found were carbendazim at 0.4 of a nanogram per litre, atrazine at 9.65ng/L and metolachlor at 14.75ng/L.

A nanogram is one billionth of a gram. For carbendazim the level is roughly equivalent to a teaspoon of sugar dissolved in a litre of water then divided by 2500 million.

Sunshine Coast Central Area Population Health Unit spokesman Andrew Langley said the readings were negligible.

“The results do not indicate that there is a risk to human health from drinking the water or recreational use of the water,” he said.

Mr Mulherin said the source of the chemicals was yet to be determined.

https://www.couriermail.com.au/news/link-to-mutant-fish-denied/story-e6freon6-1225713488004

1998 July: Plantation Streams Warren Reservoir. Pesticide: Atrazine

*Samples from streams running through the plantation areas (which then drain into Warren Reservoir) show herbicide levels around 150ug/L, which are up to six times the level recommended for drinking water. These levels are also significant from an environmental viewpoint and the EPA is likely to take an active interest.

BAROSSA WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM – 29 July 1998 ISSUE: Herbicide contamination in the Barossa water supply. Source: SA Water

https://hancockwatch.nfshost.com/docs/adelaide.html#TAG1

2015 May: Argenton NSW Dogs poisoned with Chlorpyrifos.

Former Golf Club Captain Fined for Misuse of Strong Insecticide

Media release: 26 May 2015

The former captain of Waratah Golf Club in Argenton NSW has been successfully prosecuted by the NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA) for his attempt in March 2014 to kill crows with meat laced with the pesticide, Chlorpyrifos. His actions resulted in the death of one dog Zoe, and sickness to another dog, Dozer.

The EPA prosecuted under the Pesticides Act 1999 for the use of a registered pesticide contrary to the approved label. On 15 April 2015, the defendant was convicted, fined $1,000 and ordered to pay the EPA’s costs of $1,500 by Toronto Local Court.

Magistrate Atkinson said, “When people use pesticides contrary to the label, there can be serious consequences, which was apparent because a dog took the bait and died.  A strong message should be sent out because there is a good reason why pesticides are very restricted.”

Adam Gilligan, Acting Director North, NSW EPA, said, “The EPA takes very seriously its charter to administer environment protection legislation. We aim to maintain and enhance the state of the NSW environment and we regulate the actions of individuals, industry and government to uphold this goal.

“The EPA is the NSW regulator of the use of pesticides after they are sold. We act when a pesticide has been used contrary to a label and when the use of a pesticide can cause injury to another person, damage to their property or bring harm to plants or animals that weren’t the permitted target of the pesticide.

“The defendant in this case not only used a pesticide contrary to the label without a permit, he did not read the label and he knowingly used the pesticide in an attempt to harm a non-target animal. In leaving the pesticide-laced meat out in the open on the grounds of the golf course, he did so in a manner that totally disregarded the health of the environment and other animals,” said Mr Gilligan.

In June 2014 the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) prosecuted the defendant for the injury to the dogs. He was convicted of one count of aggravated cruelty to animals. For further information on the RSPCA prosecution visit: https://rspcansw.blogspot.com.au/2014/06/former-golf-club-captain-fined-after.htmlexternal link

The EPA administers the Pesticides Act 1999 which controls the use of pesticides in New South Wales. The Act aims to reduce the risks associated with the use of pesticides to human health, the environment, property, industry and trade. It also aims to promote collaborative and integrated policies for the use of pesticides.

2015 September: Thomson Aviation Fined for Overspray: Pesticide: Carfentrazone-ethyl,

Thomson Aviation Fined for Third Incident of Pesticide Overspray

Media release: 8 September 2015

Thomson Aviation has been fined $2,400 by the NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA) for using a pesticide contrary to the approved label, which resulted in an overspray that caused injury to people and non-targeted plants

Manager South West, NSW EPA, Craig Bretherton, said, on 4 May 2015, the EPA received a report from a neighbour adjacent to a cotton farm that was being treated with pesticides by Thomson Aviation.

“The neighbour claimed that her vegetable garden appeared to be damaged by pesticide overspray as brown markings were present on her plants and there was a significant amount of dead leaves at the base of her trees. She also claimed that on 30 April 2015, both she and her husband could physically feel the spray, with her husband experiencing a burning sensation in his eyes.

The next day the EPA attended the property and collected samples from the damaged plants. The results showed the pesticide Nail (active ingredient Carfentrazone-ethyl) was present in two of the three samples taken. Nail is a pesticide that is clearly labelled not to be used under unfavourable weather conditions, or from spray equipment as it may drift onto nearby susceptible plants, adjacent crops or pastures

The EPA required Thomson Aviation to supply spray records, chemical product labels and weather data for the 30 April 2015 incident. The records confirmed the aerial application of Nail pesticide, in addition to Prep (active ingredient Ethephon).

The EPA review of Bureau of Metrology data on the day of the incident showed a wind direction moving toward the neighbours’ property at a speed that was not appropriate for the aerial application of a pesticide.

Based on the findings of the investigations, the EPA is satisfied that Thomson Aviation had acted contrary to the Pesticides Act 1999 having used a pesticide contrary to its approved label and causing injury to persons and non-target plants. The company was fined $800 for each offence.

In making the decision the EPA also noted Thomson Aviation’s history of environmental non-compliance as the company had twice before been the subject of pesticide overspray investigations in Bilbul and Darlington Point NSW. On these occasions the company received a Formal Warning and Advisory Letter but the EPA has now issued these fine as an incentive for the company to improve its practices.

Mr Bretherton said, we do not want to see a repeat of these incidents and the company is on notice that any future incidents will attach a stronger regulatory response, including potential court action.

Mr Bretherton continued, “Penalty notices are one of a number of tools the EPA can use to achieve environmental compliance. The EPA takes in a range of factors into account before delivering a proportionate regulatory response, including the degree of environmental harm, potential health impacts, compliance history, public interest and best environmental outcomes. In this case, a penalty notice was the appropriate response.”

For more information about the EPA’s regulatory tools, see the EPA Compliance Policy www.epa.nsw.gov.au/legislation/130251epacompl.htm

To report pollution incidents contact the EPA’s 24hr Environment Line on 131 555.

2015 June: Vineyard Operator Convicted in Orange Court: Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

Vineyard operator convicted & fined $15,000 in Orange Local Court

Media release: 26 June 2015

Vineyard operator Rex D’Aquino has been convicted and fined $15,000 in Orange Local Court and ordered to pay the prosecutor’s costs of $20,000, after pleading guilty to polluting waters on Highland Heritage Estate, near Orange.

The Environment Protection Authority (EPA) prosecuted Mr D’Aquino after he directed that the residual contents of 21 drums, containing the pesticide chlorpyrifos, be emptied into a constructed stormwater drain on the Estate property in January 2014.  The drain flows downwards to Summer Hill Creek.

Mr D’Aquino pleaded guilty to one charge of polluting waters contrary to section 120(1) of the Protection of the Environment Operations Act 1997.

“Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus pesticide used to protect crops such as cotton, is highly toxic and poses a significant risk to aquatic life, animals and humans when released into the environment in high concentrations,” said Director South Branch Gary Whytcross.

“The EPA prosecuted Mr D’Aquino because his actions posed a real risk of harm to the environment, within a drinking water catchment.

“When handling pesticide containers it is essential to ensure that they are rinsed thoroughly and that any residual contents and the container are disposed of appropriately.

“The EPA stresses to all business operators and individuals that they have a responsibility to think about their actions and the potential impacts on the environment and the community.”

The EPA must take a range of factors into account before delivering a proportionate regulatory response, including the degree of environmental harm, whether or not there are any real or potential health impacts, if the action of the offender was deliberate, compliance history, public interest and best environmental outcomes.

For more information about the EPA’s regulatory tools, see the EPA Compliance Policy https://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/legislation/prosguid.htm.

Contact: EPA Public Affairs

April 2014: Cheminova served $15,000 penalty notice by EPA

EPA issues penalty notice and official caution to Cheminova

Media release: 12 April 2016

The NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA) has issued a $15 000 penalty notice and an official caution to Cheminova Australia for breaching the conditions of its Environment Protection Licence.

EPA Hunter Manager, Adam Gilligan, said that Cheminova had failed to properly store potentially dangerous waste liquids in appropriately bunded areas.

“Bunded areas are designed to contain spillages and leaks of liquids and to facilitate clean-up operations,” Mr Gilligan said.

“Cheminova manufactures insecticide, fungicide and herbicide at its Wyong site. During the manufacturing process there are dangerous waste materials produced. It is critical that these are stored, handled and disposed of in accordance with the conditions in the company’s environment protection licence. This is to ensure that the environment and community are protected.”

During an inspection of the site on 29 January 2016, EPA officers found that the secondary spill containment system at the premises was not being properly maintained and would not have captured a spill of waste material if it occurred.

Following the inspection, and as a result of discussions with Cheminova, approximately 260,000 litres of waste products were removed from the site and disposed of at a licensed facility. The remainder of the waste products were moved into appropriately bunded areas.

Cheminova was issued a penalty notice for failing to store waste material in a competent manner. The company was also issued an official caution for failing to operate plant and equipment in a proper and efficient manner. The EPA will monitor the environmental performance of the facility.

Penalty notices are one of a number of tools the EPA can use to achieve environmental compliance, including formal warnings, licence conditions, notices and directions, mandatory audits, enforceable undertakings, legally binding pollution reduction programs and prosecutions.

The EPA must also take a range of factors into account before delivering a proportionate regulatory response, including the degree of environmental harm, whether or not there are any real or potential health impacts, if the action of the offender was deliberate, compliance history, public interest and best environmental outcomes.

For more information about the EPA’s regulatory tools, see the EPA Compliance Policy https://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/legislation/prosguid.htm.

2010 February: Herbicide Truck Rollover near Wandoan Qld

Herbicide truck rollover – Wandoan

On 11 February 2010, a truck carrying a load of mixed herbicides rolled over adjacent to Roche Creek 20 km north of Wandoan on the Leichhardt Highway, resulting inthe release of 20 000 litres of chemical into the table drain.
Due to the impending risk of heavy rain and likelihood of serious environmental harm to Roche Creek and downstream water users, DERM took emergency action to ensure that the site was cleaned up and remediated.
https://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/Documents/TableOffice/TabledPapers/2011/5311T4144.pdf

2010 June: Millmerran (Qld) Highway Chemical Explosion

Highway chemical explosion: local homes to be checked

June 9 2010 (Brisbane Times)

Fire officers will tour houses in the Millmerran region today to check water tanks and roofs for hazardous chemicals after an explosion on the back of a truck this morning.

The accident happened when a truck carrying 20-litre drums of pesticides and herbicides caught fire and exploded on the Gore Highway at Millmerran around 1.30am today.

A two-kilometre exclusion zone has been set up around the site, with a local family evacuated from their home.

Incident controller with the Queensland Fire and Rescue Service, Eddie Lacko said the highway would remain closed while they awaited resources coming from Brisbane.

“We’re getting a plan together to decontaminate the site and remove the trailer as well as the chemicals involved,” Mr Lacko said.

“The chemicals are all mixed together so we are not sure exactly what there is.

“I have a scientific officer en route to provide us with some advice before we move in to clean up.

“I couldn’t give an accurate timeframe of when this will happen.”

Mr Lacko said there was no longer an airborne chemical threat but some risk still remained.

“There are a couple of houses in the vicinity where I will send some officers to do some monitoring of water tanks and roofs after smoke fallout from last night,” he said.

Ken Brudell, owner of the local Millmerran Rams Head Hotel said residents had been given little information about the accident.

“There were a couple of explosions at around 1.30am and then the fire brigade charged out,” Mr Brundell said.

“There’s been a horrible chemical burn smell through town all morning.”

Firefighters wearing protective gear and breathing apparatus extinguished the blaze around 5am.

The truck driver escaped without injury after he unhitched the trailer which was subsequently destroyed in the explosion.

https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/highway-chemical-explosion-local-homes-to-be-checked-20100608-xu38.html?skin=smart-phone

2013 January: 12 gas workers hospitalised. Pesticide: Paraquat

2016 March: Testing links between 2,4,5-T and soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Testing, new study after lands inquiry
Ballarat Courier

March 9, 2016,

Lands department workers who were exposed to dangerous chemicals decades ago are closer to an answer on sicknesses caused by their government work spraying pesticides.

The Courier understands the government has accepted and will act on the recommendation that another university study into the links between herbicide 2,4,5-T to soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma be commissioned.

The inquiry’s first recommendation, part of its report released in November 2015, followed The Courier’s investigation into the treatment of the workers for many years until the 1980s.

“Recommendation a): Updating the 1980’s Worker Health Study for the same group of sprayers (1951 to 1970) and comparing with the Victorian Cancer registry for evidence of causation or lack thereof,” the report said.

The full government response to the report will be released on Thursday.

Environment Minister Lisa Neville said it was a “really critical bit of work” and that the government had worked thoroughly through the report and its recommendations.

A 1982 study also commissioned by the government did not find a link between those two types of cancer and 2,4,5-T, but the new study would look again at the cases and test the sprayers still alive in Victoria.

The Courier identified 17 former Victorian Lands Department weed eradicators in the region who have died, mostly from illness including various cancers.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified TCDD, a contaminant of 2,4,5-T as ‘carcinogenic to humans’ since 1997 and ‘possibly carcinogenic to humans’ since 1982.

The new study, one of several major responses to be announced Thursday, would be completed by 2018.

The inquiry report found evidence workers in the region were exposed to more than double today’s standard tolerable intake of dangerous chemicals, which could be linked to cancer.

The report also found that despite reviews into worker’s health and chemical safety which were completed, findings and recommendations were rarely implemented.

2016 March: Insecticide ban over human safety fears. Pesticide: Maldison

Insecticide ban over human safety fears

The Weekly Times

AN agricultural insecticide has been suspended in Australia because of health concerns.

Maldison 500 is an insecticide that — according to manufacturer NuFarm — can be used in cropping horticulture, pasture and vegetable production.

The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority suspended Maldison 500 from March 15 until March 1 next year.

The suspension means that Maldison 500 can not be manufactured or imported.

But possession, custody, supply and use of the product — according to directions on the label — is permitted.

“It appears to the APVMA that the product … may be an undue hazard to the safety of people exposed to it during its handling and have an effect that is harmful to human beings,” the regulator reported in Commonwealth Gazette.

 

APVMA chief executive Kareena Arthy said the suspension was the recommendation of an ongoing review of the insecticide.

“The APVMA review of maldison commenced in 2003 due to potential human health concerns in relation to the formation of toxic impurities during manufacture and storage,” she said.

“The scope of the Maldison review includes chemistry, toxicology and occupational health and safety,” Ms Arthy said the review was expected to be completed in January 2018.

Asked about the health concerns APVMA had with Maldison 500, she said it was “an organophosporous insecticide, and like all members of this chemical class, it interferes with the nervous system”.

A NuFarm spokesman said it “was working with the regulatory authority and our customers to ensure this product is handled in accordance with the label directions as is permitted under the notice.”

https://www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/agribusiness/insecticide-ban-over-human-safety-fears/news-story/ac65d059b0ecdbbdf107b9ce253f2b3e

2016 April: Study finds Parkinsons Cluster in northern Grampians and Loddon Mallee Regions

Study finds Parkinson’s disease cluster in Northern Grampians and Loddon Mallee regions

A cluster of Parkinson’s disease has been discovered in a key Victorian barley, chick pea and lentil farming region where researchers say its prevalence is up to 78 per cent higher than the rest of the state.

The discovery by a team of health researchers and scientists has sparked calls for urgent research into links with pesticides and other farming techniques used in the Grampians and Loddon Mallee regions.

The abnormally high rates were found in four neighbouring local government areas in the north west that all produce barley and pulses (chickpeas, beans and lentils), by a joint Monash University and the Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health study.

They report the rate of Parkinson’s was 78 per cent higher than the state average of .5 per cent in the Buloke Shire, 76 per cent higher in Horsham, 57 per cent higher in the Northern Grampians and 34 per cent higher in Yarriambiack.

The research, expected to be published in late 2016, was funded by Parkinson’s Victoria and lead by a husband and wife duo: health services researcher Dr Darshini Ayton and neuroscientist Dr Scott Ayton. 

Their work with Dr Narelle Warren builds on international studies that have already found strong links between the pesticides Rotenone and Paraquat, and Parkinson’s disease.

Although people living in the identified areas are more likely to develop Parkinson’s than those in other areas, the prevalence of the condition is still only about 1 per cent of the population in those communities and researchers say is not cause for panic.

The idea for a geographical study was conceived when Dr Darshini Ayton came home one night to tell her husband all these people from farming areas she’d interviewed blamed pesticides for their Parkinson’s disease. 

“Because he’s a laboratory scientist, he said they use pesticides in high doses to induce Parkinson’s disease in a laboratory,” she said. “That’s when we started working together on the project.” 

Hoping to determine whether there was a greater likelihood of developing Parkinson’s in the country than the city (there’s not), they overlayed data from the pharmaceutical benefits scheme with ABS data and discovered something else entirely: a cluster.

“We were shocked…It is a surprise but we’re really now looking for the answers to it,” Dr Darshini Ayton said. “This research by no means says that pesticides caused Parkinson’s disease here but we need to do further research to find out what actually happened in these four areas.”

Their analysis was done using percentages, rather than raw numbers, to account for differences in population size and age.

Barry Clugston, 69, who was diagnosed with Parkinson’s about eight years ago, lives in the Northern Grampians and has spent most of his life in farming regions. 

He believes it’s possible that chemicals used in pulse farming could be linked to his disease but wants to see proof.  “There’s a lot of discussion in the community about these things and yet nobody can prove it,” he said. 

“The area that’s been detected is a key broad acre cereal growing area of Victoria so it would be a high concentration of chemicals being used there.

“If chemicals are one of the causes for Parkinson’s I’d be really keen to have some scientific basis.”

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurological condition that affects about 27,000 people in Victoria and 70,000 nationally, which Parkinson’s Victoria chair, Associate Professor David Finkelstein, said is expected to double over the next 15 years.

Associate Professor Finkelstein said there was a growing international body of research pointing to a link between pesticides and Parkinson’s, but “no smoking gun”.  “All these little bits of evidence are coming together to point to pesticides,” he said.

