By May 1944 strategies were in place to aerially spray areas to control malaria. It was widely used in Papua New Guinea and in the Island Campaigns in the South West Pacific (it was also used in the Middle East). Servicemen were exposed to DDT by a number of ways including aerial spraying, direct spraying of bodies of water which mosquitoes could use for breeding and hand spraying (knapsack) of living and sleeping quarters.
In some Army Divisions in New Guinea, malarial casualties made up 90% of all casualties due to sickness and more than 80% of all casualties, including battle casualties.
DDT has now been linked to a number of diseases including pancreatic cancer.