“We compare what we found with what’s been found overseas, different research teams using different research methods, are finding the same thing.”

https://www.mailtimes.com.au/story/3840763/parkinsons-disease-cluster-has-pulses-racing/?cs=225

1960’s-1970’s: Australians spraying Agent Orange in Vietnam

Australians were engaged in crop destruction, as demonstrated by the Australian War
Memorial’s photographic evidence, preserved on two Australian government web sites.
Several 1968 images show an Australian Iroquois helicopter in flight over what is unquestionably agricultural land, ” A spray boom for defoliant extends from the
helicopter beneath the machine gunner, who is on the right of the image. Defoliant was loaded onto helicopters in 30-gallon tanks…[A M P01733.006]”[13]
Paul Ham quoted former Australian soldier, Fred Ball, who disclosed that Australians were required to perform the same type of work as their allies with the same purpose: “We sprayed the bloody place with Agent Orange … It wasn’t just the bloody jungles; it was used on bloody paddy fields. It killed everything, not only the vegetation; it killed
animals … Defoliation was simply a routine part of the war”. [14]
https://honesthistory.net.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/583-Britain-Australia-the-United-States-and-Agent-Orange-in-the-Indochina-Wars-1.pdf
…Australian troops were also involved in the use of herbicides and insecticides, the latter being widely sprayed in Phuoc Tuy province, particularly at Nui Dat. Even during the war herbicide use attracted growing criticism in the United States with the first reports of birth defects in children born in areas subject to aerial spraying appearing in 1965.
https://vietnam-war.commemoration.gov.au/aftermath/agent-orange.php

1970s – 1990’s: DDT and Dieldrin Impacts on Peregrine Falcons

DDT and dieldrin: effects on resident Peregrine Falcon populations in south-eastern Australia

ArticleinEcotoxicology 1(2):89-100 · December 1992

Abstract

Organochlorine residues in eggs and prey species of the Peregrine Falcon,Falco peregrinus, were determined in parts of three south-eastern Australian States: Tasmania (1975–91), Victoria (1975–83) and South Australia (1977–1981). Relationships between residues detected and eggshell thickness, nest site occupancy and productivity were examined. Temporal changes and, in particular, the relative effects of DDE and dieldrin were also investigated. DDE was detected in all 137 eggs analysed. The concentration of DDE residues in eggs peaked in the late 1970s to early 1980s in Victoria, but peaked earlier and had declined to low concentrations by the 1980s in Tasmania. Maximum concentrations reached 82 ppm, in Victoria. The geometric means were: Victoria 12.4 ppm; Tasmania 1970s 10.1 ppm, 1980s 1.5 ppm; and South Australia 1.95 ppm. Dieldrin was detected in approximately half the eggs, but all except one egg (1.5 ppm) contained concentrations considered noncritical (<1 ppm). The degree of shell-thinning and reproductive success were related to DDE content, but not to that of dieldrin. Organochlorine concentrations in prey reflected general concentrations in eggs and, with a few exceptions, were low. In Tasmania, reproductive success increased as DDE contamination declined. In Victoria, despite mean concentrations of DDE well above that considered to be critical for successful reproduction (>15–20 ppm) for at least seven years, the breeding population declined by <2% a year. We interpret this result as evidence that DDE causes a slow decline in population and that the dramatic declines observed in some other parts of the world were mainly attributable to contamination by dieldrin or to other confounding factors.

1944-45: Australian troops sprayed with DDT to combat Malaria

By May 1944 strategies were in place to aerially spray areas to control malaria. It was widely used in Papua New Guinea and in the Island Campaigns in the South West Pacific (it was also used in the Middle East).
Servicemen were exposed to DDT by a number of ways including aerial spraying, direct spraying of bodies of water which mosquitoes could use for breeding and hand spraying (knapsack) of living and sleeping quarters. In some Army Divisions in New Guinea, malarial casualties made up 90% of all casualties due to sickness and more than 80% of all casualties, including battle casualties.
DDT has now been linked to a number of diseases including pancreatic cancer.

1944-1945: Spraying Australian Troops with DDT to combat Malaria

By May 1944 strategies were in place to aerially spray areas to control malaria. It was widely used in Papua New Guinea and in the Island Campaigns in the South West Pacific (it was also used in the Middle East).
Servicemen were exposed to DDT by a number of ways including aerial spraying, direct spraying of bodies of water which mosquitoes could use for breeding and hand spraying (knapsack) of living and sleeping quarters. In some Army Divisions in New Guinea, malarial casualties made up 90% of all casualties due to sickness and more than 80% of all casualties, including battle casualties.
DDT has now been linked to a number of diseases including pancreatic cancer.

1944-45: Spraying Australian Troops with DDT to control Malaria.

By May 1944 strategies were in place to aerially spray areas to control malaria. It was widely used in Papua New Guinea and in the Island Campaigns in the South West Pacific (it was also used in the Middle East).
Servicemen were exposed to DDT by a number of ways including aerial spraying, direct spraying of bodies of water which mosquitoes could use for breeding and hand spraying (knapsack) of living and sleeping quarters. In some Army Divisions in New Guinea, malarial casualties made up 90% of all casualties due to sickness and more than 80% of all casualties, including battle casualties.
DDT has now been linked to a number of diseases including pancreatic cancer.

1944-45: Spraying Australian Troops with DDT to combat Malaria

By May 1944 strategies were in place to aerially spray areas to control malaria. It was widely used in Papua New Guinea and in the Island Campaigns in the South West Pacific (it was also used in the Middle East). Servicemen were exposed to DDT by a number of ways including aerial spraying, direct spraying of bodies of water which mosquitoes could use for breeding and hand spraying (knapsack) of living and sleeping quarters.

In some Army Divisions in New Guinea, malarial casualties made up 90% of all casualties due to sickness and more than 80% of all casualties, including battle casualties.

DDT has now been linked to a number of diseases including pancreatic cancer.

2016 March: Thousands of Victorian Public Servants Exposed to Toxic Chemicals.

‘Big as Fiskville’, says Australian Workers’ Union

The Weekly Times

 

THOUSANDS of public servants could have been exposed to toxic chemicals at work, in a case that has drawn comparisons with the CFA Fiskville scandal.

The Australian Workers’ Union has called on the Victorian Government for a “full and fearless investigation” of the chemicals used by workers across state departments and local government.

The call came after the Victorian Government last week said it would provide free health screenings for all workers employed as sprayers in state departments and agencies before 1995.

The health checks were recommended in the Former Lands Department Chemical Inquiry into the experience of government workers in the Ballarat area from 1965 to 1995.

The inquiry focused on the use of chemicals 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), the two active ingredients of the controversial Agent Orange.

The Ballarat inquiry found “no risk of cancer for those sprayers exposed to 2,4-D” but said prior to 1981 it was ­“plausible that exposure to TCDD (a contaminant in 2,4,5-T) may cause non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma or soft tissue sarcoma”.

AWU Victorian secretary Ben Davis welcomed the Government’s response to the inquiry — which included a review of current practices used in state departments and agencies — but said it was “just the tip of the iceberg”.

Mr Davis said a broader public inquiry was needed into what he described as a “massive social issue”.

“The State Government must now order a comprehensive examination of the whole range of chemicals used by public sector workers, in all parts of the state, over the years,” Mr Davis said.

“Workers have told us about illnesses ranging from cancers, to debilitating headaches, to persistent skin complaints and other lingering issues,” he said.

“The least people deserve are answers to the questions about what impacts exposure to these chemicals had on their families,” he said.

“I think this issue is as big as Fiskville,” he said, referring to the CFA training facility closed by the Government last year and now the subject of a parliamentary inquiry.

Mr Davis estimated thousands — many in rural areas — could be affected.

Environment Minister Lisa Neville would not comment on the AWU’s request, but said “no one outside the region was prevented from giving evidence at the (Ballarat) inquiry”.

The Government did not say how many workers would be eligible for health screenings.

https://www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/news/national/big-as-fiskville-says-australian-workers-union/news-story/7ba2c37758cb8ba713abeb467046ef2e

2016 March: Ex-forestry worker airs herbicide worry. Pesticides: 2,4-D, Picloram

Ex-forestry worker airs herbicide worry

The Weekly Times


IT WAS called the Forests Commission when Graeme Hughes started working in the public service in 1967.

By the time he retired in 2000, it was Parks Victoria.

There were several incarnations in between but, throughout his 43-year career, Mr Hughes worked in the bush around Stawell, in western Victoria, where he lived and raised a family.

Mr Hughes said that during the 1970s he was required to use Tordon 50D, a chemical herbicide used to kill trees.

“We were told ‘there is nothing wrong with the chemical, it’s harmless to you, you could drink a seven-ounce (200ml) glass a day, it’s a tree killer and harmless to humans’,” Mr Hughes wrote in a recent submission to the Former Lands Department Chemical Inquiry in Ballarat.

A union member throughout his career, Mr Hughes told The Weekly Times his crew was expected to use the chemical without any briefing about the risks involved.

“The (20-litre) drums just went in the back of the ute, next to the Esky with our lunch,” he said.

“We were given a paintbrush and away you’d go through the bush, banging it (a four-litre tin of herbicide) on the back of your legs.”

 

He said clothes would often be saturated with the chemical and workers did not wear gloves.

“There were no handwashing facilities. You’d just sit down and eat your lunch,” he said.

He said he believed there would be workers “from Mildura to Orbost” with similar experiences and called for the recent Ballarat based inquiry to be extended across the state.

“When my son was born (in 1987) he had an extra finger on his hand,” Mr Hughes said.

“It was removed, but I always wondered if that was (linked to) chemical exposure.”

Mr Hughes also questioned if his late wife’s Parkinson’s Disease could be related to chemical exposure.

“Was it because she washed my contaminated clothing?” he asked.

He said he knew of former employees who had suffered ill health in recent times — including cancers and Parkinson’s Disease.

https://www.weeklytimesnow.com.au/news/national/exforestry-worker-airs-herbicide-worry/news-story/284c2cd388de76f0e6c97464712eaa6a

1998: Barron River Pesticides Subtidal Sediments: Diuron, DDE, Dieldrin, DDT

Pesticide & Herbicide Residues in Sediments and Seagrasses from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and Queensland Coast – Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol 41. Nos 7-12 pp279-287. 2000

Barron River Site 14

3.6m: Diuron 0.3 ug/kg, DDE 0.15ug/kg

3.2m Diuron 0.4 ug/kg, Dieldrin 0.09ug/kg, DDT 0.05ug/kg, DDE 0.26ug/kg

1998: Daintree River. Pesticides in Subtidal Sediments: Diuron

Pesticide & Herbicide Residues in Sediments and Seagrasses from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and Queensland Coast – Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol 41. Nos 7-12 pp279-287. 2000

Daintree River Site 12 Diuron 0.2 ug/kg

1997: Moreton Bay West. Intertidal Sediments. Pesticide: Diuron

Pesticide & Herbicide Residues in Sediments and Seagrasses from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and Queensland Coast – Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol 41. Nos 7-12 pp279-287. 2000

Moreton Bay West Site 35 Diuron 0.6 ug/kg

1997: Cardwell. Intertidal Sediments. Pesticide: Diuron

Pesticide & Herbicide Residues in Sediments and Seagrasses from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and Queensland Coast – Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol 41. Nos 7-12 pp279-287. 2000

Cardwell Site 19 Diuron 1,.7ug/kg

1997: Cairns Intertidal Sediments. Pesticide: Diuron

Pesticide & Herbicide Residues in Sediments and Seagrasses from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and Queensland Coast – Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol 41. Nos 7-12 pp279-287. 2000

Cairns Site 15 Diuron 0.5ug/kg

1960’s – 1970’s. Pesticides used by Australia in Vietnam War: Dieldrin, Chlordane, Lindane, Diazinon, DDT, Malathion

What Quantities of Insecticides were used at Nui Dat?

On 15 October 1968, a Supply and Transport staff officer on HQ 1ATF, wrote to the Deputy Assistant Director of Supply and Transportion HQ AFV, informing him of the results of a survey of certain expense supplies that were demanded by units at Nui Dat over a three-month period. The quantities of insecticides being consumed at Nui Dat were

included in the survey and they are presented in the following table.

Dieldrin – 600 gallons – Extremely Toxic

Chlordane – 520 gallons – Extremely Toxic

Lindane Powder – 216 two ounce cans – Extremely Toxic

Diazinon Liquid – 600 gallons – Very Toxic

Diazinon Powder – 300 pounds – Very Toxic

DDT – 222 gallons – Moderately Toxic

Malathion – 520 gallons – Slightly Toxic

The supply officer who completed the survey recommended that these usage rates be adopted to establish the working stock levels for supply units at Nui Dat.
These are alarming quantities. In a three-month period in 1968, 1,120 gallons of ‘extremely toxic’ Dieldrin and Chlordane alone had been dispersed at Nui Dat. Remember that both of these chemicals were among the world’s twelve most dangerous chemicals that were
banned internationally in 2001.
It should be remembered that while the Australians were dispersing these quantities of insecticides at Nui Dat from ground-based equipment, US fixed-wing aircraft were also aerially spraying the base with either Malathion, or, perhaps, DDT, each fortnight.
The quantities of insecticides being used in 1968 were not an aberration. Other Australian supply documents from Vietnam show that in mid-1970 there were 285 gallons of Dieldrin in stock with afurther 300 gallons on order, 35 gallons of Chlordane with a further 100 gallons due in, 100 gallons of Lindane Liquid with 300 gallons due in, and so on with similar amounts for the other Residual Insecticides.

https://www.radschool.org.au/magazines/Vol50/pdf/Insecticide%20deceit_.pdf

1940’s: Papua New Guinea Australian Troops. Pesticide: DDT

1960’s – 1970’s: Australian Troops Exposed to 2,4,5-T, Dieldrin

“… Australian troops fighting in Vietnam were exposed to a cocktail of chemicals, including herbicides, especially the popularly known Agent Orange used to defoliate jungle, which was seen as providing tactical advantages for their enemy. Pesticides, including highly toxic dieldrin, were also apparently misused in aerial spraying of Australian bases.

Veterans in Australia and the US claim they have suffered increased rates of throat cancer, acute and chronic leukaemia, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, soft tissue sarcoma and liver cancer, as well as nerve, digestive, skin and respiratory disorders….”

https://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/win-for-vietnam-vets-with-agent-orange-war-history-to-be-rewritten-20140502-zr2fl.html

“First you’d see the spotter plane flying higher to check things out, then the big duster coming in just above the treetops,” he said.

The dust was to keep the jungle and undergrowth down to remove enemy cover, and it drifted everywhere, settling on soldiers, trucks and tents, and washing into water tanks. “We were cooking in this water, showering in it every day, drinking it,” says David, who now lives with Dianne at Saratoga on the Central Coast. “Afterwards you’d get this prickly heat, and it affected my skin.

https://www.smh.com.au/news/national/done-and-dusted/2008/05/30/1211654312886.html?page=fullpage

1970-2: Fire Damaged 2,4,5-T imported from Singapore (High Dioxin Levels).

Agent Orange herbicide compensation decision (7.30 Report)

The Tariff Board discovered this company, Chemical Industries Kwinana, was avoiding tariff on cheap chemicals from Singapore to make 2,4,5-T herbicide.

Some of the imports were found to have been damaged by fire which would have further concentrated dioxin, the component poisonous to humans.

WOMAN ON PHONE, FROM ‘THIS DAY TONIGHT’, 1972: If you won’t let us come down, then you have got something to hide.

As the ABC’s ‘This Day Tonight’ found in 1972, Chemical Industries Kwinana did not welcome outside attention.

The company is now defunct, but a WA parliamentary committee is planning to subpoena the son of the company’s deceased managing director.

ROBIN CHAPPLE, WA GREENS MP: The ability to subpoena or call before the inquiry agents of the company and the company to see if we can access their records.

MICK O’DONNELL: You will force them to testify?

ROBIN CHAPPLE: That is our intention.

CARL DRYSDALE: I reckon London to a brick it was stuff from Singapore, fire damaged Singapore 2,4,5-T, and they dumped it here in the Kimberley thinking that there’ll be no — out of sight, out of mind, you know.

https://www.abc.net.au/7.30/content/2004/s1047285.htm

2013 December – 2014 April: Jacksons Creek Sunbury. Pesticides: Simazine, Diuron, Bifenthrin, Metalaxyl, Penconazole

Jacksons Creek Sunbury Site: JHW

Dec 13: Simazine 0.097ug/L, Bifenthrin 0.012ug/L

March 14: Diuron 0.017ug/L, Simazine 0.039ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.032ug/L, Penconazole 0.017ug/L

April 14: Simazine 0.058ug/L

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December – 2014 April: Jacksons Creek Clarkefield. Pesticides: Simazine

Jacksons Creek at Clarkefield Site: JSC

Dec 13: Simazine 0.09ug/L

April 14: Simazine 0.056ug/L

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

December 2013 – April 2014: Jacksons Creek d/s Riddells Creek. Pesticides: Simazine, Metalaxyl, Penconazole

Jacksons Creek d/s Riddells Creek Site: JDR

Dec 13: Simazine 0.18ug/L

March 14: Simazine 0.046ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.029ug/L, Penconazole 0.017ug/L

April 14: Simazine 0.081ug/L, Triclopyr 2.9ug/L

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December – 2014 March: Riddells Creek. Pesticides: Simazine, Triclopyr, Metalaxyl, Penconazole

Riddells Creek Site: RUJ

Dec 13: Simazine 0.022ug/L

March 14: Metalaxyl 0.03ug/L, Penconazole 0.017ug/L

April 14: Simazine 0.061ug/L, Triclopyr 2.9ug/L

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December – 2014 April: Jacksons Creek just upstream of Riddells Creek. Pesticides: Multiple

Jacksons Creek upstream of Riddells Creek confluence Site: JUR

Dec 13: Simazine 0.13ug/L

March 14: Chlorpyrifos 0.021ug/L, Ethion 0.035ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.017ug/L, Piperonyl Butoxide 0.019ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.04ug/L, Penconazole 0.019ug/L

April 14: Simazine 0.085ug/L

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December: Jacksons Creek at Riddells Road. Pesticides: Simazine

Jacksons Creek Gisborne Site: JRR

Dec 13: Simazine 0.08ug/L

April 14: Simazine 0.076ug/L

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December – 2014 April. Jacksons Creek (downstream recycled water plant). Pesticides: Simazine, Metalaxyl, Penconazole, Bifenthrin

Jacksons Creek Gisborne Site: JDRWP

Dec 13: Simazine 0.1ug/L

March 14: Metalaxyl 0.028ug/L, Penconazole 0.018ug/L

April 14: Bifenthrin (sediment) 1.01mg/kg

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December – 2014 April: Jacksons Creek Recycled Water Plant. Pesticides: Multiple

Jacksons Creek Gisborne Site: RWP

Dec 13: Bifenthrin (sediment) 0.21mg/kg, Dimethomorph (sediment) 0.82mg/kg. Simazine 0.34ug/L

March 14: Diuron 0.13ug/L,, Simazine 0.73ug/L, Piperonyl Butoxide 0.022ug/L, Iprodione 0.036ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.023ug/L, Penconazole 0.017ug/L

April 14: Diuron 0.08ug/L, Simazine 0.2ug/L, Piperonyl Butoxide 0.032ug/L

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December – 2014 April. Jacksons Creek (upstream recycled water plant) Gisborne. Pesticides: Bifenthrin, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Metalaxyl, Penconazole

Jacksons Creek Gisborne Site: JURWP

Dec 13: Bifenthrin (sediment) 0.3mg/kg, Simazine 0.025ug/L, Tebuconazole 0.01ug/L

March 14: Metalaxyl 0.031ug/L, Penconazole 0.018ug/L

April 14: Bifenthrin (sediment) 0.82mg/kg

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December: Gisborne Stormwater Drain. Pesticides: Multiple

Jacksons Creek Gisborne Stormwater Drain Site: GSW

December 2013

Atrazine 0.11ug/L, Diuron 0.03ug/L, Hexazinone 0.018ug/L, Simazine 0.2ug/L, Difenconazole 0.012ug/L, Flusilazole 0.012ug/L, Penconazole 0.012ug/L, Propiconazole 0.017ug/L, Propiconazole 0.012ug/L Tebuconazole 0.02ug/L

Diuron (sediment) 0.31mg/kg, Simazine (sediment) 1.19mg/kg, Bifenthrin (Sediment) 0.71kg/mg, Diphenylamine (Sediment) 0.28kg/mg, O-phenylphenol (Sediment) 3.11mg/kg

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December: Gisborne Stormwater Drain. Pesticides: Multiple

Jacksons Creek Gisborne Stormwater Drain Site: NGS

December 2013

Atrazine 0.013ug/L, Diuron 0.021ug/L, Simazine 0.29ug/L, Piperonyl Butoxide 0.011ug/L

Bifenthrin (Sediment) 0.24kg/mg, Permethrin (sediment) 2.21kg/mg, Dimethomorph 0.22kg/mg, Diphenylamine (Sediment) 0.78kg/mg, O-phenylphenol (Sediment) 2.2mg/kg

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December: Jacksons Creek (u/s Gisborne). Pesticides: Diphenylamine, O-phenylphenol

Jacksons Creek Gisborne Site: JCC

December 2013

Diphenylamine (Sediment) 0.44kg/mg, O-phenylphenol (Sediment) 3.78mg/kg

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December – 2014 April. Jacksons Creek Gisborne. Pesticides: Multiple

Jacksons Creek Gisborne Site: JPS

December 2013

Atrazine 0.021ug/L, Diuron 0.02ug/L, Simazine 0.043ug/L, Piperonyl Butoxide 0.14ug/L

Diphenylamine (Sediment) 2.15kg/mg, O-phenylphenol (Sediment) 2.68mg/kg, Permethrin (Sediment) 0.63kg/mg, Bifenthrin (Sediment) 1.79mg/kg

March 2014

Chlorpyrifos 0.019ug/L, Pirimicarb 0.017ug/L, Metalaxyl 0.033ug/L, Penconazole 0.017ug/L

April 2014

Diuron 0.035ug/L, Piperonyl Butoxide 0.04ug/L, Bifenthrin (Sediment) 1.30kg/mg

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December: Upper Jacksons Creek Sediment. Pesticides: Diphenylamine, O-phenylphenol

Upper Jacksons Creek Site: JWF

December 2013

Diphenylamine 0.66kg/mg, O-phenylphenol 5.57mg/kg

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2013 December: Upper Jacksons Creek Sediment. Pesticides: Diphenylamine, O-Phenylphenyl

Upper Jacksons Creek Site: JDG

December 2013

Diphenylamine 1.67kg/mg, O-phenylphenol 6.67mg/kg

Source: Centre for Aquatic Pollution Identification and Management. Technical Report 46B: Identifying the Factors Influencing Aquatic Ecosystem Health in the Upper Jacksons Creek Catchment. February 2015

https://capim.com.au/uploads/Jacksons%20Creek%20Final%20Report%20-%20Part%20B%20%28CAPIM%20study%29%20for%20web.pdf

2016 March: Banned Pesticides Destroyed in Laverton North

Banned pesticides being destroyed in Laverton North

BANNED pesticides will be destroyed at a Laverton North company from Friday during a three-month trial of new technology to be overseen by the Environment Protection Authority.EPA major projects manager German Ferrando-Miguel said the trial of new methods would involve the destruction of half a tonne of a total of 80 tonnes of banned pesticides.

The chemicals had been stored in UN-dangerous goods approved drums sitting on pallets at a chemical storage facility in nearby Fitzgerald Rd for more than 15 years, he said.

The waste would be transported in drums in a truck the two kilometres between Fitzgerald and Dohertys roads on Friday, March 11.

He said that following the 2001 Stockholm Convention — an international treaty to protect human health and the environment from persistent pollutants — the use of certain pesticides, fungicides and other veterinary chemicals were banned in Victoria.

The collection of these chemicals from across Victoria at the time, mainly from the agricultural and veterinary sectors, totalled 235 tonnes.

“Most of the collected chemicals were able to be treated, disposed of or destroyed safely and easily however the EPA, on behalf of the State Government, currently manages the remaining 80 tonnes that were unable to be treated due to them being a complex mix of pesticides,” Dr Ferrando-Miguel said.

 

“Until recently, there has not been a viable and safe solution for the treatment and destruction of these chemical wastes and they have been securely and safely stored in Melbourne over the past 15 years.

“Fortunately, technology at waste management facilities has since evolved to now allow these chemical wastes to be treated and destroyed safely.”

Dr Ferrando-Miguel said following a rigorous and extensive process, Sterihealth in Dohertys Rd, Laverton North, and another facility in Queensland, had been selected to trial their proposals.

“The EPA, together with an independent technical expert, will assess the results of the trial to determine the most effective treatment methodologies and determine the most appropriate solution to treat the remaining waste,” he said.

“The EPA will oversee the trials to ensure they are conducted according to best practice methods that also apply to the treatment and destruction of similar chemicals.

The aim is to ensure that minimal end products remain following treatment.”

https://www.heraldsun.com.au/leader/west/banned-pesticides-being-destroyed-in-laverton-north/news-story/ad9fc57d803b951aa11eedd4bb904348

2004 July. Georges Bay (Tas). Oysters and people impacted. Pesticide: Atrazine

 19/07/2004

Aerial spraying report renews health concerns

Reporter: Jocelyn Nettleford 7.30 Report

KERRY O’BRIEN: A report commissioned by a small group of oyster farmers has reopened debate about the impact aerial spraying of pesticides and herbicides could have on waterways and public health.

The report has found that aerial spraying of private forestry plantations on Tasmania’s east coast was linked to a major oyster kill early this year, and possibly to the mystery illness which is devastating the Tasmanian devil population.

Some doctors have called for aerial spraying to be banned until the broader risks to public health can be properly assessed.

For its part, the forestry industry has welcomed an audit of its chemical usage, but maintains that aerial spraying poses no health or environmental threat.

Jocelyn Nettlefold reports.

JIM HARRIS, OYSTER FARMER: Well, you can’t help but feel angry and frustrated because, you know, I mean, collectively we lost here at Christmas time around about $1.5 million worth of stock.

JOCELYN NETTLEFOLD: For the oyster farmers at Georges Bay, on Tasmania’s east coast, it was a devastating blow – the sudden death of thousands of shellfish.

JIM HARRIS: These aren’t big businesses – they’re small businesses – and in an area like this, you know, we can’t sustain those sorts of losses.

JOCELYN NETTLEFOLD: Many began to suspect a link to the recent growth in the number of private forestry plantations around Georges Bay.

Aerial spraying of pesticides and herbicides made them wonder about the quality of the water running from the upper catchments.

So the oyster farmers commissioned Sydney water scientist Dr Marcus Scammell to investigate.

DR MARCUS SCAMMELL, MARINE ECOLOGIST: Initially we looked at the different types of practices in the catchment, but it wasn’t until we discovered that there was a helicopter accident where the helicopter had been using chemicals in aerial spraying that we really started to look at what was going on in the forestry plantations themselves.

JOCELYN NETTLEFOLD: While the pilot survived the crash with a broken leg, the spill of chemicals has reopened a sensitive public health debate.

Tests on the crash site revealed very high levels of the insecticide alpha cypermethrin, which is extremely toxic to marine life, and herbicides Atrazine and Simazine, which have been linked to tumours in mammals.

The Australian Medical Association has called for a ban on aerial spraying near water catchments in Tasmania until it’s proven to be safe.

DR ALISON BLEANEY, ST HELENS GP: How we can overcome having toxic chemicals put into catchments that drinking water comes out of?

JOCELYN NETTLEFOLD: Sydney GP Dr Mark Donohue has been studying the health effects of pesticides and herbicides for more than a decade.

DR MARK DONOHUE, SYDNEY GP: So if they get into the water supply or if there is a regular contact, the real risk is that in five, 10, 20 and 30 years’ time, we see cancer rates escalating.

EVAN ROLLEY, FORESTRY TASMANIA: We’ve done over 5,200 samples over the last 10 years and only three pesticides ever turned up.

That was Atrazine, that was nine years ago, and as soon as it turned up, we ceased using Atrazine.

JOCELYN NETTLEFOLD: While Forestry Tasmania is responsible for about 20 per cent of the water catchments in Tasmania, it’s not responsible for the private plantations at Georges Bay.

But spokesman Evan Rolley maintains the forestry industry should not automatically be blamed.

EVAN ROLLEY: I think the real challenge is to make sure there’s a full audit of all of the catchment, not just the forested part, but the agricultural and the urban part of the landscape.

DR DAVID LEAMAN, GEOHYDROLOGIST: People have just ignored the realities and the risks.

And we haven’t been careful enough.

We haven’t applied the duty of care.

JOCELYN NETTLEFOLD: Geohydrologist Dr David Leaman claims controls on aerial spraying aren’t being enforced.

DR DAVID LEAMAN: There’s certainly no real assurances about the dosage or the control of usage.

There are too many cases where sprays have gone over people’s roofs, where the water’s gone into their tanks, where people have been sprayed.

JOCELYN NETTLEFOLD: In the wake of the Scammell report, the Tasmanian Government has ordered that the local water supply around Georges Bay be tested for chemical residues.

PAUL LENNON, TASMANIAN PREMIER: Very serious allegations have been raised in the report, we accept that.

And we want them properly analysed and that is what we are ensuring will occur.

JOCELYN NETTLEFOLD: But humans aren’t the only mammals at risk.

Dr Scammell also found that aerial spraying may be responsible for a mysterious disease which is devastating the Tasmanian devil population.

DR MARCUS SCAMMELL: As it turned out, there was a strong correlation between the beginning of oyster problems and the beginning of the Tasmanian devil’s issues in terms of facial tumours and mortality.

JOCELYN NETTLEFOLD: Wildlife biologist Nick Mooney, who has been monitoring the decline in the devil population, believes aerial spraying can’t explain the extent of the deadly epidemic.

NICK MOONEY, FACIAL DEVIL DISEASE TASK FORCE: This coincidence, this correlation, it’s no surprise to us.

We do have devils with this disease in many areas that there’s been no spraying, so it’s not an exact overlay by any means, and there’s a lot other reasons we have to look into.

This has a priority but it has to compete with other issues.

JOCELYN NETTLEFOLD: The science within the Scammell report into the Georges Bay oyster kill will long be debated, but it will go down in history as a wake-up call to the issue of chemical spraying in Tasmania.

The report found the general breakdown in environmental protection and human health protection processes at every level of government.

DR DAVID LEAMAN: We’ve got to become more realistic and more caring about, one, the people that are affected by this, and then secondly, the long-term effect on the environment in which our children are going to have to live, so it’s people again.

JOCELYN NETTLEFOLD: The Tasmanian Government admits it does not know the volume of chemicals entering the state’s waterways.

It will start an inquiry by examining the records of spraying contractors to find out exactly what chemicals were discharged, where and when.

https://www.abc.net.au/7.30/content/2004/s1157381.htm

2014 October: Yerrabi Pond (ACT) Dying Murray Cod. Suspected pesticides: Glyphosate, Simazine

Scientists to use electricity to stun and survey dying Murray cod
October 2, 2014 Sydney Morning Herald

ACT environmental staff will be stunning fish with electricity in Yerrabi Pond in Gungahlin to investigate why large cod have been dying over the past fortnight.

More than 60 big and small cod have been found dead in the water and up on banks at Yerrabi and Gungahlin ponds. Theories on why the fish are dying range from pollution from upstream construction, weed spraying, and a natural condition known as black water caused by a breakdown of leaf litter.

An ecologist who declined to be named said identifying the cause of fish kills was difficult, and dying fish, as opposed to dead fish, would provide a clearer picture.

The ACT government will be working with experts from the University of Sydney to further sample Murray cod from the pond. Aquatic ecologists will be “electrofishing” on Tuesday to sample fish from the area.

“Electrofishing” uses electricity to stun fish and is a common scientific survey method

Cod believed to be up to six years old have been found belly-up over the past two weeks. Fishing enthusiasts fear whatever is killing the cod will continue spreading downstream into Lake Ginninderra and the Murrumbidgee River.

ACT Environment and Planning directorate cannot say whether chemicals have been used recently to treat sediment layers of water upstream of Yerrabi Pond.

“Flocculants choice is generally not specified by the Environment Protection Authority, industry is able to choose the most appropriate flocculent for a particular situation,” a spokeswoman said in a written response.

According to government agencies, routine spot spraying of weeds in granite areas and garden beds in parks within the catchment has taken place but not directly near Yerrabi’s foreshores.

“Minimal amounts of the herbicides Roundup and Simazine were applied to weeds, minimising the risk of chemicals polluting the waterways and harming the fish,” the spokeswoman said.

Yerrabi Pond is included in monitoring for Canberra’s major lakes and ponds. Sampling occurs eight times a year for dissolved oxygen, temperature, acidity, conductivity, faecal coliforms, nutrients, algae and turbidity.

https://www.smh.com.au/national/scientists-to-use-electricity-to-stun-and-survey-dying-murray-cod-20141002-10pffg.html

2012 May: Pesticide Blown Across Tasman. Pesticide: Endosulfan

Pesticide blown across Tasman

May 7 2012

Karen Lavin graduated from the university on Saturday with a PhD in chemistry.

Her doctoral research focused on analysing the source of “semi-volatile organic contaminants” in the Southern Alps, and included air testing undertaken there in early 2009.

“Many organic contaminants are transported through the atmosphere and accumulate in cold, remote ecosystems,” she noted in a summary of her research.

Because of their potential toxicity, it was important to understand the sources influencing the “contaminant burden” in such sites.

The pesticide endosulfan had earlier been banned in New Zealand but had still been in limited use in Australia, including in cotton-growing operations in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland, when the air testing was done on this side of the Tasman, she said.

Endosulfan has since also been banned in Australia.

Dr Lavin, who recently began a research-related job with the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, emphasised the tiny amounts of contaminants found at the alpine sites posed no risk to humans and were far below levels typically found at other comparable alpine sites overseas.

Nevertheless, the results clearly showed that “even using a pesticide in your own back yard can have quite far-reaching effects”.

Pesticide use in Australia had resulted in contaminants being carried by prevailing high winds and finding their way to a remote, “pristine” part of New Zealand.

“It’s a global thing. It’s amazing how far they can travel,” she said.

Australia had been the main source of endosulfan in the study air samples, and combustion-related contaminants from the Victorian bushfires had also been detected.

Traces of the insecticide chlorpyrifos, from Canterbury, had also been found.

https://www.odt.co.nz/campus/university-otago/208232/pesticide-blown-across-tasman

2003: McCreadys Creek Mackay Qld. Pesticides: Diuron, Ametryn, Hexazinone, Tebuthiuron, Simazine

Mackay City Council
Appendix B Water Quality Data Summary

Miscellaneous Studies by EPA, Researchers and Private Developers
The EPA’s monitoring sites in the Mackay City Council Region are located at Blackrock Creek, St Helens Creek, Murray Creek and Bakers Creek.
Measures of water quality in McCreadys Creek is reported in the Mackay Mangrove Dieback Study (Duke et al,. 2003). The Mackay Mangrove Dieback Study undertook surface water measurements in 2002 at five sites located in the tidal reaches of Mcreadys Creek and from water that seeped into holes (4 sites) that were dug into mangrove sediment…

Diuron was detected at all four core water sampling sites. Diuron concentrations ranged from 3.32 to 8.36 ng/L. Ametryn, Hexazinone, Tebuthiuron and Simazine were also detected at some of the sites.
https://www.mackay.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/3746/Appendix_B_-_Water_Quality_Data_Summary.pdf

2011 September: Pesticides in 2 Drinking Water Supply Tanks Forest Glen Qld. Pesticide: Diuron

POLICE are investigating the deliberate poisoning of two drinking water supply tanks at Marshall’s Lagoon, Forest Glen.

The highly toxic herbicide Diuron, which has serious side effects if ingested, was detected in two 5000-litre tanks on the property.

An on-site caretaker will know today whether the persistent bowel and stomach ailment that has weakened his health recently is the result of drinking water.

Detective Senior Sergeant Darren Edwards said the water had been tested through an accredited laboratory and there was no doubt that it had been contaminated.

“We have an ongoing investigation,” he said. “It was in an isolated area and whoever did it would need to know where the tanks were.

“It was a mongrel act. If a little kid had drunk water from the hose it may have had a very bad effect.”

The caretaker, Mick Stanton, said he realised something was wrong when water he put into a jug to make a cup of tea began frothing out of the top.

Water had also frothed in the sink when he had attempted to wash up.

“I’ve had an upset bowel and stomach and have been taking tablets ever since to settle it,” he said. “I just hope it’s nothing too serious.”

Property owner Bob Marshall said he had his own theories as to who may be responsible but would leave the matter in the hands of police investigators.

The tanks have been emptied and thoroughly cleaned.

Mr Marshall’s wife Kathy said young children regularly played near the tanks and could easily have had a drink from the tap.

“I hate to think what could have happened if one of the little kiddies had drunk it,” Mrs Marshall said.

“We’re worried sick.”

The Queensland Government has proposed a ban on Diuron because of fears about its impact on the Great Barrier Reef. It is used as a weed control agent in cane growing and as a cotton growing defoliant.

It contains Phenylurea Urea and can cause serious damage to health if swallowed. People using it are warned to wash hands carefully as well as gloves and any equipment used in its distribution.

The attack follows the alleged attempted poisoning of 70 hectares of strawberries at Gowinta Farms at Beerwah.

https://www.themorningbulletin.com.au/news/poison-put-in-tanks/1111930/

1998-2009: Johnstone River Estuary Qld. Pesticides: DDE, Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Chlorpyrifos, Lindane, DDT

A WATER QUALITY ISSUES ANALYSIS FOR THE JOHNSTONE RIVER BASIN

Report No. 11/05

for Terrain NRM

Stephen Lewis and Jon Brodie

Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research, James Cook University

Final report April 2011

Agrochemicals

Herbicides

Insecticides

…Russell and Hales (1993) detected the insecticide residues DDE and dieldrin in oysters, mussels, mudcrabs, bony bream and catfish in the Johnstone River, although levels were thought to be of little concern. More recently, Negri et al. (2009) detected dieldrin and heptachlor in mudcrabs of the Johnstone River estuary….

Chlorpyrifos (up to 0.7 μgkg-1) and DDE (up to 0.3 μgkg-1) residues have been detected in the sediments of the Johnstone River estuary (Duke et al., 2003) while residues of lindane (0.08 – 0.19 μgkg-1), dieldrin (0.15 – 0.37 μgkg-1) and DDE (0.16 – 0.25 μgkg-1) have been detected in sub-tidal sediments in the Johnstone River in monitoring conducted in 1998 (Haynes et al., 2000). The organochlorine insecticides among these (dieldrin, heptachlor, lindane, DDT (DDE)) were banned from use in Australia in the 1980s and 1990s.

2011: Insecticides and Fungicides Johnstone River. Pesticides: Chlorpyrifos, Protiophos, Tebuconazole

A WATER QUALITY ISSUES ANALYSIS FOR THE JOHNSTONE RIVER BASIN

Report No. 11/05

for Terrain NRM

Stephen Lewis and Jon Brodie

Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research, James Cook University

Final report April 2011

Agrochemicals

Insecticides

Chlorpyrifos and protiophos were the only insecticides detected in the passive samplers deployed in the North Johnstone River (Kapernick et al., 2007; Shaw et al., 2010). Chlorpyrifos is widely used in the sugar industry to control the greyback cane beetle/grub while protiophos is used in the banana industry (J. Armour, pers comm., 2009). The detection of chlorpyrifos in passive samplers is a concern given that this insecticide’s ANZECC and ARMCANZ (2000) guidelines for freshwaters (0.01 μg/L and 0.00004 μg/L for the 95% and 99% protection values, respectively – high reliability guideline) is within this detection range. The passive samplers accumulated 15 ng (or 0.015 μg) of chlorpyrifos over a 12 day deployment in the dry season (Shaw et al., 2010) meaning that >1 ng (>0.001 μg) must have been accumulated per day which could be within the range of the 99% protection guideline (although a conversion to a mean concentration was not performed). Unfortunately, no guideline has been developed to examine the toxicity of protiophos, although this insecticide is in the same chemical group as chlorpyrifos (organophosphate) and so it may also be of similar concern in the Johnstone Basin. Russell and Hales (1993) detected the insecticide residues DDE and dieldrin in oysters, mussels, mudcrabs, bony bream and catfish in the Johnstone River, although levels were thought to be of little concern. More recently, Negri et al. (2009) detected dieldrin and heptachlor in mudcrabs of the Johnstone River esturay….

Fungicides

Tebuconazole was the only fungicide detected in passive samplers deployed in the North Johnstone River (Kapernick et al., 2007). Tebuconazole is used in the banana industry. No guideline value is available to examine the potential toxicity of tebuconazole.

2006: Johnstone River Qld (offshore). Pesticides: Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone, Tebuthiuron

A WATER QUALITY ISSUES ANALYSIS FOR THE JOHNSTONE RIVER BASIN

Report No. 11/05

for Terrain NRM

Stephen Lewis and Jon Brodie

Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research, James Cook University

Final report April 2011

Agrochemicals

Herbicides

… Diuron, atrazine, hexazinone and tebuthiuron residues were detected in ‘grab’ samples collected along a transect from the Johnstone River to Russell Island (Kapernick et al., 2006). While herbicide residues detected were at relatively low levels (~5 ng/L diuron; others at 1-2 ng/L) compared to guidelines and effect concentrations, this sampling was conducted 2 weeks after Tropical Cyclone Larry had crossed the coast and so concentrations may have been much higher in the earlier stages of the plume.

1990’s: Johnstone River Qld: Faunal impacts. Pesticides: Atrazine, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T

A WATER QUALITY ISSUES ANALYSIS FOR THE JOHNSTONE RIVER BASIN

Report No. 11/05

for Terrain NRM

Stephen Lewis and Jon Brodie

Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research, James Cook University

Final report April 2011

Agrochemicals

Herbicides

… Russell and Hales (1993; Russell et al., 1996) detected atrazine in mussels and mudcrabs, 2,4-D in mussels, mudcrabs and catfish and 2,4,5-T in catfish in the Johnstone River which suggested that these herbicides had some bio-accumulation potential. Of these herbicides detected in the water and aquatic animals, it appears that concentrations of diuron, 2,4-D and tebuthiuron would be of most concern in the Johnstone Basin. Moreover, the detection of 2,4,5-T also raises some concerns with the potential associated dioxins in this herbicide.

2011: North Johnstone River (Qld). Pesticides: Diuron, Simazine, Atrazine, Hexazinone, Tebuthiuron, Pendimethalin

A WATER QUALITY ISSUES ANALYSIS FOR THE JOHNSTONE RIVER BASIN

Report No. 11/05

for Terrain NRM

Stephen Lewis and Jon Brodie

Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research, James Cook University

Final report April 2011

Agrochemicals

Herbicides

… More recent monitoring in the North Johnstone River with passive samplers has detected diuron, simazine, atrazine, hexazinone, tebuthiuron and pendimethalin (Kapernick et al., 2006; 2007; Shaw et al., 2010).

2011: Johnstone River Qld. Pesticides: Diuron, Atrazine, 2,4-D, Ametryn, Trifluralin, MCPA, 2,4,5-T

A WATER QUALITY ISSUES ANALYSIS FOR THE JOHNSTONE RIVER BASIN

Report No. 11/05

for Terrain NRM

Stephen Lewis and Jon Brodie

Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research, James Cook University

Final report April 2011

Agrochemicals

Herbicides

A recent study from the neighbouring Tully catchment showed that a number of photosystem-II inhibiting herbicides were regularly detected in the freshwater streams and also offshore in river water plumes in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon at concentrations either exceeding ANZECC and ARMCANZ (2000) guidelines or above known negative effect levels for marine plants (Bainbridge et al., 2009a). A clear relationship exists between the area of sugarcane and the mean diuron concentration (Bainbridge et al., 2009a). Monitoring in the Johnstone River catchment in the 1990s detected six herbicides including diuron (<2.3 μg/L), atrazine (≤0.7 μg/L), 2,4-D (0.18 – 15.6 μg/L), ametryn, trifluralin, MCPA and 2,4,5-T (Hunter et al., 2001).

2015 October: Newtons Ridge Winery Hit By Spray Drift

Newtons Ridge winery hit by spray drift

The Standard

Oct. 13, 2015

SOUTH-west winery Newtons Ridge has been hit with chemical spray drift that is expected to wipe out half its chardonnay grape crop.

Owner David Falk estimates the loss of fruit will cost him about $37,000 in lost wine production.

He said the spray had shrivelled the vine leaves and dwarfed the growth of new vine shoots.

The vines, which were presently at flowering stage, would not bear fruit, Mr Falk said.

He found the damage early last week and believes the spraying might have occurred in the week prior.

Newtons Ridge winery is located on Cooriemungle Road at Cooriemungle, south of Simpson.

“It’s hit about .5 acre (.2 hectare) to an acre (.4 ha). But I’ve only got about seven acres (2.8 ha),” Mr Falk said.

“It came as a shock,” Mr Falk said.

“I thought at first I had downy mildew,” he said.

However an agronomist had quickly identified the cause as spray drift and biosecurity specialists had confirmed the diagnosis.

The vines were being tested to determine what chemical was responsible, Mr Falk said.

He estimated the damage would wipe out half his chardonnay grapes this year, cutting his production of chardonnay wine by about 1000 litres.

“There is nothing we can do to fix the situation this year.

“I just hope next year it does not happen again,” Mr Falk said.

This year’s damage led him to believe that similar damage last year to his sauvignon blanc vines might have also been from spray drift.

That damage lost him between one third and a half of his sauvignon blanc grapes.

Mr Falk said he hoped his setbacks would serve as a lesson to farmers to be careful about weather conditions when spraying.

“Think about the wind,” he said.

“It could have come from 10 kilometres away,” Mr Falk said.

People should also not spray in foggy conditions because the spray could mix with the fog and move with it, he said.

He said neighbouring farms worked in well with his winery and he was not blaming anyone.

Mr Falk, who owns the south-west real estate company Falk & Co, bought the Newtons Ridge winery four years ago from David and Dot Newton. It produces a range of red and white wines.

The state government recommends that agricultural chemicals be applied within buffer zones and vegetative barriers to reduce the potential for spray drift.

https://www.standard.net.au/story/3418335/spray-drift-damages-south-west-vineyard/

2011 March: Berrima NSW Spraydrift. Pesticides: Triclopyr, Picloram, Aminopyralid

Spray drift kills garden plants

Southern Highland News

March 31, 2011

Residents are angry that contractors commissioned by Wingecarribee Council were spraying highly toxic chemicals from the seat of their truck, on a windy day and in an environmentally protected area.

Residents are angry that contractors commissioned by Wingecarribee Council were spraying highly toxic chemicals from the seat of their truck, on a windy day and in an environmentally protected area.

BERRIMA residents have cried foul after a council round of weed spraying on road verges in the shire killed several of their plants.

Page Coulson said she was “extremely concerned” the contractors employed by the council went ahead with the spraying in what were “very windy” conditions.

“Winds were up to 20km/h. You cannot spray in wind, full stop,” she said.

“I don’t care if that is the time you have booked in to spray road verges; if it is windy you don’t do it.

“Not only were my plants covered in it, but I also was covered in it.”

Mrs Coulson said adding to her concerns was the amount of chemicals being used.

“I watched as litres were sprayed on to one shrub. Now if they are using Grazon, which is what it smelt like to me, this is highly toxic stuff; it’s not Roundup,” she said.

“I also couldn’t believe that on one day I saw the contractors spraying in a environmentally protected area from the seat of the truck.”

Mrs Coulson said Wingecarribee Council was very apologetic and equally concerned.

“They had no idea this contractor was spraying from inside the truck,” she said.

Among the “carnage” on her property, Mrs Coulson lost five illy agnes shrubs, one lilac tree and a eucalyptus, all of which the council has promised would be replaced by the contractor responsible.

The council’s parks and open spaces co-ordinator, Greg Bray, confirmed the chemical used was Grazon.

He has apologised to Mrs Coulson and assured all residents more stringent rules would be applied in the future.

“As a result of this incident, council has reviewed chemical spraying contractors’ qualifications and will now require all spray contractors working on council property to hold a SMART train AQF IV Chemical Application,” he said.

https://www.southernhighlandnews.com.au/story/1070752/spray-drift-kills-garden-plants/

2008 August: Endosulfan found in Australian Tomatoes. Pesticides: Endosulfan, Dimethoate, Omethoate

Endosulfan, a toxic organophosphate insecticide, in Australian tomatoes

This report was published in July by the Soil & Health Association of New Zealand

More endosulfan in tomatoes – this time Australian ones are worse!

Independent residue testing commissioned by Pesticide Action Network Aotearoa NZ and the Soil & Health Association has found endosulfan residues in both New Zealand and Australian tomatoes – but this time the residues are much worse in the imported tomatoes.

Endosulfan residues were found in cherry tomatoes, but not loose tomatoes, from both countries, with those from Australia having 4 and a half times more endosulfan than the NZ cherry tomatoes.

Whilst the Australian large loose tomatoes did not contain endosulfan, they did contain residues of dimethoate, and its metabolite omethoate. Dimethoate is a highly toxic organophosphate insecticide used as a post harvest dip to kill fruit fly larvae before tomatoes are sent to New Zealand. Omethoate is far more toxic and persistent than dimethoate.

“Dimethoate and omethoate don’t wash off the tomatoes and are not something consumers should be ingesting,” said Dr Meriel Watts of Pesticide Action Network. “They are endocrine disruptors, reducing testosterone levels and causing infertility and can also cause birth defects, a variety of cancers including leukaemia, and suppression of the immune system.”

 Endosulfan, a highly toxic and persistent organochlorine insecticide. It has been banned in 55 countries and proposed by the European Union for a global ban under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic pollutants.

“Endosulfan is the worst pesticide still in use in New Zealand”, said Dr Watts. “It is also an endocrine disruptor, specifically mimicking oestrogen, causing breast cancer cells to grow and is a real risk for breast cancer at even very low exposure levels such as residues in food. It persists in our bodies and is handed down to the next generation across the placenta and in breast milk, a situation that is regarded as no longer acceptable in countries such as those of the European Union”.

 Jo Immig of National Toxics Network in Australia has written to Tony Burke MP, Minister for Agriculture as well as the Health and Environment Ministers bringing their attention to this issue and asking for an immediate ban on endosulfan use in Australia.

According to the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Pesticides Authority (APVMA) database, there are currently eight, registered endosulfan pesticide products in Australia that are used on an extensive range of produce including cotton, cereals, oilseeds, fruit, vegetables and a range of other crops. The APVMA states itself that, ‘Alternative products are available for all [endosulfan] use patterns…”. (APVMA Information Sheet, “Does the Use of Endosulfan Interest You?”)

The figures for Australian cherry tomatoes imported into New Zealand were 100gms of tomato will give a load of 97ug, practically reaching the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for a 50kg person

Action

An “Open Letter to Stephen Johnson, Administrator,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Ban Endosulfan” has been published this week in the Int J Occup Environ Health. This journal is listed on PubMed, and the article should appear in PubMed within a few months. There are many organisations supporting the letter. On behalf of DEA it is signed by Alison Bleaney and David Shearman

National Toxics network has written to the Minister of agriculture in Australia (see above)

DEA members will have to make a personal decision as to whether they buy organic tomatoes or preferably grow their own. Unfortunately there must be concern that other fruit and vegetables are similarly treated. Have you ever wondered why you never find a slug in the lettuce you buy? It is reassuring to find one in the organically grown lettuce! Editor

More information on this topic can be found at www.ntn.org.au

https://dea.org.au/news/article/endosulfan_a_toxic_organophosphate_insecticide_in_australian_tomatoes

1996 May: Cotton Insecticides Contaminates Calves. Pesticides: Chlorfluazuron, Endosulfan

Cotton Insecticide Contaminates Calves

May 20, 1996

Newborn calves in Australia are still being contaminated with 
hazardous levels of the insecticide Helix (chlorfluazuron), 
two years after cattle were fed cotton trash containing 
residues of the pesticide. After finding high levels of Helix 
in the cattle, several countries suspended beef imports from 
Australia. Government inspectors believe that the pesticide 
is being passed to calves through suckling. Due to a drought 
in 1994, many Australian farmers were forced to feed cattle 
alternative feeds, which in some cases included cotton trash 
containing chlorfluazuron residues.

National Toxics Network, an Australian public interest group, 
states that Helix was given special government approval for 
use on cotton despite being provisionally registered due to 
concerns about its persistence in the environment. Recent 
research by the Meat Research Corporation (Australia) found 
that Helix residues may never disappear from older cattle, 
and that farmers may be able to sell contaminated cattle only 
for pet food. 

In 1995, cattle farmers filed a class action suit against the 
Australian government and Crop Care Australasia, the company 
that marketed Helix in Australia. The suit seeks compensation 
for losses in beef sales resulting from the initial pesticide 
contamination, and was filed before anyone knew that losses 
would continue in the next generation of cattle. The suit, 
which represents approximately 460 cattle farmers, alleges 
that chlorfluazuron was registered without adequate testing. 
Crop Care Australasia announced last year that it was 
withdrawing the pesticide from the Australian market as an 
"act of good faith." 

Farmers in New South Wales and Queensland may file a similar 
lawsuit against the Australian government due to cattle 
contamination by the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan. 
The farmers' lawyer charged that the Australian National 
Registration Authority labeled endosulfan inadequately. 
Approximately 23 farms were placed in quarantine after 
inspectors discovered the insecticide in beef cattle at 
levels above the maximum residue limit, possibly due to spray 
drift contaminating grazing land. In Australia, endosulfan is 
used primarily on cotton. Endosulfan has been targeted for 
global phaseout by pesticide reform groups worldwide due to 
its extreme toxicity (see PANUPS June 16, 1995 and June 16, 
1994). It has also been identified as an endocrine disruptor.

National Toxics Network stated that the endosulfan and 
chlorfluazuron cases are not the first reports of Australian 
cattle being contaminated with pesticides. In 1987, 
organochlorine residues were detected in beef shipped to the 
U.S., and since that time Australian beef exporters have lost 
millions of dollars due to concerns about chemical 
contamination.  

Sources: Agrow, February 16, 1996; January 19, 1996; February 
3, 1995; National Toxics Network Sentinel, February 1995.

https://www.ibiblio.org/london/agriculture/forums/sustainable-agriculture2/msg00757.html

1999 February: Australian Beef Rejected for Export. Pesticide: Endosulfan

Pesticide Action Network Updates Service (PANUPS)

Endosulfan Residues in Australian Beef

February 22, 1999

Australian beef has been rejected for export because of excessive residues of endosulfan, an organochlorine insecticide. A representative of the Australian Minister of Agriculture stated that high endosulfan levels in beef from farms in New South Wales and Queensland are most likely the result of increased cotton plantings and high pesticide use to control insects. Endosulfan residues can be found in cattle when pastures are contaminated by pesticide drift from neighboring cotton fields or when the animals are fed cotton gin trash containing the chemical. Cotton plantings are expected to increase by 25% this year, to approximately 547,000 hectares.

The maximum residue level of endosulfan allowed in beef sold in Australia is 0.2 mg/kg, twice the international (Codex) level of 0.1 mg/kg. Some beef samples taken from affected properties in Queensland recently contained as much as 0.36 mg/kg, almost twice the Australian limit and almost four times the international limit.

The Australian National Residue Survey has already targeted about 1,400 cattle farms as vulnerable to contamination from cotton spraying and the cattle raised on these farms are closely monitored for endosulfan residues. The government has proposed an increase in the number of targeted farms and that more information on use of endosulfan be provided to cotton and cattle farmers.

The Australian National Registration Authority, the government body that regulates pesticide use, has called for reductions in endosulfan use and imposed some restrictions in an attempt to limit worker and environmental impacts. In July 1999, growers will be required to keep spray application records and limit applications to two per season for non-orchard crops. An earlier proposal to limit applications to “essential” uses was dropped after lobbying by growers, grower groups and commodity organizations.

These latest incidents occurred at a time when the Australian cotton industry was about to launch its “Good Neighbors” environmental stewardship program. Cotton Australia, the cotton industry association, has proposed an auditing process that would award certification to farms meeting environmental standards set by the group.

In 1996, approximately 23 farms in New South Wales and Queensland were placed in quarantine after inspectors discovered endosulfan in beef cattle at levels above the maximum residue limit, possibly due to grazing land that had been contaminated by spray drift. Lawyers for the farmers maintained that restrictions on endosulfan use issued by the Australian National Registration Authority were inadequate.

Endosulfan has been banned and severely restricted in many countries around the world as governments respond to its acute human toxicity, and the high numbers of reported poisonings. It has been targeted for global phaseout by pesticide reform groups worldwide. In recent years, endosulfan has also been identified as an endocrine disrupting chemical.

Australia has had other problems with pesticide residues in cattle. In 1996, newborn calves in Australia were found contaminated with hazardous levels of the insecticide Helix (chlorfluazuron) two years after cattle were fed cotton trash containing residues of the pesticide. Government inspectors believed that the pesticide was passed to calves through suckling. After finding high levels of Helix in the cattle, several countries suspended beef imports from Australia. Due to a drought in 1994, many Australian farmers were forced to feed cattle alternative feeds, which in some cases included cotton trash containing chlorfluazuron residues.

Source: Agrow: World Crop Protection News, January 15, 1999 and August 28, 1998. PANUPS, May 20, 1996. Consumer Food News, February 1999.

https://www.panna.org/legacy/panups/panup_19990222.dv.html

 

1987 September: Australian Beef – US Pesticide Residue Violation. Pesticide: Chlorpyrifos

1987 May: Export Meat to USA Pesticide Residue Violations. Pesticides: Dieldrin, Hepatchlor

In spite of several quality control procedures used by Australia to ensure the wholesomeness of export meat, a number of pesticide residue violations were identified in the Australian product exported to the USA in May 1987. The pesticides involved were the organochlorines, dieldrin and heptachlor. The problems were caused by the persistence of organochlorines in soils and their illicit use or contamination of storage facilities. Animals grazing contaminated pasture, ingesting contaminated feed or held in contaminated yards over a period, bioaccumulated residues in their adipose tissues which eventually exceeded maximum residue limits (MRL) and caused violations. Though there was no immediate public health risk, the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) of the Commonwealth Department of Primary Industries and Energy (DPIE), acted expeditiously to determine and eliminate the factors causing these problems, which threatened Australia’s beef export industry worth in excess of two billion dollars annually. An overall strategic plan, “The Integrated Action Plan”, was formulated and implemented by AQIS with the assistance of the relevant Departments of the States and the Northern Territory (NT), meat processing and export industries and livestock producer bodies. As a result of this action, the likely sources of contamination were identified and controlled. The National Residue Survey (NRS) was enhanced, a National Residue Data Base (NRDB) was established and a centralised computer system interactive with abattoirs, laboratories and animal health authorities developed. The cattle farm identity tail tag system already in place, capable of tracing cattle to the farm of origin was refined and trace back systems for sheep and pigs were utilised. Analytical laboratory facilities capable of a rapid sample turnover were expanded and an individual farm organochlorine clearance program was established. From 25 May 1987 to 22 May 1989, 813,330 cattle were tested in the AQIS testing program from approximately 137,000 individual farms. Of this number, approximately 118,000 farms met the designated test result and were declared clear. This program has also been successful in preventing further violations being detected in Australian beef by overseas import testing authorities. In achieving a reduction of violations, a closer working liaison was established between AQIS and the relevant Departments of the States and NT resposible for animal health programs.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1990.tb07695.x/abstract

2016 January: Oats from Australia found to contain excessive pesticide residues. Pesticide. Fenitrothion

Oats from Australia found to contain excessive pesticide residues

2015 July: Pesticides in WA Fresh Produce Too High

Pesticides in WA fresh produce too high, report finds

 

In two of the last three WA Department of Health food monitoring testing programs 11 per cent of local produce contained residue levels exceeding acceptable standards.

The department conducts tests for pesticide residue in local meat, fish, fruit, vegetables and grains every two years.

A program conducted using food samples from across Australia found less than 1 per cent breached acceptable levels.

The Department of Health said it recorded higher rates because it sampled produce more likely to be exposed to increased pesticide use, compared to the samples used in the national monitoring program.

But in his report, auditor-general Colin Murphy said the department did not adequately follow up on the incidents to understand or address the causes.

“Licensing and inspection processes need to be strengthened for some high-risk licence categories,” the report said.

“Results of monitoring and inspection programs need better follow up to ensure appropriate action is taken and agencies could better plan and coordinate inspection and monitoring activities to make use of their scarce resources.”

When a sample exceeds accepted pesticide residue limits, the department informs the local government from where the sample originated, which then follows up the matter with the grower.

Mr Murphy said there was no other formal analysis or reporting of the results, industry was not provided any feedback and the results were not used to inform other compliance programs.

Mr Murphy was also critical of the both the Health Department and the Department of Agriculture and Food for rarely carrying out legislatively-required inspections of licensed pesticide permit holders to check if they are being managed correctly.

He recommended the Health Department ensured all results from the food monitoring program were appropriately followed up by local governments by the end of the year.

He also advised the Pesticides Advisory Committee to formalise a process to ensure information collection is coordinated and results were shared between agencies.

Both departments said they welcomed the findings of the report.

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-07-01/pesticide-residues-in-wa-fresh-produce-unacceptable/6585300

2016 January: Spray Drift Closeburn Qld. Pesticide: Aminopyralid, Fluroxypur

Radio National: The Law Report 9/2/16

A neighbour’s pesticide blew onto a Queensland woman’s property, and she ended up in hospital for a short time.

What are the regulations and who do you call when chemical spray drift affects you?

https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lawreport/spray-drift-pesticide-puts-neighbour-in-hospital/7151130

Resident demands safety from chemicals

A Closeburn resident wants to see laws enacted to ensure people have their rights protected when it comes to the air they breathe.

Denise Ravenscroft was hospitalised last month after inadvertently inhaling weedkiller that was being sprayed on her neighbour’s property.

Mrs Ravenscroft, who has lived on her property for about 30 years, began smelling a “serious, strong chemical smell”.

She discovered contractors spraying a herbicide weedkiller, which she later found out to be called ‘Hotshot’, on the boundary of the properties.

“I saw someone spraying with a fire fighting hose. It was the craziest thing I’ve ever seen in my whole entire life,” Mrs Ravenscroft, 60, said.

The chemical was being sprayed a “considerable distance” and, out of concern for herself and local fauna, she asked the workers to stop, which they did.

However, Mrs Ravenscroft’s symptoms continued to worsen.

A severe burning pain began in her chest and her voice was extremely hoarse.

“Then I started getting the sensation of a very tight band getting tighter and tighter and tighter around my chest. That got pretty scary,” she recalls.

“I was breathing by having very shallow breaths because it was so painful to breathe in deeply.”

She called triple-zero and was taken by ambulance to hospital, where she spent the rest of the day.

Mrs Ravenscroft said she contacted multiple government departments and agencies to try and find out how she could prevent this from happening again, but came up empty handed.

Since the chemical sprayer was a contractor Mrs Ravenscroft was finally forward-ed to Workplace Health and Safety, which has since begun looking into the case.

“There is no law protecting the public against being harmed by poison in the air that’s being deliberately sprayed,” Mrs Ravenscroft said.

“Not only is there no clear law, there is no one body or department that actually undertakes responsibility for doing some-thing about it.

“There’s no point in having laws if no one is directed to uphold those laws.

“I was flabbergasted that had that not been a workplace health and safety issue no one would have touched it.”

In an ABC local radio interview, Fiona O’Sullivan from Workplace Health and Safety said air pollution from spray drift is particularly common at this time of year.

“We have quite a number of these cases on our files at the moment and we’re making inquiries and working with the duty holders to try and come to some resolution,” she said.

“The Workplace Health and Safety Act places a range of duties on workplace situations and only workplace situations – we have to be very clear about that – but anyone who’s applying chemicals as part of their business has a duty under that legislation to do so without causing harm to others, and without causing harm to themselves as well.”

Ms O’Sullivan said in a non-workplace situation the local council should be the first port of call for complaints from members of the public.

2010 December: Urgent Action Needed on Dioxins, says Toxicologists. Pesticides: Quintozene, MCPA, Chlorothalonil, Triclopyr, Picloram,

6 December 2010

The environmental scientist whose work on dioxins last year prompted governments around the world to suspend the use of some pesticides says there is more to the problem and authorities need to act urgently.

Although dioxins have been banned from the ingredients of pesticides in Australia for more than a decade, many dioxins emerged in the manufacturing process and there was no end-stage monitoring to protect consumers and the public, said University of Queensland scientist Dr Caroline Gaus.

Numerous environmental and health issues were associated with undeclared dioxin impurities, said Dr Gaus, an environmental toxicologist with the National Research Institute for Environmental Toxicology (ENTOX).

Little information was available about the impurities because they were created during the production process so were not original ingredients.

“We estimate that the amount of these impurities is relatively high compared to other current dioxin sources, but this cannot be adequately quantified due to the commercial protection of data on pesticides use in Australia and internationally,” Dr Gaus said.

She said pesticides with impurities used in high volumes represented a previously neglected but significant and concerning source of dioxins in the environment. They also posed a risk to the health of people handling pesticides, and to consumers.

“Some of these pesticides contained high concentrations of dioxins, comparable to those known from pesticides which are banned or restricted for use in most countries since the 1980s and 90s,” she said.

Dioxins are linked to a range of cancers and are considered one of the most toxic man-made chemicals. They can cause adverse health effects in humans and wildlife including cancer, and act on development, reproduction and the endocrine system.

Research by Dr Gaus and PhD student Eva Holt last year showed that a wide range of currently used and globally marketed pesticides contained dioxin impurities, despite the widespread belief that modern pesticides were no longer a significant dioxin source.

As a result of their work, a new wave of suspensions, recalls, restrictions and government reviews on pesticide formulations is under way worldwide, including in the United States, Canada, New Zealand and Australia.

The study analysed 23 different pesticide formulations, containing 15 different active ingredients currently used in Australia (plus four formulations that are no longer registered for use in Australia), including insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. Dioxins were detected in all samples, including some commonly used products. Researchers estimate approximately 200 pesticides have the potential to contain dioxins.

The pesticides are used on crops including cotton, potatoes, lettuce, tomatoes, beans and peanuts, as well as in parks and recreation areas, at turf farms and plant nurseries.

“In view of the global manufacturing, distribution and use of pesticides, international regulation and monitoring strategies should be developed and implemented to identify, evaluate, and target pesticide dioxin sources at the manufacturing stage,” Dr Gaus said.

Some Recent Restrictions

The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) suspended all formulations containing quintozene (pentachloronitrobenzene) from use in April this year due to risk to workers applying the pesticide, which was commonly used on golf courses. The fungicide is under review in New Zealand where it is used on bulbs and turf. The manufacturer recently initiated a voluntary recall of product containing quintozene. The APVMA has recently suspended the pesticide PCNB from sale and a stop sale order has been issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

About Dioxins

• Dioxins are toxic compounds which have adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. They can elicit adverse health effects at low levels (cancer, immunotoxicity, reproduction, endocrine function, development).

• These toxicants are managed under the international Stockholm Convention treaty which aims to protect human health and the environment by reducing and eliminating dioxin release to the environment. More than 150 countries, including Australia, have ratified the Stockholm Convention treaty since 2004.

• Most chlorinated pesticides have the potential to contain dioxins if manufactured under certain conditions and processes (e.g. > 150 ºC, alkaline conditions, process including chlorine) – the US EPA lists 161 chemicals (but it is not complete – PCNB for example is not listed). Thus, pesticides were considered historical sources of dioxins and contemporary monitoring data in most current-use pesticides are lacking.

• Dioxin impurities can vary between manufacturing facility, batch, year and country due to variations in production processes and conditions.

About the Research

• 23 different formulations containing 15 different active ingredients currently used in Australia (plus 4 formulations that are no longer registered for use in Australia), including insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, were analysed. Dioxins were detected in all samples. These include commonly used pesticides, such as PCNB, MCPA, 2,4-D, chlorothalonil and triclopyr/picloram. Others are Fluroxypyr, Mecoprop, Flumetsulam, Imazamox, Prochloraz, Fenamisphos, Chlorpyrifos, Lindane; 2,4-D; 2,4-DB; Chlorthal amd Quintozene.

• Some of these pesticide formulations contained high concentrations of dioxins, comparable to those known from pesticides which are banned or restricted for use in most countries since the 1980/90s.

•Highest dioxin (1,100-2,000 mg/tonne AI) and TEQ (2,400-5,700 µg/tonne AI) concentrations were found in the fungicide quintozene (also known as pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB)).

• Dioxin concentrations in PCNB are comparable to those known from the banned pesticides 2,4,5-T (trichlorophenoxyacetic acid; the key ingredient of Agent Orange). Note: TEQ concentrations in PCNB are at the lower end for those known for 2,4,5-T (approaching the 7,000 µg/tonne used under the Stockholm Convention to estimate historical dioxin releases via past use of 2,4,5-T).

• There are about 6000 pesticide products on the market in Australia (containing ~2000 different active ingredients) – the UQ/ENTOX scientists analysed only a small proportion (0.4 per cent) of these.

• Dioxin concentrations in other pesticides analysed ranged from 61-190 ug TEQ/tonne AI. Impurity concentrations may vary considerably depending on the conditions employed during pesticide production and should therefore be monitored regularly.

• As many pesticides are used in high volumes, they can represent previously neglected but important sources of dioxins to the environment and pose a risk to the health of people handling pesticides.

• Based on these findings, the APVMA have recently suspended the pesticide PCNB, due to dioxin contamination and the associated risks to pesticide applicators. Similarly, the US EPA have issued a stop sale order for PCNB.

• The estimated release of dioxins from the use of PCNB is 27 g TEQ/year (10-90th percentile range: 14-110 g TEQ/year). The dioxin release from this pesticide alone ranks among the top 5 dioxin sources to land in Australia (range 28-110 g TEQ/year).

• The greatest source of uncertainty with these estimates is the lack of information on pesticide use volumes in Australia, which is commercial in confidence and thus not publicly available. This is why the dioxin release associated with many of the pesticides analysed by the UQ/ENTOX scientists could not be estimated to date (has to be modelled)

• The cumulative dioxin release associated with high volume-use of different pesticides may be an important source of dioxins, even if pesticides contain lower dioxin levels than PCNB, e.g. if all pesticide products were contaminated at levels ranging from 100-10,000 µg TEQ/tonne AI and used at a total of 200,000 tonnes per year, then the annual dioxin release would be between 20 and 2000 g TEQ/year.

Note: data on the amount of pesticides used in Australia is not publicly available (commercial in confidence), total pesticide use may be considerably higher than 200,000 tonnes (approximately 2.25 million tonnes of pesticides a year are used in the USA, including 1.18 million tonnes per year of chlorine and hypochlorite pesticides).

The study was funded by an Australian Research Council Discovery Grant and undertaken by the National Research Institute for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland (Eva Holt, Caroline Gaus) in collaboration with the National Measurement Institute in Sydney (Gavin Stevenson) and collaborators from Germany (Roland Weber).

The United Nations Environmental Protection Agency has used the data from the study to develop a burden of toxicology measure for use worldwide. It helps identify and prioritise dioxin sources.

Media inquiries: Marlene McKendry – 0401 99 6847

https://www.uq.edu.au/news/article/2010/12/urgent-action-needed-dioxins-says-toxicologist

2013 December: Landmark Legal Case Will Probe Link Between Parkinson’s Disease and Insecticide Sprays Used on Land-Haul Flights

Landmark legal case will probe the link between Parkinson’s disease and insecticide sprays used on long-haul flights

LONG-haul flight attendants who have been forced to spray insecticide through aircraft cabins every time they landed in Australia fear the chemicals may have given them Parkinson’s disease.

And experts have warned any frequent international flyer exposed to repeated doses of insecticide within an enclosed aircraft cabin could also face the same risk.

Former Qantas steward Brett Vollus has been diagnosed with the disease, which can leave victims immobile, speechless or with tremors, and is preparing to launch a legal action against the Commonwealth government, which enforces the need for spraying to prevent disease.

“We all blindly sprayed this insecticide as we landed in Australia after every long-haul flight. Why wasn’t I warned that it could give me this disease?” he said.

Mr Vollus, 52, worked as flight attendant with Qantas for 27 years up until May this year and was referred to a neurosurgeon as the symptoms of Parkinson’s began to kick in.

Checks also uncovered a malignant brain tumour.

“He asked me what I did for living and when I told him he just nodded and said: ‘Another one, I am seeing a lot of you’,” he said.

That set alarm bells ringing and Mr Vollus began checking to see if there were any links between the flight attendants’ regular exposure to pesticides at work and the disease.

The social stigma attached to Parkinson’s disease means many sufferers do not come forward but Mr Vollus believes there could be hundreds of other crew members who could join his legal action.

“This is a nightmare that has ruined my life. I am very keen to start a legal action and if it can help others I am happy to lead the way,” he said.

Turner Freeman lawyer Tanya Segelov, who successfully represented stewardess Joanne Turner over toxic fumes exposures in aircraft, said: “I am investigating a claim on Mr Vollus’s behalf.”

Ms Segelov helped hostess Joanne Turner win almost $140,000 in costs and damages after she inhaled fumes from a faulty compressor on a BAe146 flight from Sydney to Brisbane.

“If it can be shown that at the time it was sprayed the Commonwealth knew or should have known that airline employees having repeated exposures to the spray over a long period of time were at risk of injury, then the Commonwealth will be liable to pay damages,” she said.

Crucial to the case would be proving the link between pesticides and Parkinson’s disease.

Parkinson’s expert Professor Kay Double, from the University of Sydney’s Medical School, said: “Certainly there is epidemiological evidence that the exposure to the chemicals in pesticides is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease. It is actually the number of times you are exposed and the amount you are exposed which increases the risk.”

Prof Double said most research had been done with farmers who had been found to have an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease if they used chemical pesticides often. Regular and total exposure in a confined space, such as an aircraft, could greatly increase that risk of developing Parkinson’s disease in later life.

“The fact that flight attendants were exposed in a very contained area, have a total exposure and are then left breathing the residual chemicals may have a role to play in their eventual diagnosis,” she said.

“We do know there are a number of these herbicides and pesticides that do damage to particular cells which leads to Parkinson’s disease.”

Personnel from the RAAF have also been exposed to the chemicals as part of quarantine procedures.

Randolph Heynsdyk, 55, from North Richmond spent 21 years as an engineer frame fitter in the RAAF. He was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 2004 and suspects regular exposure to pesticides could be to blame. “I would often be in the cargo bay or the passenger area as the spraying was done,” he said.

It has changed the father of two’s life. “You just freeze and cannot move. You get tired and the medications have terrible side effects.” He recently had surgery to a pacemaker to provide 24-hour stimulation to the brain.

PESTICIDE A ‘TOXIC SOUP’ IN A SPRAY CAN Matthew Benns

SPRAYING pesticides inside aircraft is like lobbing “a hand grenade of toxic soup” at passengers and crew, a respiratory expert warned yesterday.

“I have sat on aircraft when they have sprayed and thought this is not a good idea,” Dr Jonathan Burdon said.

He said passengers and crew had no choice but to breathe it in.“The pesticides are basically sprayed in a sealed container where the same air is being recycled,” he said. ”Once you breathe it in, it’s in.”

Dr Burdon has specialised in dealing with flight crew who have been exposed to toxic fumes from leaking engine oil being superheated and pumped into jet air supplies.

He believes repeated exposure to pesticides can cause Parkinson’s disease.

“There is no question that pesticides do cause neurological damage but it is not one size fits all,” he said.

“Some people who are exposed regularly can be affected but other people for some reason are not.”

Research has found that chemicals contained in pesticides, including permethrin, attack the brain cells that make dopamine.

The classic symptoms of Parkinson’s disease such as body tremors, muscle rigidity and problems with movement have been linked to the loss of production of dopamine.

One expert likened the loss of dopamine to trying to run a car without oil in the engine.

Parkinson’s slowly progresses over time and a diagnosis today may mean the individual has had the disease for the past 10 years.

A recent Italian study of all the available evidence concluded that exposure to pesticides is “a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease” and called for more research to explain the cause and effect.

STEWARD IAN WHITE HAD AN INKLING OF THE RISKS Matthew Benns

QANTAS steward Ian White always thought there was something wrong with the spraying of passengers, crew and jets with insecticides on arrival in Australia.

“Ian always said he wondered if those sprays would have some sort of effect on him,” said his wife Alfreda, of the spraying Qantas was legally obliged to carry out.“Now he is in a home with Parkinson’s disease.”

Ian, 75, retired following 36 years of flying only to be struck down by the disease and dementia.

He no longer recognises his wife and children.

“It is terrible what has happened to him,” said Mrs White, who started her career as a stewardess with Pan Am.

“At least if this link is brought into the public eye the authorities will be forced to look at it and hopefully not do it anymore.

“It is common sense. If you have an enclosed space like an aeroplane and you empty two cans of aerosol into it while people are sitting there and then keep the doors closed, something bad is bound to happen.”

INSECTICIDES POSE NO RISK TO PASSENGERS AND STOP SERIOUS DISEASE, OFFICIALS SAY Matthew Benns

THERE is no evidence the spraying of insecticide inside aircraft to safeguard against the spread of dangerous disease causes any health problems, the federal government said.

A Department of Health spokeswoman said all spraying followed World Health Organisation guidelines.

“The WHO has found no evidence that disinsection sprays, when used according to their guidelines and manufacturers’ instructions, are harmful to human health,” she said.

The spraying was an important step in preventing the spread of disease, she said.

“Australia is free from several very serious diseases, including yellow fever and malaria, which are all transmitted by insects,” she said.

“If any of these diseases became established in Australia they could have a devastating effect on our community, as these diseases cause significant numbers of deaths and illness in many other countries.”

Only nine countries including India and Cuba still require planes to be sprayed with insecticide while the passengers are on board.

Seven others, including Australia and New Zealand, insist aircraft be sprayed with insecticide but allow for it to be done before passengers get on board.

Protocols on the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry website explain that, with approval, aircraft can be treated with a residual spray in the hangar. Ground crew are told to wear a mask and protective clothing.

Otherwise cabin crew have to spray the aircraft twice – before the passengers get on and while the passengers are sitting in their seats as the plane begins its descent into Australia.

The protocols specify that, for example, a Boeing 747 needs to be sprayed with four 100g cans of insecticide containing a 2 per cent active ingredient of the chemical permathrin – the chemical linked by studies to Parkinson’s disease.

A spokeswoman for Qantas said: “We comply with the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry’s requirements, as do all airlines that fly into Australia.”

https://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/landmark-legal-case-will-probe-the-link-between-parkinsons-disease-and-insecticide-sprays-used-on-longhaul-flights/story-fni0cx12-1226778285686

2016 Feb: Warren NSW Spray Drift. Pesticide: 2,4-D

Text message alert system may minimise costly spray drift damage to cotton crops

Feb 3 2016

A text message warning farmers that weather conditions are not suitable for chemical spraying is just one idea being flagged to minimise costly spray drift.

While crops are thriving on recent rain in many cotton and cereal growing regions, so are weeds and to control the weeds, growers and contractors enlist the use of herbicides, often Phenoxy herbicide such as 2,4-D.

The off-target spraying of Phenoxy herbicide is estimated to be costing cotton growers millions of dollars, with Cotton Australia’s chief executive Adam Kay suggesting 20 percent of this season’s crop has been damaged by chemicals suspected to be coming from cereal growers nearby.

“This drift is coming from kilometres away, this is not a case where it’s a neighbour spraying and you can see the drift coming on to your crop, this is drift due to temperature inversions and it’s difficult to say where this is coming from,” Mr Kay said.

Education, awareness and research needed

Cotton Australia is working with the New South Wales Environment Protection Authority [EPA] and Grains Research and Development Corporation to come up with ways to educate growers and spray contractors in a bid to minimise the occurrence of spray drift.

Cotton Australia regional manager for Darling Downs, Mary O’Brien, said night spraying during unsuitable weather conditions had emerged as the major cause of extensive crop damage.

“Night-time temperature inversions are very prevalent in Australia and [we need] some education of applicators to be able to identify when those inversion conditions are present,” Ms O’Brien said.

“In the afternoon and late evening when the ground cools, sometimes we get that air closer to the ground cooling quite rapidly while there’s warmer air above it.

“That cool air is trapped in a layer and, the issue with that is, the movement of that air.

“It tends to flow parallel to the ground so any fine droplets that are released into that inversion layer moves sideways.”

Those droplets of herbicide can drift up to 70 kilometres per hour, depending on wind speed and how long the inversion conditions remain.

Ms O’Brien said research was being done on helping farmers and contractors detect inversion conditions, as well as communicating the conditions to them via an alert system.

“Cotton Australia has already had conversation with the Bureau of Meteorology in regards to what we can do it the future and how we can assist people better in determining the presence of these inversions,” she said.

“There’s no silver bullet to fix this problem. It’s a multi-pronged approach; education, awareness, more research.”

Recent cases investigated

The New South Wales Environment Protection Authority has received three recent complaints about spray drift from growers in northern NSW.

However, director of the organisation’s north branch Gary Davey says there wasn’t enough information to prosecute the cases reported from farmers at Mungindi, Garah, and Warren, of alleged spray drift damage to between 300 and 600 hectares of cotton.

“We investigated one and were able to identify the pesticide that was the cause of the problem, but we weren’t able to identify the actual source,” Mr Davey said.

“That’s the problem we have with Phenoxy; having no information that we’re able to follow up such as where is might have come from, when it was sprayed, and that’s the difficulty we have with so many of the chemical impacts.”

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-02-03/cotton-spray-drift-research-text/7136232

2016 Feb: Garah (NSW) Spray Drift Cotton. Pesticide: 2,4-D

Text message alert system may minimise costly spray drift damage to cotton crops

Feb 3 2016

A text message warning farmers that weather conditions are not suitable for chemical spraying is just one idea being flagged to minimise costly spray drift.

While crops are thriving on recent rain in many cotton and cereal growing regions, so are weeds and to control the weeds, growers and contractors enlist the use of herbicides, often Phenoxy herbicide such as 2,4-D.

The off-target spraying of Phenoxy herbicide is estimated to be costing cotton growers millions of dollars, with Cotton Australia’s chief executive Adam Kay suggesting 20 percent of this season’s crop has been damaged by chemicals suspected to be coming from cereal growers nearby.

“This drift is coming from kilometres away, this is not a case where it’s a neighbour spraying and you can see the drift coming on to your crop, this is drift due to temperature inversions and it’s difficult to say where this is coming from,” Mr Kay said.

Education, awareness and research needed

Cotton Australia is working with the New South Wales Environment Protection Authority [EPA] and Grains Research and Development Corporation to come up with ways to educate growers and spray contractors in a bid to minimise the occurrence of spray drift.

Cotton Australia regional manager for Darling Downs, Mary O’Brien, said night spraying during unsuitable weather conditions had emerged as the major cause of extensive crop damage.

“Night-time temperature inversions are very prevalent in Australia and [we need] some education of applicators to be able to identify when those inversion conditions are present,” Ms O’Brien said.

“In the afternoon and late evening when the ground cools, sometimes we get that air closer to the ground cooling quite rapidly while there’s warmer air above it.

“That cool air is trapped in a layer and, the issue with that is, the movement of that air.

“It tends to flow parallel to the ground so any fine droplets that are released into that inversion layer moves sideways.”

Those droplets of herbicide can drift up to 70 kilometres per hour, depending on wind speed and how long the inversion conditions remain.

Ms O’Brien said research was being done on helping farmers and contractors detect inversion conditions, as well as communicating the conditions to them via an alert system.

“Cotton Australia has already had conversation with the Bureau of Meteorology in regards to what we can do it the future and how we can assist people better in determining the presence of these inversions,” she said.

“There’s no silver bullet to fix this problem. It’s a multi-pronged approach; education, awareness, more research.”

Recent cases investigated

The New South Wales Environment Protection Authority has received three recent complaints about spray drift from growers in northern NSW.

However, director of the organisation’s north branch Gary Davey says there wasn’t enough information to prosecute the cases reported from farmers at Mungindi, Garah, and Warren, of alleged spray drift damage to between 300 and 600 hectares of cotton.

“We investigated one and were able to identify the pesticide that was the cause of the problem, but we weren’t able to identify the actual source,” Mr Davey said.

“That’s the problem we have with Phenoxy; having no information that we’re able to follow up such as where is might have come from, when it was sprayed, and that’s the difficulty we have with so many of the chemical impacts.”

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-02-03/cotton-spray-drift-research-text/7136232

2016 Feb: Spray Drift reported Mungindi (NSW). Pesticide: 2,4-D

Text message alert system may minimise costly spray drift damage to cotton crops

Feb 3 2016

A text message warning farmers that weather conditions are not suitable for chemical spraying is just one idea being flagged to minimise costly spray drift.

 

While crops are thriving on recent rain in many cotton and cereal growing regions, so are weeds and to control the weeds, growers and contractors enlist the use of herbicides, often Phenoxy herbicide such as 2,4-D.

The off-target spraying of Phenoxy herbicide is estimated to be costing cotton growers millions of dollars, with Cotton Australia’s chief executive Adam Kay suggesting 20 percent of this season’s crop has been damaged by chemicals suspected to be coming from cereal growers nearby.

“This drift is coming from kilometres away, this is not a case where it’s a neighbour spraying and you can see the drift coming on to your crop, this is drift due to temperature inversions and it’s difficult to say where this is coming from,” Mr Kay said.

Education, awareness and research needed

Cotton Australia is working with the New South Wales Environment Protection Authority [EPA] and Grains Research and Development Corporation to come up with ways to educate growers and spray contractors in a bid to minimise the occurrence of spray drift.

Cotton Australia regional manager for Darling Downs, Mary O’Brien, said night spraying during unsuitable weather conditions had emerged as the major cause of extensive crop damage.

“Night-time temperature inversions are very prevalent in Australia and [we need] some education of applicators to be able to identify when those inversion conditions are present,” Ms O’Brien said.

“In the afternoon and late evening when the ground cools, sometimes we get that air closer to the ground cooling quite rapidly while there’s warmer air above it.

“That cool air is trapped in a layer and, the issue with that is, the movement of that air.

“It tends to flow parallel to the ground so any fine droplets that are released into that inversion layer moves sideways.”

Those droplets of herbicide can drift up to 70 kilometres per hour, depending on wind speed and how long the inversion conditions remain.

Ms O’Brien said research was being done on helping farmers and contractors detect inversion conditions, as well as communicating the conditions to them via an alert system.

“Cotton Australia has already had conversation with the Bureau of Meteorology in regards to what we can do it the future and how we can assist people better in determining the presence of these inversions,” she said.

“There’s no silver bullet to fix this problem. It’s a multi-pronged approach; education, awareness, more research.”

Recent cases investigated

The New South Wales Environment Protection Authority has received three recent complaints about spray drift from growers in northern NSW.

However, director of the organisation’s north branch Gary Davey says there wasn’t enough information to prosecute the cases reported from farmers at Mungindi, Garah, and Warren, of alleged spray drift damage to between 300 and 600 hectares of cotton.

“We investigated one and were able to identify the pesticide that was the cause of the problem, but we weren’t able to identify the actual source,” Mr Davey said.

“That’s the problem we have with Phenoxy; having no information that we’re able to follow up such as where is might have come from, when it was sprayed, and that’s the difficulty we have with so many of the chemical impacts.”

https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-02-03/cotton-spray-drift-research-text/7136232

2008 February. St George area Qld Spray Drift. Pesticides: 2,4-D, Glyphosate

Spray drift kills cotton

Cotton growers in the St George area could face the complete loss of their crop due to spray drift.

St George Agronomist, John Barber says the damage is so bad, he’s advised some of his clients to plough in their crops.

Mr Barber says the drift is coming from broadacre farmers preparing their paddocks for winter crops.

Mr Barber says the offending chemical is a combination of 24D and glyphosate, the spray can drift 100km and he’s concerned farmers do not realise the damage they are causing.

https://www.abc.net.au/site-archive/rural/qld/content/2007/s2152483.htm

1997-2001: Shire of Serpentine-Jarrahdale (WA) Landfill. Pesticides: Dieldrin, Chlorpyrifos

“… In 1997, the bio-accumulative carcinogen Dieldrin (used as an insecticide) was found in water running off site at 0.004 ug/L. Each year, higher levels have been found — 0.08 ug/L in 1998, 0.16 ug/L in 1999, 0.32 ug/L in 2000, and 0.4 ug/L in 2001. Dieldrin and Chlorpyrifos have been found in dangerous levels in surrounding streams and groundwater, including in the bore water that a neighbouring family was drinking.

Despite such evidence, the Waters and Rivers Commission gave approval to MRI to discharge into a local waterway, justifying the decision on the basis that no stock accessed the water. According to Nield: “Unfortunately, sheep cannot read WRC reports. We showed the WRC photos of white woolly things going ‘Baa!’ that were drinking the water, and they stressed out saying that [the sheep] shouldn’t [do that]. Too late!” About 30 sheep died, but their carcasses mysteriously disappeared before tissue samples could be taken for testing…”

https://www.greenleft.org.au/node/26624

 

2002 February: Pesticide Spill Prospect Creek. Pesticide: Methomyl

Transporter fined for pesticide spill – Central Western Daily
July 3, 2003

THE operator of an Orange-based transport company has been fined $35,000 for causing a pesticide spill that killed more than three tonnes of fish in a Sydney creek.

Richard John Hopley, who operates Hopley’s Transport, pleaded guilty in the Land and Environment Court to one count of employing a person to transport dangerous goods without having a relevant licence and one of water pollution. The charges were brought by the Environment Protection Authority.

The pesticide spill occurred on February 8 last year at the depot Hopley used to temporarily store loads in Wetherill Park, in Sydney’s south-west.

A driver employed by Hopley was unloading a 1000 litre container of pesticide when it fell off the forklift and split open. The pesticide was Farmoz Electra 225, a chemical used by cotton farmers to kill insects. In water its impact is toxic, killing fish within hours.

The contents drained onto the road and flowed into the stormwater system and Prospect Creek. The steep slope of the road and heavy rain meant the spill couldn’t be contained.

EPA director-general Lisa Corbyn said the spill had a devastating impact on the waterway.

“The pesticide killed most, if not all the fish it came into contact with, including bream, mullet, eels, carp and a variety of native gudgeons. More than 3.4 tonnes of dead fish were recovered from the creek,” she said.

Ms Corbyn said investigations revealed the employee involved did not hold a licence to transport dangerous goods. It had lapsed and he was in the process of applying for a new one.

The court found the driver had informed Hopley that he did not hold the appropriate licence and accordingly that Hopley had paid “scant regard” to his obligations.

NSW Land and Environment Court Justice Denis Cowdroy fined Hopley $15,000 for employing a driver without a relevant licence and $20,000 for polluting the creek.
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He said the fines would have been higher if Hopley had not shown contrition.

“The only redeeming feature is that the defendant has pleaded guilty.”

Outside the court, Hopley said he regretted the incident and was sorry.

Hopley was also ordered to pay the EPA’s court costs, estimated at $15,000.

https://www.centralwesterndaily.com.au/story/756619/transporter-fined-for-pesticide-spill/

2016 January: Lower Namoi Region. 20,000ha affected by spraydrift. Pesticide: 2,4-D

Cotton spray drift causes damage into the millions

Namoi Valley Independent
Jan. 19, 2016,

Off-target spray drift incidents, suspected to be from fallowed sprays, have hit the district’s cotton crops, causing significant damage this season.

In the Upper Namoi, which takes in the Gunnedah region, 3000 hectares has been affected in the past month alone, while the Lower Namoi has recorded damage of 20,000 hectares.

Incidents have been reported in all cotton-growing regions in NSW and Queensland, with at least 60,000 hectares of cotton damaged already this season. That represents more than 20 per cent of the entire crop with the financial impact expected to be more than $20 million.

In the vast majority of cases, Cotton Australia said the damage was caused by Phenoxy (2,4-D-type) spray that travelled during temperature inversions – in some instances moving tens of kilometres from the intended target fields.

“Unfortunately, environmental conditions over December-January have combined to produce a ‘perfect storm’ for off-target spray drift damage,” Cotton Australia CEO Adam Kay said.

“Heavier than usual seasonal rainfall has encouraged weed growth which, in turn, led to more spraying by farmers and applicators and this has combined with temperature inversions to produce substantial off-target spray drift.

“I’ve been in the cotton industry for 30 years and this is the worst year in memory for spray drift damage to cotton crops, so we are taking this issue extremely seriously.”

In some regions, the damage to individual crops has been severe.

The national chemical regulator, the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority is aware of the severity of the issue and is currently reviewing the 2,4-D pesticide and assessing environmental risks.
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State agencies, in NSW and Queensland, including the NSW Environmental Protection Agency are also putting offices in the field to investigate.

Cotton Australia is urging cotton growers to report any damage suspected to have been caused by off-target spray drift and is working with other industry groups, including grain and pulse growers, and state and federal regulators to warn all farmers of the risks.

https://www.nvi.com.au/story/3673344/cotton-spray-drift-causes-damage-into-the-millions/

2016 January: Gunnedah Region 3000ha affected by spraydrift. Pesticide: 2,4-D

Cotton spray drift causes damage into the millions

Namoi Valley Independent
Jan. 19, 2016,

Off-target spray drift incidents, suspected to be from fallowed sprays, have hit the district’s cotton crops, causing significant damage this season.

In the Upper Namoi, which takes in the Gunnedah region, 3000 hectares has been affected in the past month alone, while the Lower Namoi has recorded damage of 20,000 hectares.

Incidents have been reported in all cotton-growing regions in NSW and Queensland, with at least 60,000 hectares of cotton damaged already this season. That represents more than 20 per cent of the entire crop with the financial impact expected to be more than $20 million.

In the vast majority of cases, Cotton Australia said the damage was caused by Phenoxy (2,4-D-type) spray that travelled during temperature inversions – in some instances moving tens of kilometres from the intended target fields.

“Unfortunately, environmental conditions over December-January have combined to produce a ‘perfect storm’ for off-target spray drift damage,” Cotton Australia CEO Adam Kay said.

“Heavier than usual seasonal rainfall has encouraged weed growth which, in turn, led to more spraying by farmers and applicators and this has combined with temperature inversions to produce substantial off-target spray drift.

“I’ve been in the cotton industry for 30 years and this is the worst year in memory for spray drift damage to cotton crops, so we are taking this issue extremely seriously.”

In some regions, the damage to individual crops has been severe.

The national chemical regulator, the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority is aware of the severity of the issue and is currently reviewing the 2,4-D pesticide and assessing environmental risks.
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State agencies, in NSW and Queensland, including the NSW Environmental Protection Agency are also putting offices in the field to investigate.

Cotton Australia is urging cotton growers to report any damage suspected to have been caused by off-target spray drift and is working with other industry groups, including grain and pulse growers, and state and federal regulators to warn all farmers of the risks.

https://www.nvi.com.au/story/3673344/cotton-spray-drift-causes-damage-into-the-millions/

2016 January: Darling Downs (Qld) Spray Drift. Pesticide: 2,4-D

COTTON growers across the Darling Downs have been hit hard by off-target spray drift incidents, causing millions of dollars in damage and threatening farm businesses.

Records have shown that more than 20% of cotton crops in the past month across Queensland and NSW have been threatened by Phenoxy (2, 4-D-type) spray.

The cereal fallow sprays have also travelled during temperature inversions, moving tens of kilometres from intended target fields.

Cotton Australia General Manager, Michael Murray said the environmental conditions over December-January period combined to produce a ‘perfect storm’ for off-target spray drift damage.

“Heavier-than-usual seasonal rainfall has encouraged weed growth which, in turn, led to more spraying by farmers and applicators, and this has combined with temperature inversions to produce substantial off-target spray drift,” he said.

“This is the worst year in memory for spray drift damage to cotton crops, so we are taking this issue extremely seriously.”

Cotton Australia Board member and Cecil Plains (Wamara) cotton farmer, Stuart Armitage said the problem happens yearly, but fortunately his crops weren’t affected this year.

“People have been taking risks and we can’t afford to do this with this chemical because otherwise it could be banned,” he said.

Mr Armitage said it was important for farmers to educate themselves and utilise workshops to update their knowledge continuously.

“99% of people follow the rules but it also needs to be the right conditions to spray and managed properly,” he said.

“I am urging farmers to spray according to the label because if they don’t then they potentially jeopardise other neighbouring crops and the livelihood of farmers.”

Whilst Cotton Australia has estimated the damage across Australia to cost the industry more than $20 million, some areas have been affected more than others.

Mr Murray says the national chemical regulator, the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA), was aware of the severity of the issue, and is currently conducting a review of 2,4-D pesticide and an assessment of environmental risks.

https://www.dalbyherald.com.au/news/spray-drift-causes-havoc-for-cotton-farmers/2899517/

2015 December: Wee Waa region (NSW) Spray Drift Cotton. Pesticide: 2,4-D?

Spray drift damage on the rise after rain
By Amelia Williams
Dec. 4, 2015,

ON THE back of a wet season, growers neighbouring cotton farmers are reminded to be vigilant when spraying weeds with the risk of off-target spray drift.

Weed control has become crucial for farmers in Northern NSW and Queensland districts after recent rain.

Unfortunately, with an increase of farmers spraying for weeds, there’s also been an increase in reports of damaged cotton crops from spray drift.

Most of the 230 ha of irrigated cotton Todd Farrer, “Fernhill”, Wee Waa, planted has been affected rather severely by spray drift.

A block of 30 ha, which was planted later than the rest of his crop, hasn’t shown any damage from the drift as Mr Farrer said it wouldn’t have been emerged yet.

The rest of his crop is showing severe to moderate damage.

Mr Farrer said he detected the damage on November 18 and thinks the spray drift occurred when his cotton was between seven to eight nodes.

Weeks on, the crop still hasn’t shaken the damage and has still been producing hormone damaged leaves.

“The new nodes are still affected by it,” Mr Farrer said.

“It’s moderate to severe damage at the moment and it will be yield affecting.”

As well as being yield affecting, the damage will prolong Mr Farrer’s growing season, leaving the cotton exposed to water risk, like rain, at the end of the season.

Mr Farrer said there was little he could do about the already damaged plants and was just trying to keep his crop healthy until it grows out of the damage.

Cotton Australia general manager, Michael Murray, said all farmers spraying fields must be vigilant against the effects of drift, particularly using Phenoxy 2,4d herbicides.

“It is unfortunate these events must serve as a timely reminder to the potential dangers of spraying,” he said.

“Cotton farmers understand that weed control is important, but so is respecting your neighbors and their ability to earn an income from the land.”

Growers who are planning to spray chemicals which could affect cotton crops are urged to read the label’s guidelines and follow them.

Mr Murray said cotton growers could also use CottonMap, a service which allows them to alert their neighbors and spray contractors about the location of their cotton field.

Growers concerned about spraying can also use CottonMap to determine whether there’s any cotton crops in risk of spray drift.

CottonMap is available at www.CottonMap.com.au.

https://www.theland.com.au/story/3537860/wet-season-heightens-spray-drift-risk/?cs=4941#!

2015 December: Cotton Crop Damage Coleambally NSW. Pesticide: 2,4-D, MCPA?

Cotton grower warns against spray drift
Jan. 8, 2016,

COLEAMBALLY cotton grower John Durham has warned fellow growers and other farmers to be vigilant against the threat of off-target spray drift, after his cotton crop was damaged recently.

Mr Durham, farm manager for Tubbo Irrigation near Coleambally, says all 970 hectares of cotton was damaged by off-target spraying, likely to be Phenoxy herbicide, just before Christmas.

He said the damage occurred despite the industry’s annual campaign to warn cotton growers and other farmers of the dangers of spray drift.

“Every year the industry communicates with all farmers about the dangers of off-target spray drift, but unfortunately these incidences still occur and this year it happened on Tubbo,” Mr Durham said.

“The weather does play a significant part in increasing the risks of spray drift, but it is the duty of every farmer and spray contractor to understand the weather and establish the best times to spray and the right techniques to use to avoid damaging their own land or their neighbours’ crop.”

“All farmers should understand the risks and, out of respect for their neighbours and their livelihood from the land, do everything they can to prevent off-target spray drift.”

Cotton Australia general manager, Michael Murray, said rain over the past month in many cotton-growing regions in Queensland and NSW meant there had been an increase in the reports of damage to cotton crops from spray drift.

“Cotton Australia is working to assist those growers whose crops have been severely impacted by off-target spray drift,” Mr Murray said. “It is unfortunate that these events must serve as a timely reminder to the potential dangers of spraying, and the responsibilities of all farmers to look after their neighbours during the season.”

Mr Murray said all farmers who spray fields must be vigilant against the effects of drift, particularly when using Phenoxy 2,4-D or MCPA herbicides. “Cotton farmers understand that weed control is important, but so is respecting your neighbours and their ability to earn an income from the land,” Mr Murray said. “The correct directions for use of Phenoxy herbicide are clearly labelled on the products, and it is a legal requirement to follow them.”
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“We ask all farmers, no matter what crop they are growing, to be mindful of weather conditions, talk to their neighbours and prepare properly for spraying.”

Cotton Australia has been running its annual spray drift campaign to educate farmers and reduce the risk of spray drift damage. The campaign includes advertisements on radio and workshops in cotton-growing areas to educate growers and other farmers about the correct ways to spray. But Mr Murray also urged growers to use the CottonMap service to alert their neighbours and spray contractors about the location of their cotton fields.

Cotton Australia urges growers whose crops have suffered spray drift damage to call the EPA Environment Line to report it: 131 555.

https://www.areanews.com.au/story/3652486/cotton-grower-warns-against-spray-drift/

1993 + 2015: Blackburn Lake Vic. Pesticides: Trace levels organochlorines, DEET

Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

Supplementary Material

Stephen Marshall*, David Sharley, Katherine Jeppe, Simon Sharp, Gavin Rose, Vincent Pettigrove

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00075/full

Blackburn Lake, Blackburn

Sediment

Feb/April 2015: DEET 10.4ug/kg

also see: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-common-insecticide-poisoning-our-rivers-and-wetlands

2004-6: Brisbane Pesticides in Water Tank. Pesticide: CPA

1965 August – 1971: Mimosa pigra control. Adelaide River (NT). Pesticides: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Picloram

Control Measures

Attempts at eradication of mimosa commenced in August 1965 prior to it being declared a noxious weed. Chemicals used have been 40% 2,4,5-T either in water (1:300) or diesel (1:45), or Tordon 255 mixed with diesel at a ratio of 1:45 with 2 applications per year, one prior to the wet season and another at the end of the wet season. Isolated plants have been removed manually.

The early eradication work concentrated on that part of the infestation which extended from just above the Adelaide River township down to Tortilla Flats, a distance of approximately 35 km by river. To get over this area twice per year was a full time job from April to December for a Technical Assistant and one or two labourers. The team managed to stop plants seeding within the control area but plants continually reappeared from previously deposited seed and the infestation spread downstream from seeding plants below the control area. The full time eradication attempt continued for 6 years and ceased in 1971 as the team was fighting a losing battle.

Source: Mimosa Pigra in the Northern Territory by I.L Miller Senior Agronomist (Weeds), Darwin; L. Nemestothy, Formerly Agronomist (Weeds) , Darwin; and S.E Pickering, Technical Officer (Weeds), Darwin. Technical Bulltin No. 51 October 1981

https://www.nt.gov.au/d/Content/File/p/Tech_Bull/TB051.pdf

2015 January: Tingalpa Creek (Qld) Mosquito Spraying Brisbane. Pesticide: Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Methoprene

THOUSANDS of mozzie-infested saltmarshes and swamps in Brisbane are being air-bombed amid fears of virus outbreaks.

King tides, sporadic storms and balmy weather have combined to ripen conditions for saltmarsh mosquitoes, which transmit Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses.

Brisbane City Council has launched air and ground raids on 3000 known mozzie breeding sites from Tinchi Tamba at Bald Hills to Tingalpa Creek, after recording tides as high as 2.7m this week.

“Council has been on the front foot to respond to king tides, with our mosquito management team starting an aerial treatment of 2000ha of saltmarsh breeding sites by helicopter,” Lord Mayor Graham Quirk said.

“The most effective time to manage mosquitoes is in the days after hatching, before the larvae develop into adults seven days after rainfall or high tides.”

Crews in trucks and on quad bikes also were used to treat the areas helicopters could not spray.

Already this year, dozens of people across Queensland have been struck down by vector-borne diseases.

In the first two weeks of the year, almost 100 people were diagnosed with Ross River Fever. More than 2240 cases were recorded in 2014, one of the worst years for the disease on record.

About 470 people contracted Barmah Forest virus last year. Both illnesses are spread by saltmarsh mosquitoes, or Aedes vigilax .

Ten cases of dengue fever have been confirmed in Cairns but that disease is transmitted by mosquito species not detected in Brisbane

 

Dr Nigel Beebe, a vector biologist from the University of Queensland and CSIRO, said aside from their tendency to infect humans, saltmarsh mosquitoes were a pain-inflicting pest.

“They’re the ones biting you during the day,” he said.

“They’re really aggressive.”

Brisbane’s council was one of the best in Australia for controlling mozzies but eradicating them completely was impossible, Dr Beebe said.

“Even if you get 90 per cent of the larvae, the 10 per cent that still hatch means there are still millions and millions of mosquitoes,” he said.

“They’re good flyers. You can find them 50-60km inland — even further — because they come in on the sea breezes.”

Brisbane City Council’s mosquito control team has completed 10 major aerial sprays of 11,500ha of tidal saltmarshes in the past six months.

“Council spends approximately $3.5 million each year on mosquito management and this amount is supplemented when necessary to respond to weather events,” Cr Quirk said.

https://www.couriermail.com.au/news/queensland/brisbane-city-councils-air-and-land-assault-to-beat-mosquito-plague/news-story/11cede2f6cbc7cc65a80a5ab75568344

2015 January: Tinchi Tamba (Qld) Brisbane City Council Mosquito Sprays 10,000ha+ during 2013/14. Pesticides: Bti Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Methoprene

THOUSANDS of mozzie-infested saltmarshes and swamps in Brisbane are being air-bombed amid fears of virus outbreaks.

King tides, sporadic storms and balmy weather have combined to ripen conditions for saltmarsh mosquitoes, which transmit Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses.

Brisbane City Council has launched air and ground raids on 3000 known mozzie breeding sites from Tinchi Tamba at Bald Hills to Tingalpa Creek, after recording tides as high as 2.7m this week.

“Council has been on the front foot to respond to king tides, with our mosquito management team starting an aerial treatment of 2000ha of saltmarsh breeding sites by helicopter,” Lord Mayor Graham Quirk said.

“The most effective time to manage mosquitoes is in the days after hatching, before the larvae develop into adults seven days after rainfall or high tides.”

Crews in trucks and on quad bikes also were used to treat the areas helicopters could not spray.

Already this year, dozens of people across Queensland have been struck down by vector-borne diseases.

In the first two weeks of the year, almost 100 people were diagnosed with Ross River Fever. More than 2240 cases were recorded in 2014, one of the worst years for the disease on record.

About 470 people contracted Barmah Forest virus last year. Both illnesses are spread by saltmarsh mosquitoes, or Aedes vigilax .

Ten cases of dengue fever have been confirmed in Cairns but that disease is transmitted by mosquito species not detected in Brisbane

 

Dr Nigel Beebe, a vector biologist from the University of Queensland and CSIRO, said aside from their tendency to infect humans, saltmarsh mosquitoes were a pain-inflicting pest.

“They’re the ones biting you during the day,” he said.

“They’re really aggressive.”

Brisbane’s council was one of the best in Australia for controlling mozzies but eradicating them completely was impossible, Dr Beebe said.

“Even if you get 90 per cent of the larvae, the 10 per cent that still hatch means there are still millions and millions of mosquitoes,” he said.

“They’re good flyers. You can find them 50-60km inland — even further — because they come in on the sea breezes.”

Brisbane City Council’s mosquito control team has completed 10 major aerial sprays of 11,500ha of tidal saltmarshes in the past six months.

“Council spends approximately $3.5 million each year on mosquito management and this amount is supplemented when necessary to respond to weather events,” Cr Quirk said.

https://www.couriermail.com.au/news/queensland/brisbane-city-councils-air-and-land-assault-to-beat-mosquito-plague/news-story/11cede2f6cbc7cc65a80a5ab75568344

2016 January: Parks Victoria Washing Toxic Waste Into Yarra River

Parks Victoria washing toxic waste into Yarra River

January 9, 2016 The Age Newspaper

Benjamin Millar

Toxic chemical waste has been washed into the Yarra River at Warrandyte by Parks Victoria staff, killing trees and creating a “public health risk” near a popular Melbourne swimming spot.

According to a confidential internal report on Parks Victoria operations, a toxic cocktail of chemicals and herbicides has flowed into the Yarra from a “wash-down facility” near Pound Bend, which is a popular spot for swimming, fishing and canoeing inside Warrandyte State Park.

An incident and hazard summary report, dated October 29, reveals the concrete site is used to “pressure-wash vehicles, triple rinse chemical containers and mix herbicides for use in the park”.

Swimmers at Pound Bend, near the Parks Victoria facility where toxic waste was washed into the river. Photo: Justin McManus

But the area drains directly into the Yarra, and the report states that chemical waste from the depot’s wash-down area has already killed a number of trees before entering the river.

Concerns were also raised about workers being exposed to the chemical waste.

The report, released to the opposition under freedom of information legislation, noted contaminated water is washed into three separate pits that are “not designed to filter or store contaminated waste”.

“The waste is manually removed, exposing the operator to unknown chemicals,” states the hazard report.

The issue was recorded as far back as April 29 last year, when contaminated water was found to be draining into the Yarra River.

The report noted the wash bay fails to meet legal requirements and “if the EPA [Environment Protection Authority] was informed, PV would face serious fines”.

Parks Victoria decided not to alert the EPA to the findings.

EPA acting chief executive Damian Wells said the agency was first tipped off to the issue on Friday via its pollution hotline.

“We have had an officer out to inspect the site,” he said. “They have taken some soil and water samples and will be undertaking our normal investigative process.”

Mr Wells said Parks Victoria was obliged to meet the same requirements under the Environment Protection Act as any private business.

“Wastewater must be retained on the site and our investigation will look at whether there have been any breaches of that requirement,” he said.

“We may require a clean-up of the site and changes to the practices on the site.”

A Parks Victoria spokesman said the authority will work together with the EPA to fix the issue.

He said wash bay upgrades are being scheduled after staff raised a potential safety issue with run-off.

“Local staff implemented immediate control measures to minimise any OHS risks associated with the wash bay,” he said.

“Staff ceased washing down tanks and an inductor truck now comes in to remove and dispose of sediment appropriately. The use of the trucks also limits the run-off.”

The spokesman said the cause of damage to the trees is yet to be determined.

Opposition environment spokesman Brad Battin said the state government needs to order a full investigation into the “environmental vandalism”.

“These are shocking revelations of the Yarra being poisoned in a secret government report which Daniel Andrews has tried to bury.”

But a spokeswoman for Environment Minister Lisa Neville sheeted blame to the opposition, claiming the minister and her office were only made aware of the issue when contacted by the media.

“The previous government gutted Parks Victoria, they lost one in 10 of their staff and 10 per cent of their budget, which left our parks and $1.8 billion in portfolio assets at risk,” she said.

“We understand that action was taken once the issue was reported. The minister has spoken to Parks Victoria about the need to notify the EPA immediately in the future.”
https://www.theage.com.au/victoria/parks-victoria-washing-toxic-waste-into-yarra-river-20160109-gm2gr1.html#ixzz3wjlEiuJ6

2013 December – 2014 March: Picnic Crossing (Lake Tinaroo) Qld. Pesticides: Multiple

“A total of 14 pesticide residues, 3 herbicide degradation products, 2 synthetic musks and 1 flame retardant were detected in the passive samplers and grab samples in the Upper Barron River between December 2013 and March 2014. The sampling captured low flow (mid-December to mid- January), high flow (mid-January to mid-February) and moderate flow (mid-February to mid-March) events. The residues detected included the herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone, metolachlor, metsulfuron methyl, pendimethalin, picloram, prometryn, simazine and tebuthiuron and the herbicide degradation products, 3,4-dichloroanaline (diuron metabolite), desethyl atrazine and desisopropyl atrazine (atrazine metabolites). The insecticides detected included chlorpyrifos, diazinon and imidacloprid and the synthetic musks detected were galaxolide and tonalide. Tris (2- chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCIPP) was the only detected flame retardant in the samples. Ouranalysis suggests that none of these chemicals were detected at concentrations known to cause environmental harm, although diazinon and chlorpyrifos exceeded 99% ecological protection trigger values during each of the three monthly monitoring periods undertaken. However, the 95% trigger values were not exceeded and are more appropriate to apply given this would be considered amoderately disturbed site. Overall, compared to other regions of the GBR, the pesticides (and other chemicals) in the Upper Barron Catchment that drain into Tinaroo Dam, are considered low risk.”

Source: Barron River pesticide monitoring and Cairns WWTP WQ assessment.

Dominique O’Brien, Stephen Lewis, Christie Gallen, Jake O’Brien, Kristie Thompson, Geoff Eaglesham, Jochen Mueller Report No. 14/40 June 2014

 

1987 October. 164 properties remain quarantined in Queensland. Pesticide: Dieldrin

During the first six months of this year, authorities in the United States of America detected a five fold increase in the incidence of violative levels of pesticide residue in beef originating from Australia. That increase has not been reflected in subsequent intensive testing of product in this country; violatve residue levels detected remaining constant at about 0.4 percent. United States authorities indicated that the high level of violations demonstrated by their testing was unacceptable, and that further violation could terminate imports of Australian meat products. Other importing countries, particularly Japan and Canada, quickly took up the concems of the United States of America, and the export markets for Australian meats appeared to be in a precarious situation. In response, the meat works testing program for pesticide residues was progressively increased as laboratory space became available, and approximately 120,000 samples have been tested in Australia since June of this year.
At the end of October, 164 properties remained under quarantine in Queensland— almost 80 per cent of them being for dieldrin— whilst 26 had been cleared and released. We have implemented a program to enable a property status to be determined for Queensland livestock-producers.
Source: https://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/hansard/1987/1987_11_10.pdf

2012 – 2013: Burnett River (Qld) at Ben Anderson Barrage Head: Pesticides: Ametryn, Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone, Tebuthiuron

Burnett River at Ben Anderson Barrage Head Water

Ametryn 27kg, Total Atrazine 310kg, Diuron 130kg, Hexazinone 71kg, Tebuthiuron 87kg

Land Use Yield

Ametryn (Sugarcane) 0.43 kg/km2

Atrazine (Cropping, Forestry & Sugarcane) 0.058kg/km2

Diuron (Cropping, Horticulture & Sugarcane) 0.096kg/km2

Hexazinone (Cropping, Horticulture & Sugarcane) 0.0024kg/km2

Tebuthiuron  (Grazing) 0.0034kg/km2

Source: Reef Water Quality Protection Plan. Total Suspended Solids, Nutrients & Pesticide Loads (2012-2013) for Rivers that Discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring 2012-2013

https://www.reefplan.qld.gov.au/measuring-success/paddock-to-reef/assets/2012-2013-gbr-catchment-loads-technical-report.pdf

2012 – 2013: Comet River at Comet Weir: Pesticides: Atrazine, Tebuthiuron

2012-2013

Comet River at Comet Weir

Total Atrazine 41kg, Tebuthiuron 1.9kg

Source: Reef Water Quality Protection Plan. Total Suspended Solids, Nutrients & Pesticide Loads (2012-2013) for Rivers that Discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring 2012-2013

https://www.reefplan.qld.gov.au/measuring-success/paddock-to-reef/assets/2012-2013-gbr-catchment-loads-technical-report.pdf

2012 – 2013: Fitzroy River at Rockhampton. Pesticides: Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone, Tebuthiuron

2012-2013

Fitzroy River at Rockhampton

Total Atrazine 470kg, Diuron 98kg, Hexazinone 4.5kg, Tebuthiuron 5000kg

Land Use Yield

Atrazine (Cropping, Forestry & Sugarcane) 0.026kg/km2

Diuron (Cropping, Horticulture & Sugarcane) 0.011kg/km2

Hexazinone (Cropping, Forestry  and Sugarcane) 0.000037kg/km2

Tebuthiuron (Cropping, Forestry  and Sugarcane) 0.045kg/km2

Source: Reef Water Quality Protection Plan. Total Suspended Solids, Nutrients & Pesticide Loads (2012-2013) for Rivers that Discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring 2012-2013

https://www.reefplan.qld.gov.au/measuring-success/paddock-to-reef/assets/2012-2013-gbr-catchment-loads-technical-report.pdf

2012 – 2013: Sandy Creek at Homebush (Qld). Pesticides: Ametryn, Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone

2012-2013

Sandy Creek at Homebush

Ametryn 12kg, Total Atrazine 280kg, Diuron 310kg, Hexazinone 55kg

Land Use Yield

Ametryn (Sugarcane) 0.077 kg/km2

Atrazine (Cropping, Forestry & Sugarcane) 1.5kg/km2

Diuron (Cropping, Horticulture & Sugarcane) 2kg/km2

Hexazinone (Cropping, Forestry  and Sugarcane) 0.19kg/km2

Source: Reef Water Quality Protection Plan. Total Suspended Solids, Nutrients & Pesticide Loads (2012-2013) for Rivers that Discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring 2012-2013

https://www.reefplan.qld.gov.au/measuring-success/paddock-to-reef/assets/2012-2013-gbr-catchment-loads-technical-report.pdf

2012-2013: Burdekin River at Home Hill (Qld). Pesticides: Ametryn, Atrazine, Diuron, Tebuthiuron

Burdekin River at Home Hill

Ametryn 1.7kg, Total Atrazine 240kg, Diuron 29kg, Tebuthiuron 30kg

Land Use Yield

Ametryn (Sugarcane) 0.014 kg/km2

Atrazine (Cropping, Forestry & Sugarcane) 0.11kg/km2

Diuron (Cropping, Horticulture & Sugarcane) 0.02kg/km2

Tebuthiuron  (Grazing) 0.00025kg/km2

Source: Reef Water Quality Protection Plan. Total Suspended Solids, Nutrients & Pesticide Loads (2012-2013) for Rivers that Discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring 2012-2013

https://www.reefplan.qld.gov.au/measuring-success/paddock-to-reef/assets/2012-2013-gbr-catchment-loads-technical-report.pdf

2012-2013: Barratta Creek (Qld). Pesticides: Ametryn, Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone, Tebuthiuron

Baratta Creek at Northcote

Ametryn 13kg, Total Atrazine 520kg, Diuron 80kg, Hexazinone 1.1kg, Tebuthiuron 0.049kg

Land Use Yield

Ametryn (Sugarcane) 0.098 kg/km2

Atrazine (Cropping, Forestry & Sugarcane) 3.4kg/km2

Diuron (Cropping, Horticulture & Sugarcane) 0.52kg/km2

Hexazinone (Forestry, Grazing & Sugarcane) 0.0015kg/km2

Tebuthiuron (Grazing) 0.000082kg/km2

Source: Reef Water Quality Protection Plan. Total Suspended Solids, Nutrients & Pesticide Loads (2012-2013) for Rivers that Discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring 2012-2013

https://www.reefplan.qld.gov.au/measuring-success/paddock-to-reef/assets/2012-2013-gbr-catchment-loads-technical-report.pdf

2012 – 2013: Herbert River Ingham (Qld). Pesticides: Ametryn, Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone

Herbert  River at Ingham

Ametryn 7.8kg, Total Atrazine 120kg, Diuron 270kg, Hexazinone 81kg

Land Use Yield

Ametryn (Sugarcane) 0.032 kg/km2

Atrazine (Cropping, Forestry & Sugarcane) 0.18kg/km2

Diuron (Cropping, Horticulture & Sugarcane) 0.98kg/km2

Hexazinone (Forestry, Grazing & Sugarcane) 0.014kg/km2

Source: Reef Water Quality Protection Plan. Total Suspended Solids, Nutrients & Pesticide Loads (2012-2013) for Rivers that Discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring 2012-2013

https://www.reefplan.qld.gov.au/measuring-success/paddock-to-reef/assets/2012-2013-gbr-catchment-loads-technical-report.pdf

2012-2013: Tully River at Euramo. Pesticides: Ametryn, Atrazine, Diuron, Hexazinone

Tully River at Euramo

Ametryn 10kg, Total Atrazine 190kg, Diuron 570kg, Hexazinone 130kg

Land Use Yield

Ametryn (Sugarcane) 0.067 kg/km2

Atrazine (Cropping, Forestry & Sugarcane) 1kg/km2

Diuron (Cropping, Horticulture & Sugarcane) 2.7kg/km2

Hexazinone (Forestry, Grazing & Sugarcane) 0.49kg/km2

Source: Reef Water Quality Protection Plan. Total Suspended Solids, Nutrients & Pesticide Loads (2012-2013) for Rivers that Discharge to the Great Barrier Reef – Great Barrier Reef Catchment Loads Monitoring 2012-2013

https://www.reefplan.qld.gov.au/measuring-success/paddock-to-reef/assets/2012-2013-gbr-catchment-loads-technical-report.pdf

2015 December: Childers Road Bundaberg. Pesticide: 2,4-D?

MY QUESTION is, why do they do it?

With reckless abandon. Anywhere and everywhere. By the tank-fulls. Sloshed here, sloshed there.

Like dogs round a lamp post, it’s got to be done.

What am I talking about?

The spraying of chemicals by councils and contractors, of course.

Utterly oblivious to the angst, worry, concern they cause to those who maybe downwind of the stink that spreads from the spray from the waving wands and booms held with gay abandon by those who “are only doing their job”.

Recently I was woken by the bedroom suddenly filling with chemical spray drift.

Horribly, nose-stinging strong. I leapt out of bed, fearing the worst, having bad experiences with spray drift before.

I slammed the window shut but the house was already full of it.

Driving out onto our stretch of Childers Rd, it all was clear. For right along our 220m frontage, all the roadside grass had turned the yellow brown from being sprayed.

From the smell, it was not Glyphosphate/Roundup, which has little smell.

It must be something like 2-4D which lingers in the air for days and is a broadleaf weed killer.

It is vicious and scares the pants off me.

More so these days because 20 months ago I had my bladder and prostate removed because of an aggressive cancer.

Bladder cancer is attributed to “chemicals”.

I now live by the three-monthly oncology test and wait another year to get over the three-year hump to be reasonably confident of lasting five.

So at 73 you can understand my contempt for those who consider bottom lines and budgets and efficiency, in front of community wellbeing and health and peace of mind.

N VENTERS Bundaberg

https://www.news-mail.com.au/news/chemical-spraysmy-question-is-why-do-they-do-it/2884350/

2013 June: Pesticides Damaging River Life

Pesticides damaging river life

COMMON agricultural pesticides are killing off up to one-quarter of aquatic insects in Australia, with their absence attributed to more obvious environmental problems such as habitat loss.

German and Australian researchers have found that pesticides remove up to 42 per cent of the “stream invertebrate” species in Europe, damaging river health and robbing larger animals of food.

Their study, the first of its kind in the world, found pesticides caused wide scale species loss even when they were used legally. “Ecological risk assessment of pesticides falls short of protecting biodiversity,” they report today in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The Australian arm of the study focussed on Victoria’s Yarra Valley. It found that in areas with high levels of pesticides, there were no specimens from entire families of species.

Species groups were up to 27 per cent less prevalent in these areas compared to those with little or no pesticides, the researchers found.

Co-author Ben Kefford, of the University of Technology, Sydney, said regulations governing the use of pesticides were based on studies in laboratories or “semi-natural” settings such as simulated river sections. “They’re not doing any studies in the real world,” he said.

“And once the pesticide has been registered, nor are they doing any follow-up monitoring to see whether the assumptions behind their risk assessments are accurate.”

Dr Kefford said the species most affected included mayflies, stoneflies, cattus flies and dragonflies. He said aquatic invertebrates were an important food source for “fish, birds, platypus and the like” as well as being critical to the healthy functioning of streams.

“Some of them eat algae and stop rivers going green, and some contribute to the breakdown of terrestrial matter such as leaves and twigs.

“This is an area of species loss which is essentially being ignored. You can see habitat modification or invasive species just by looking. Pesticides are not something you can see with the naked eye. You have to do complex chemical analysis to work out what’s in the water.”

Dr Kefford said pesticides caused environmental harm in “pulses” when currents funnelled them into particular locations, raising concentration levels. The species most at risk were those that reproduced slowly or couldn’t relocate easily.

“If you’ve got a life cycle of a few weeks, even if your population is drastically reduced by pesticide contamination, the population can recover within a few months. But some organisms last six months, 12 months, even two years. Even if a very occasional pesticide pulse comes down, they will be most affected.”

He said pesticide regulations needed to be informed by real field studies, backed up by regular monitoring. “You could never monitor every creek, but you need some targeted studies where you check whether they are an issue.”

https://www.theaustralian.com.au/higher-education/pesticides-damaging-river-life-study/story-e6frgcjx-1226665250259

2013 February: Wianamatta Creek Sydney. Pesticides: Acetamiprid, Clothiandin, Imacloprid

Wianamatta Creek Site 12 (mixed farms, residential upstream): 7/2/13: Acetamiprid 0.05ug/L,  Clothiandin 0.06ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.07ug/L

Source: Detection and analysis of neonicotinoids in river waters – Development of a passive
sampler for three commonly used insecticides ARTICLE in CHEMOSPHERE · FEBRUARY 2014

Impact Factor: 3.5 · DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.051 · Source: PubMed. Francisco Sanchez-Bayo University of Sydney, Ross V Hyne Office of Environment and Heritage

2013 February: Badgery’s Creek Sydney. Pesticides: Acetamiprid, Imidacloprid, Thiacloprid

Badgery’s Creek Site 10 (mixed farms): 7/2/13: Acetamiprid 0.38ug/L,  Imidacloprid 0.74ug/L, Thiacloprid 0.18ug/L

Source: Detection and analysis of neonicotinoids in river waters – Development of a passive
sampler for three commonly used insecticides ARTICLE in CHEMOSPHERE · FEBRUARY 2014

Impact Factor: 3.5 · DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.051 · Source: PubMed. Francisco Sanchez-Bayo University of Sydney, Ross V Hyne Office of Environment and Heritage

2013 February: Kemps Creek Sydney. Pesticide: Imidacloprid

Kemps Creek (glasshouse farms): 7/2/13: Imidacloprid 0.21ug/L

Source: Detection and analysis of neonicotinoids in river waters – Development of a passive
sampler for three commonly used insecticides ARTICLE in CHEMOSPHERE · FEBRUARY 2014

Impact Factor: 3.5 · DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.051 · Source: PubMed. Francisco Sanchez-Bayo University of Sydney, Ross V Hyne Office of Environment and Heritage

2013 January: Cosgrove Creek Sydney. Pesticides: Neonicotinoids

Cosgrove Creek Site 7 (golf course): 29/1/13: Acetamiprid 0.03ug/L, Clothiandin 0.02ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.12ug/L, Thiacloprid 0.07ug/L

Source: Detection and analysis of neonicotinoids in river waters – Development of a passive
sampler for three commonly used insecticides ARTICLE in CHEMOSPHERE · FEBRUARY 2014

Impact Factor: 3.5 · DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.051 · Source: PubMed. Francisco Sanchez-Bayo University of Sydney, Ross V Hyne Office of Environment and Heritage

2013 January – February: Nepean River Sydney. Pesticides: Neonicotinoids

Nepean River Site 5 (farms upstream): 29/1/13: Acetamiprid 0.02ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.17ug/L, Thiacloprid 0.13ug/L

Nepean River Site 5 (farms upstream): 7/2/13: Acetamiprid 0.12ug/L, Clothiandin 0.02ug/L, Thiacloprid 0.02ug/L

Nepean River Site 6 (experimental farms): 29/1/13: Acetamiprid 0.03ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.04ug/L, Thiacloprid 0.06ug/L

Source: Detection and analysis of neonicotinoids in river waters – Development of a passive
sampler for three commonly used insecticides ARTICLE in CHEMOSPHERE · FEBRUARY 2014

Impact Factor: 3.5 · DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.051 · Source: PubMed. Francisco Sanchez-Bayo University of Sydney, Ross V Hyne Office of Environment and Heritage

2013 January – February: Yarramundi Lagoon Sydney. Pesticides: Imidacloprid, Thiacloprid

Yarramundi Lagoon (inlet) Site 4 (turf farm): 29/1/13:  Imidacloprid 0.24ug/L, Thiacloprid 0.15ug/L

Yarramundi Lagoon (outlet) Site 11 (turf farm): 7/2/13:  Imidacloprid 4.56ug/L, Thiacloprid 1.37ug/L

Source: Detection and analysis of neonicotinoids in river waters – Development of a passive
sampler for three commonly used insecticides ARTICLE in CHEMOSPHERE · FEBRUARY 2014

Impact Factor: 3.5 · DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.051 · Source: PubMed. Francisco Sanchez-Bayo University of Sydney, Ross V Hyne Office of Environment and Heritage

2013 January – February: South Creek Sydney. Pesticides: Neonicotinoids.

South Creek Site 3 (farms residential upstream): 29/1/13: Acetamiprid 0.1ug/L, Clothiandin 0.04ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.2ug/L, Thiacloprid 0.35ug/L

South Creek Site 8 (downstream mixed farms): 29/1/13: Acetamiprid 0.02ug/L, Clothiandin 0.12ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.17ug/L, Thiacloprid 0.07ug/L, Thiamethoxam 0.04ug/L

South Creek Site 8 (downstream mixed farms): 7/2/13: Acetamiprid 0.11ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.07ug/L

Source: Detection and analysis of neonicotinoids in river waters – Development of a passive
sampler for three commonly used insecticides ARTICLE in CHEMOSPHERE · FEBRUARY 2014

Impact Factor: 3.5 · DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.051 · Source: PubMed. Francisco Sanchez-Bayo University of Sydney, Ross V Hyne Office of Environment and Heritage

2013 January: Bell Creek Sydney. Pesticides: Neonicotinoids.

Bell Creek (downstream orchards): 29/1/13: Clothiandin 0.09ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.05ug/L, Thiacloprid 0.12ug/L, Thiamethoxam 0.08ug/L

Source: Detection and analysis of neonicotinoids in river waters – Development of a passive
sampler for three commonly used insecticides ARTICLE in CHEMOSPHERE · FEBRUARY 2014

Impact Factor: 3.5 · DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.051 · Source: PubMed. Francisco Sanchez-Bayo University of Sydney, Ross V Hyne Office of Environment and Heritage

2013 January – February. Eastern Creek Sydney. Pesticides: Neonicotinoids.

Eastern Creek Site 1 (downstream a residential park): 29/1/13: Acetamiprid 0.19ug/L, Clothiandin 0.11ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.32ug/L, Thiacloprid 0.4ug/L, Thiamethoxam 0.17ug/L

Eastern Creek Site 13 (downstream orchards): 7/2/13: Acetamiprid 0.37ug/L, Clothiandin 0.42ug/L, Imidacloprid 0.42ug/L, Thiacloprid 0.16ug/L, Thiamethoxam 0.2ug/L

Source: Detection and analysis of neonicotinoids in river waters – Development of a passive
sampler for three commonly used insecticides ARTICLE in CHEMOSPHERE · FEBRUARY 2014

Impact Factor: 3.5 · DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.051 · Source: PubMed. Francisco Sanchez-Bayo University of Sydney, Ross V Hyne Office of Environment and Heritage

2015 November: Redcliffe (Qld) Toxic Flea Powder. Pesticide: Pyrethrin